PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM PSICOLOGIA SOCIAL (PPGPS)

UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DA PARAÍBA

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2024
Descripción
  • ANTONIO OSVALDO PAQUELEQUE
  • ATTITUDES TOWARD TERRORISM IN MOZAMBIQUE AND BRAZIL: CORRELATES OF PERSONALITY, BELIEFS AND VALUES
  • Asesor : VALDINEY VELOSO GOUVEIA
  • Fecha: 23-feb-2024
  • Hora: 14:30
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  • The phenomenon of terrorism in Mozambique and Brazil makes people experience different feelings: fear, uncertainty, insecurity. Considering this framework and conceiving that dark personality traits, conspiratorial beliefs and human values are fundamental constructs to explain individual’s attitudes (behavior) and ways of acting, this thesis sought to know the attitudes towards terrorism in Mozambique and Brazil, aiming to analyze the correlates of personality, conspiratorial beliefs and human values in predicting attitudes towards terrorism. Three studies were carried out in this direction: Study 1 aimed to carry out a semantic analysis of terrorism and involved 363 students from four universities in Mozambique (Cabo Delgado) and one in Brazil (João Pessoa), whose ages ranged from 18 to 59 years (age = 24.7; SD = 6.18). They answered five open questions about terrorism and demographic questions (e.g. age, gender). The results showed knowledge about terrorism, its role and the consequences this phenomenon has had on people's social lives. Study 2 aimed to find out about the relationship between dark personality traits, conspiratorial beliefs and human values in explaining attitudes towards terrorism in Mozambique. 405 people from different regions of the country took part, aged between 18 and 69 (M age = 29.1; SD = 10.45), the majority of whom were male (54.1%). They answered the Attitudes to Terrorism Questionnaire, the Conspiratorial Beliefs Questionnaire, the Basic Values Questionnaire (BQQ), the Questionnaire on dark personality traits and demographic questions. The results indicated that the study participants expressed positive attitudes towards terrorism in Mozambique, explained by conspiratorial beliefs (positive attitudes), the Interactive evaluative subfunction and the dark personality trait Machivealism (negative attitudes). According to the literature, conspiratorial beliefs influence the actions of individuals because they are events that are secretly manipulated behind the scenes by existing powerful forces and lead to a disbelief in scientific knowledge to the point of violence (Swami, & Furnham, 2012).Finally, Study 3 sought to replicate the previous study in Brazil, using the same measurement instruments to find out how attitudes towards terrorism are explained by dark personality traits, conspiratorial beliefs and human values. 365 students from various courses at a public university in Paraíba took part, ranging in age from 18 to 63 (M age = 25.0; SD = 7.5), the majority of whom were female (61.4%). The results indicated the manifestation of negative attitudes towards terrorism in Brazil, explained by conspiratorial beliefs and the Normative, Suprapersonal and Existence evaluative sub-functions. Thus, the results of the three studies showed the relevance of considering psychosocial variables to understand the phenomenon of terrorism in the two cultures researched (Mozambique and Brazil).
  • EUGENIA RIBEIRO TELES
  • Empathic Disposition Scale with Nature: Adaptation and Validation in the Brazilian Context
  • Asesor : ROMULO LUSTOSA PIMENTEIRA DE MELO
  • Fecha: 31-ene-2024
  • Hora: 10:00
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  • Concern for the environment has been the subject of various debates on a global scale, as the increasing level of degradation requires measures aimed at mitigating the impacts of human actions on nature. In this scenario, empathy with nature has been considered as a possibility in conservation and preservation efforts. However, systematic investigation into empathy with nature is still quite scarce, with few tools measuring such a relationship. Therefore, recognizing the need to explore ways to understand the relationship between humans and nature, the present study aimed to adapt and seek validity evidence for the Dispositional Empathy with Nature Scale – DENS, translated as the Empathic Disposition with Nature Scale - EDEN. The research was conducted in two studies with the purpose of gathering validity evidence through Exploratory Factor Analysis and confirming these findings through Confirmatory Factor Analysis. In total, 524 individuals of both genders, aged 18 to 75, participated in the two studies. In Study 1, 239 participants with a mean age of 35.81 years (SD = 13.03), predominantly female (57.7%), responded to sociodemographic questions, the EDEN, the Nature Relationship Scale, Environmental Concern Scale, and two factors of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. The results supported a model with a general factor of empathy for animals and a general factor of empathy for plants. Additionally, internal reliability indices exceeding 0.90 were observed. In Study 2, 245 participants with a mean age of 42.30 years (SD = 13.96), mostly female (64.5%), responded to the EDEN, sociodemographic questionnaire, and the Environmental Concern Scale. Besides good fit indices for the two-factor structure, correlations of the EDEN with other scales in the study were found. In conclusion, the EDEN demonstrated good indicators of validity in Brazil.
  • GIULLIANA HELEN DE VASCONCELOS GOMES
  • Changes in Eye Movement Patterns in Women with Chronic Pelvic Pain
  • Asesor : NATANAEL ANTONIO DOS SANTOS
  • Fecha: 29-ene-2024
  • Hora: 08:30
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  • Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is characterized as intermittent or continuous pain, generally located in the lower abdominal region, for at least six months. CPP is associated with negative effects from cognitive, behavioral, sexual and emotional perspectives, along with symptoms indicative of urinary tract, intestinal, pelvic floor, myofascial or gynecological dysfunction. Based on observations of possible changes in the pattern of eye movement, increased anxiety and depression in women diagnosed with CPP, the main objective of this study was to observe the pattern of eye movement in women with and without chronic pelvic pain. as a way of evaluating changes in attention and focus that may affect the quality of life of these women. A total sample of 23 participants between 20 and 39 years old with and without pelvic pain was collected, 14 of whom were part of the experimental group and 9 of the control group. Data on total duration of fixations and total duration of the first fixation of the two groups evaluated by eye-tracking and the visual analogue pain scale (VAS) score were analyzed using the SPSS program. Of the three stimuli used, two of them demonstrated statistically significant differences between the groups for the total duration of fixations, while for the total duration of the first fixation, no significant correlations were found between the other variables and stimuli. The Spearman correlation showed a positive correlation between the VAS scale and the total fixation time for two of the stimuli used. It is concluded that, despite obtaining significant results in most of the stimuli used and having a positive correlation between them, the general results are still insufficient and a larger sample number and expansion of the protocols to be used together with the tracking of the eye movement.
2023
Descripción
  • AMANDA GLEICIANE DE LIMA OLIVEIRA
  • CANNABIS EXTRACT RICH IN CANNABIDIOL AND CONTRAST SENSITIVITY IN AUTISTIC SPECTRUM DISORDER: A CASE STUDY
  • Asesor : NATANAEL ANTONIO DOS SANTOS
  • Fecha: 15-dic-2023
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • The use of the extract rich in Cannabidiol (CBD) has shown to be a promising intervention in the treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), with improvements observed in sensory aspects and cognitive functions. However, there are still no reports relating the use of CBD and derivatives on the visual functions of people with ASD. This case study aimed to examine the effects of CBD on contrast sensitivity function (CBF) in an adolescent with ASD. Male participant, 14 years old diagnosed with ASD level 1 support. The intervention was divided into four weeks, with the administration of 10 drops of oil enriched with CBD daily, divided into two doses of 4.415 mg. The participant underwent pre- and post-intervention assessment. The Childhood Autism Assessment Scale (CARS) and the Socially Savvy Checklist were applied. To evaluate CBF, the Metropsis software (version 11.0) was used, where vertical sinusoidal grids were presented for spatial frequencies 0.2 to 14.5 cycles per degree (cpg). The intervention was well tolerated, with no reports of side effects over four weeks. There was an increase in contrast sensitivity for almost all spatial frequencies, except 14.5 cpg. This increase was more significant for spatial frequencies 3.1 and 6.2 cpg, respectively medium and high spatial frequencies. The CARS Scale and the Socially Savy protocol indicated improvements in several areas, suggesting potential benefits of CBD on the behavior of individuals with ASD. Despite limitations, such as the small sample size and the absence of a control group, this study represents an initial step in investigating the therapeutic potential of CBD in ASD. Future research is needed to validate these observations and develop evidence-based clinical recommendations.
  • MARIA IZABEL CAVALCANTI DA SILVA BARROS
  • COVID-19 in the Context of the Elderly: Social Representations, Quality of Life, and Mental Health of Older Adults Based on Different Social Markers
  • Fecha: 01-dic-2023
  • Hora: 10:00
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  • The present study aimed to capture the Social Representations elaborated by the elderly group regarding the COVID-19 pandemic, using the Theory of Social Representations as a theoretical framework. It is a field study, exploratory in nature, using non-probabilistic sampling (Snowball). A total of 43 (forty-three) elderly individuals participated in the study, including 16 men and 27 women. The instruments used included a sociodemographic questionnaire, semi-structured interviews, the free word association technique, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), and the WHOQOL-OLD scale. Data from the sociodemographic questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive statistics (SPSS). Narratives obtained through semi-structured interviews were processed using the ALCESTE software. Hypothesis tests with a significance level of 5%, 95% confidence intervals, descriptive statistics (mean, proportion, standard deviation), box plots, Reliability Measures, Association Measures (Contingency Coefficient and Cramer's V), Pearson and Spearman correlation, and Cluster Analysis were applied in the analyses. In summary, this investigation played a pivotal role in highlighting the importance of social representations and perceptions of the elderly regarding COVID-19 and the vaccine during the pandemic. Furthermore, it demonstrated how social restrictions impacted the mental health of the elderly. The results of this study provide valuable information for the development of evidence-based policies aimed at improving the quality of life of the elderly during public health crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. By adopting a multidisciplinary approach that combines the Theory of Social Representations and historical concepts, this research contributed to a more comprehensive understanding of the challenges faced by the elderly population and can guide future interventions and strategies to support this vulnerable group in times of crisis.
  • EUDES NASCIMENTO DA SILVA
  • THE DISPOSITION OF MEN AND WOMEN TO FORGIVENESS
  • Asesor : JULIO RIQUE NETO
  • Fecha: 28-nov-2023
  • Hora: 10:00
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  • This study aimed to investigate interpersonal forgiveness of injustices suffered in the contexts of family, work, friendship and romantic partners. We sought to verify whether there are significant differences between men and women in forgiveness and in which context forgiveness occurs significantly. To achieve this objective, quantitative, descriptive and correlational field research was carried out with the participation of 239 people, 34.4% men and 65.6% women aged between 19 and 52 years. Data collection was carried out through of social networks. The questionnaire containing the items was made available to participants through a link shared through digital media. The Interpersonal Conflict Resolution scale was applied, consisting of two subscales: Agreement with Forgiveness to resolve interpersonal problems assessed on a 5-point scale (1 - I do not agree – 5 - I completely agree) and Attitudes towards Forgiveness assessed on a scale out of 5 points (1 - I would not forgive – 5 - I would totally forgive). Both subscales consist of 16 items that describe four events of injustice (lying, physical aggression, humiliation, and broken promise) and four agents of injustice (best friend, romantic partner, relative, and boss). The results showed significant differences between men and women in agreement and attitude towards forgiveness, the analysis of the results showed a significant difference between men and women when the offense was made by the romantic partner, therefore, in the other indicators there were no significant differences in agreement and in the attitude towards forgiveness.
  • GILDEVAN ESTRELA DANTAS
  • MULTIPARENTALITY, CHARACTER STRENGTHS AND PERSONALITY TRAITS: A PSYCHOSOCIOLOGICAL STUDY
  • Asesor : MARIA DA PENHA DE LIMA COUTINHO
  • Fecha: 10-nov-2023
  • Hora: 10:00
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  • Family is the basis of society where changes reflect, in general, in all spheres of life. Any constitutional precept that violates fundamental rights and guarantees reflects directly on the family institute. Family law has been undergoing constant transformations due to the recognition of new family models. With the diversity of family relationships, cases arise in which two fathers, or two mothers, begin to effectively fulfill this role in a child's life. In this context, it is recorded that family relationships are no longer based solely on genetic ties, giving real importance to affection and thus configuring multiparenthood. For this reason, it is important that Psychology be able to cover all the affective and social situations in which families currently find themselves. international searching for the terms Multiparentality and family. The third study aims to know, through the Theory of Social Representations, to apprehend how university students of Law and Psychology courses from the fifth period understand the term Multiparentality. The fourth study aims to build a measure of attitudes towards the mentally ill, which was developed with university students from the courses of the previous study, corroborating a two-factor model about multiparenthood, that is, positive and negative attitudes, but there was no difference in regarding the courses. The fifth Study deals with knowing the correlations of attitudes towards multiparenthood, Character Strengths and Personality. There is a consensus that the two constructs are correlated, but differ in conception, the traits are relatively stable structures and the strengths of character always have a positive structure, what differs are the virtues and their respective strengths. In addition, in the body of the text, it presents a partial of the preliminary studies highlighted here.
  • VIVIANE ALVES DOS SANTOS BEZERRA
  • The moderating role of self-efficacy and knowledge about suicide in the relationship between empathy and willingness to help people at risk of suicide.
  • Asesor : CLEONICE PEREIRA DOS SANTOS CAMINO
  • Fecha: 06-nov-2023
  • Hora: 09:30
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  • Recent studies suggest that empathy may be an important factor in motivating people to engage in suicide prevention actions. However, to date, the association between empathy and willingness to help people at risk of suicide has only been investigated directly, without examining how this relationship could be moderated by other variables. In this thesis, the hypothesis was raised that self-efficacy and knowledge (factual and perceived) about suicide could function as moderators of the aforementioned relationship. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to investigate the moderating role of self-efficacy and knowledge about suicide in the relationship between empathy and willingness to help people at risk of suicide. To achieve the proposed objective, different studies were conducted organized into four empirical articles. The first article, which included the participation of 448 subjects (76.8% women; Mage = 33.94; SD = 14.80) from the general population, sought to adapt the Gatekeeper Self-Efficacy Scale (GKSES), having observed that the measure in question presents evidence of validity for use in the Brazilian context. The second article, in turn, carried out with 498 Brazilians (Mage = 33.84; SD = 14.20), investigated the quality of the items on the Literacy of Suicide Scale – Short Form (LOSS-SF), through the Item Response Theory, verifying adequate parameters of discrimination and difficulty of the items for the investigated public. The third article presented the construction process and preliminary evidence of the Perceived Knowledge About Suicide Scale (PKSS) for the Brazilian context, having been carried out with data from 410 people from the general population, mostly women (68.5%), with ages ranging from 18 to 75 years old (Mage = 34.99; SD = 15.75). Being in possession of the appropriate instruments to measure our variables of interest, the last and most important article of the thesis sought to respond to its central problem and investigate the moderating role of self-efficacy and knowledge (factual and perceived) about suicide in the relationship between empathy and willingness to help. 1096 Brazilian adults participated in the research, mostly female, with ages ranging from 18 to 60 years old (Mage = 32.08; SD = 12.34). These participants responded to the Suicide Helpfullness Scale, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, the GKSES, the LOSS-SF, the PKSS and a sociodemographic and psychosocial questionnaire. To achieve the proposed objective, moderation analyzes were carried out using the Jamovi software (version 2.3.26). These analyzes demonstrated that empathy (β = 0.19; SE = 0.01; p < 0.001), self-efficacy (β = 0.12; SE = 0.02; p < 0.001), factual knowledge (β = 0.17; SE = 0.09; p < 0.001) and perceived knowledge about suicide (β = 0.21; SE = 0.05; p < 0.001) significantly predict the willingness to assist someone at risk of suicide. Furthermore, moderation analyzes showed that the relationship between empathy and willingness to help is accentuated as perceived knowledge increases. Taken together, the results of the thesis demonstrate that empathy is, in fact, a driving force behind the willingness to help someone at risk of suicide, but there are factors that can accentuate this motivational aspect, and these should be taken into account when formulating interventions to suicide prevention that adopt the promotion of empathy in their scope.
  • TAMIRIS DA COSTA BRASILEIRO
  • Sexual violence: from disgnosis of the situation to a proposal for an explanatory prevention model
  • Asesor : PATRICIA NUNES DA FONSECA
  • Fecha: 10-oct-2023
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • The objective of this study is to explain some aspects that favor the prevention of sexual violence (SV) against children and adolescents. The thesis defended is that knowing the diagnosis of the SV situation (problem) and clarifying how SV prevention is understood at school, leads to greater awareness about the need for primary prevention behaviors; and these, in turn, are explained by the relationship between the underlying aspects (beliefs, values and attitudes). To meet this objective, the thesis was structured into one theoretical chapter and four empirical chapters, results of articles. Chapter 1 presents a review of the literature on SV in history, prevention policies and coping with this type of violence, in addition to the Social Psychology theories (beliefs, values and attitudes) that support this thesis. Chapter 2, of a documentary and descriptive nature, aimed to outline the profile of SV notifications against children and adolescents, registered in the Violence and Accident Surveillance System (VIVA; SINAN/NET) in the city of João Pessoa, between 2017 and 2020. 255 notifications were analyzed using SPSS version 21.0 software. The results demonstrated that reports of SV are more frequent in female and mixed-race pre-adolescents. The majority of notifications were classified as sexual abuse (SA), occurring once, in a home, with a male aggressor and the victim's boyfriend. The time between the episode and the disclosure of AS was longer in adolescents [t(253)= -2.75, p=0.001] and rape was more common among girls (χ2=12.305/gl=4, p=0.015) , and it was not possible to identify which were the notifying bodies. When AS occurred at home, there was a tendency for the episodes to repeat themselves χ2(30)=178.74, (p<0.001). The cases were referred to various protection policies, however, there was no articulation and coordination between the reporting bodies. Considering the school as a suitable space for the protection of children and adolescents and, consequently, to prevent cases of SV, Chapter 3 was formulated. This, of an exploratory nature, sought to understand how SV prevention actions are understood and carried out by teachers of elementary education. 41 teachers from public and private schools participated (38.1%), the majority of whom were female, aged between 29 and 58 years old (M=42.6; SD=7.15). An online questionnaire was applied, in addition to sociodemographic questions. Descending Hierarchical Classification was used to analyze the responses with the help of the Iramuteq software. The results showed four classes in the axis on Action in Coping Policy and two classes in the axis about the Articulation between Health and Education Policies. Participants demonstrated a lack of knowledge regarding SV prevention standards and policies, a lack of training on human rights and the need to be more active as prevention agents. Furthermore, they perceived prevention as more focused on the secondary dimension (after the violence occurs) than the primary dimension (before it even manifests itself). The rapprochement between health and education policies suggests the possibility of more comprehensive and adequate management in tackling the problem of SV. In this sense, we considered the extent to which the underlying aspects (beliefs, values and attitudes) are related and favor primary SV prevention behaviors. Therefore, Chapter 4 was proposed, which falls within the field of Psychometrics and sought to understand psychometric evidence (factorial validity and internal consistency) of the Attitudes Toward the Prevention of Sexual Abuse Scale (EAFPAS) and the Behavioral Intention Scale to Prevent Sexual Abuse (EICPAS). Two studies were carried out with a general population. In Study 1, 223 people participated, most of them female (76.2%), single (60.1%), with a mean age of 32.12 (SD= 11.15), who answered the EAFPAS and demographic questions . The measurement items presented a single-factor structure, with Cronbach's alpha of 0.83. Study 2 had another 223 participants, the majority were female (72.3%) and single (70.4%), with an average age of 30.39 years (SD = 9.09). Through confirmatory factor analysis, it was observed that the single-factor structure represented the best alternative for both measures, with the EAFPAS being reduced from 16 to 9 items, with Cronbach's alpha of α = 0.89 and the EICPAS being reduced from 10 to 6 items, with Cronbach's alpha of 0.80. It is concluded that both instruments have evidence of factorial validity and reliability and can measure, respectively, attitudes and behaviors to prevent sexual violence in the general population. Finally, Chapter 5 deals with the proposal of a theoretical model explaining prevention behaviors based on beliefs, values and attitudes. The aim was to find out to what extent the relationship between beliefs, values and attitudes explain violence prevention behaviors. to sexual. 207 undergraduate students participated, aged between 68 and 18 (M= 26.1; SD= 12.3), with the majority being female (53.4%) and single (72.6%). They responded to the Attitudes towards the Prevention of Sexual Abuse Scale, the Beliefs about Sexual Abuse Scale, the Basic Values Questionnaire and the Behavioral Intention to Prevent Sexual Abuse Scale. The Pearson correlation results showed that there was a negative correlation between VS prevention beliefs and behaviors (r=-0.50; p < 0.001); that SV prevention attitudes were positively correlated with prevention behaviors (r=0.45; p < 0.001), values of the suprapersonal subfunction (r=0.37; p < 0.001), interactive (r=0.15; p < 0.05) and existence (r=0.20; p < 0.05) and negatively with the values of the normative subfunction (r=-0.34; p < 0.001). The mediation analysis showed that the relationship between beliefs about SV and SV prevention behaviors is mediated by attitudes (indirect effect: β = -0.25, 95% CI (b) [-0.43; -0.04 ], p = 0.018). Finally, when suprapersonal levels were very low, the relationship between beliefs and behaviors is weaker (b = -0.43; p < 0.001) than when suprapersonal value levels are high (b = -0.99 ; p < 0.001); Likewise, it was evident that when levels of interactive value were low, the relationship between beliefs and behaviors is weaker (b = -0.25; p < 0.001) than when levels of interactive value are high (b = -0.93; p < 0.001), indicating that suprapersonal and interactive values moderate the impact of this relationship. The set of articles made it possible to gather important information to theoretically and methodologically support prevention programs at school.
  • ALEXANDRE COUTINHO DE MELLO
  • PREJUDICE AND SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS ABOUT DRUGS AND THEIR USERS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON GENDER
  • Asesor : SILVANA CARNEIRO MACIEL
  • Fecha: 29-sep-2023
  • Hora: 14:30
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  • Phenomena related to drug use constitute a rich field of research in the human sciences, primarily because they are experienced in everyday life, symbolically structured, and encompass individual, cultural, and group dimensions. The main objective of this thesis was to analyze social representations of drugs and their users through a comparative analysis of gender-related prejudicial attitudes. In light of this, the thesis proposed the hypothesis that there is prejudice against drug users, regardless of their gender. However, there is more prejudice against male drug users in terms of perceived threat, particularly in relation to the fear of physical violence. Concerning women, there is more prejudice in terms of moral values due to the breaking of gender norms, with this prejudice being more covert and benevolent. To address this thesis, six studies were conducted. The first study was theoretical and aimed to delve into the topic of social representations of drug users while comparing gender and addressing prejudice. The second study sought to understand and analyze social representations of drug users from the perspective of Social Representations Theory. It was a qualitative, descriptive study involving 40 professionals in the mental health network of the State of Paraíba, aged between 19 and 62 years (M=31, SD=11.07). Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analyzed using IRAMUTEQ software. The results suggest that drug users face societal prejudice, with female users experiencing more prejudice as they are perceived as symbols of care and household caretakers. Their behavior in drug dependence is seen as a transgression of the social norms imposed on them in the roles of mother, wife, and caregiver. The third study aimed to analyze the Social Representations (SR) of crack users. It included 40 drug users of both sexes who were in Therapeutic Communities and Rehabilitation Clinics in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. The Free Association of Words Technique (FAWT) was used, with the stimulus "crack users" and "crack," analyzed with the help of IRAMUTEQ software through Prototypical and Similarity Analyses, along with a sociodemographic questionnaire analyzed through simple frequency calculations and percentages. The core of the social representations for the stimulus "crack users" revolved around terms such as distrust, humiliation, theft, and lack of character. Men focused on the drug itself, leading to a process of depersonalization, while women focused on negative feelings. For the stimulus "crack," men targeted negative feelings, while women focused on the disease and blame. The fourth study in this thesis involved the adaptation of measurement scales and exploratory analyses to obtain validated scales that contribute to understanding prejudice directed at drug users. The adaptation aimed to consider gender (male and female) in the context of drug users. The scales included the Threat Perception Scale towards Drug Users (Passos et al., 2023), the Social Contact Intent Scale towards Women Drug Users (Medeiros, 2018), and the Benevolence Scale towards schizophrenia (Melo, 2017). The sample consisted of 307 subjects from the general population of residents in Brazil. Data analyses were conducted using FACTOR software. Exploratory factor analysis allowed for an initial exploration of the underlying structure of the scales, revealing item saturations suggesting potential underlying factors. The fifth study focused on confirmatory analyses of the adaptations of the instruments used in the previous study, aiming to obtain validated scales that enhance the understanding of prejudice directed at drug users. The general objective of this study was to conduct Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The results indicated that the adaptations of the scales had good psychometric properties, pointing toward a unidimensional structure. Finally, the sixth study aimed to analyze manifestations of prejudice directed at drug users, with a gender analysis. The research included a sample of 280 individuals divided into two groups: 140 participants who responded to research questionnaires related to the male gender and 140 participants who responded to questionnaires related to the female gender, along with a sociodemographic questionnaire. Measurement scales used included Social Contact Intent, Threat Perception, and Benevolence toward drug users. Data from the measurement scales and sociodemographics were analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequency, mean comparisons (independent samples t-test and factorial ANOVA), and Pearson's bivariate correlation. Effect sizes of differences were calculated using Cohen's d coefficient. The IBM SPSS statistical software for Windows, version 23.0, was utilized for data analysis. In summary, the general results indicate that there is prejudice against drug users, whether male or female, with them being perceived as a threat and facing low social contact intentions. Gender differences were observed, with more benevolence and a greater intent for social contact directed towards women drug users. It is hoped that this work will stimulate future studies on the gender-related theme, considering prejudice against drug use and assist in understanding the social stigmas experienced by these drug users.
  • LIZANDRA MONTEIRO CIRAULO
  • Work, Subjectivity and Gender: the case of app delivery women in João Pessoa
  • Asesor : ANISIO JOSE DA SILVA ARAUJO
  • Fecha: 29-sep-2023
  • Hora: 09:30
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  • The process of globalization, the expansion of informal markets and the intensive use of various technologies contribute to the precariousness of female labor and, also, to its unviability and lack of social prestige. The professional category chosen in this study was women who work as couriers through a delivery app. Initially, a literature review was carried out, which sought to contextualize the emergence of platform work, with emphasis on the inclusion of women in this work activity. The present study is theoretically based on the Psychodynamics of Work and studies on the sexual division of labor. It aims to analyze the relationship between work, subjectivity and gender in the activity of couriers using a delivery app in the city of João Pessoa. A qualitative approach was chosen, whose main means of data production was an individual semi-structured interview. For data analysis, thematic content analysis proposed by Laville & Dionne (1999) was used. As a result, we realized that app delivery women experience a situation of insecurity, harassment, discrimination and invisibility at work. Furthermore, this activity, while providing some pleasures, produces suffering, as well as the various challenges faced daily. Finally, it is concluded that it is important to bring more visibility to this professional category by presenting proposals for improving their living and working conditions.
  • MARCELA AMARAL RODRIGUES
  • DEHUMANIZATION IN ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS: AN EXPLANATION FROM PERSONALITY AND HUMAN VALUES
  • Asesor : PATRICIA NUNES DA FONSECA
  • Fecha: 28-sep-2023
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • This dissertation aims to propose an explanatory model of acts of dehumanization in the context of romantic relationships. For this, it will be divided into three articles. Article 1 aimed to map the empirical studies on the phenomenon from the perspective of Social Psychology, through a scope review. The results showed that the theme is still emerging, obtaining only nine studies in the international context, but it already presents itself as a correlate of worrying phenomena, such as physical and emotional abuse by intimate partners. Article 2, in turn, aimed to adapt and validate the Dehumanization in Romantic Relationships Scale (DIRSS) instrument for the Brazilian context. In Study 1, 268 people participated (Mage = 29.07 years; SD = 9.90), 66.4% of them female and 81% residing in the state of Paraíba. In this study, an independent exploratory factorial analysis was performed for each subscale (perpetrator and target), which suggested a unifactorial solution, with adequate reliability indices in both versions (UniCo = 0.96; MIREAL = 0.27; α = 0 .92; ω = 0.93. UniCo = 0.93; MIREAL = 0.25; α = 0.94; ω = 0.94). In Study 2, 212 people participated (Mage = 29.99 years; SD = 10.82), 50.90% of whom were male and 79.70% were residents of the state of Paraíba. Article 3 aimed to test the mediating role of human values in the relationship between personality and dehumanization in romantic relationships. There were 216 people (Age = 29.3; SD = 9.8; range 18 to 65 years), with the majority living in the state of Paraíba (86.1%). The Big Five Personality Factors Inventory (BFI-20), the Basic Values Questionnaire (QVB) and the Dehumanization in Romantic Relationships Scale (DIRSS) were applied, in the version adapted and validated for Brazilian Portuguese. Descriptive statistics and the following inferential statistics (pairwaise method) were performed: Pearson correlations, multiple linear regression (enter method) and double mediation models. Among the hypotheses tested in the models, the mediating role of the interactive subfunction in the relationship between the trait of agreeableness and the perpetration of dehumanization in romantic relationships stands out. The results are discussed in light of previous literature on the variables presented and the contribution of the research to the emerging understanding of the relationship between the three constructs.
  • MARIA DO SOCORRO ROBERTO DE LUCENA
  • “THOSE WHO SOCIETY JUDGES TO BE OF A WOMAN, BUT A WOMAN WHO HAS NOT STUDIED”: ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP SUBJECTIVITY AND WORK OF WOMEN DOMESTIC WORKERS DAY WORKERS
  • Fecha: 19-sep-2023
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • Feminist perspectives that anchor their interpretations on the intersectionality of sex/gender, ethnicity/race and class relations, have been ensuring or taking care that these social categories are not forgotten when reading the social field or the phenomena arising from it, although not yet figure or are incipient in several specific fields of knowledge, such as Work Psychology. This scenario is especially worrying when it comes to Brazilian society, given that it is composed of racism, sexism and classism. Of which, the issue of paid domestic work (TDR) is an exponent of this story. In contemporary times, we are witnessing the diarization of TDR. Thus, this thesis aimed to analyze the subjectivity-work relationship of female domestic workers with a dimension of sex/gender, race and class. Therefore, this thesis is organized into five articles. The first one deals with the detailed presentation of the theoretical foundations that supported the definition of the problem and the guiding questions of the main investigation. The second article brings together information, research results and statistics, national and international, accessed from a documentary research, about the situation of women (s) in the context of productive restructuring and the Covid-19 pandemic. The panorama constructed or organized in this article adds elements and gives continuity to the theoretical discussions carried out in the previous chapter. The third article comprises a systematic review and meta-analysis of the national scientific production on the relationship TDR and gender. Carrying out this study made it possible to narrow down the discussions in relation to women domestic workers and the Brazilian reality, in addition to having enabled the characterization of Brazilian scientific production on the subject and the identification of convergences and divergences between the productions, as well as the directions or referrals of researches. The fourth and fifth articles refer to qualitative research with the participation of ten women day laborers. In the fourth article, the objective was to understand the repercussions of sex/gender, race and class in the daily work and in the subjective mobilization of day laborers. We evidenced several situations of the day to day work or that configure the work activity of the day laborers engendered in the insignia, relations and material conditions resulting from the differentiations/hierarchizations of race, sex/gender and class. Furthermore, we identified processes of naturalization or assimilation of differentiations/hierarchies among the day laborers, which have repercussions on their individual and collective conduct, although movements of resistance or inflection have also been observed. The fifth and final article aimed to analyze the impacts of the pandemic context on the work activity and mental health of female domestic day laborers, taking into account the intersectionality between sex/gender, race and class at work. The findings reflect the role of sex/gender, race and class inequalities in the worsening of the work/life conditions of women day laborers and the negative consequences on their health. The pandemic experiences of these workers were marked by extreme subsistence difficulties, new dilemmas or risks and the updating of micro-oppressions in labor relations, which caused them various discomforts, from anxiety to feelings of inferiority. The combination of articles provides elements of intelligibility about the condition of female domestic worker and its relationship with the configuration of subjective experiences and the quality of health of research participants. In addition, it invites us to critically and inventively reflect on the difficulties or ways of coping with the disparities of sex/gender, race and class, which substantially cross the work/life issues of women day laborers.
  • NATHALIA SOEIRO CALABRESI DE NAPOLIS
  • PERCEPTION OF THREAT OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AFTER A PROMOTION AT THE WOMAN'S WORK
  • Fecha: 18-sep-2023
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • This dissertation aimed to analyse how a promotion in a woman's work can influence her marital relationship and what the consequences of this will be. As well as evaluating the moderating role of ambivalent sexism and the participant's gender in the perception of more negative consequences for women. For this purpose, a study was carried out with 303 university students (53.8% women), aged between 18 and 60 years (M = 23.73, SD = 6.25). The ethical procedures prescribed in resolution nº 466/2012 of the National Health Council (CNS) were followed and the terms of free and informed consent were duly signed by the participants. The compound was composed of three parts. The first part consisted of the Glick and Fiske Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. The second part consisted of an experimental manipulation scenario with two conditions. Then, the participants answered four questions, using a seven-point Likert scale, about the situation. Finally, participants answer sociodemographic questions. Data were analyzed with the help of JASP and Iramuteq software. The results reveal that there is a greater perception of the risk of domestic violence when the woman continues to take care of the house and children alone, because this dynamic is very present in abusive relationships. They also reveal that men perceive a significantly lower risk of domestic violence than women in both conditions. The textual analyzes adopted heterogeneous classes that raised questions such as: social gender roles, financial freedom, female double shifts, fragile masculinity, etc. Taken together, these results indicate that sexism still dictates marital relations and gender roles, and that its negative effect is associated with both its hostile and benevolent forms
  • KÁTIA CORDEIRO ANTAS
  • MENTAL DISORDERS AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS IN THE UNIVERSITY CONTEXT: AN ANALYSIS IN THE LIGHT OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS AND PREJUDICE
  • Fecha: 12-sep-2023
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • There has been an increasing incidence of mental disorders and psychological distress among university students, underscoring the urgency for attention and care. Grounded in the Theory of Social Representations and Prejudice, this study aims to analyze the social representations held by university students and teachers regarding mental disorders and psychological suffering, and to identify potential indications of prejudice. The hypothesis posits that mental disorders and psychological distress are represented differently among students and teachers, but both representations contain negative elements indicative of bias against students with these issues, with mental disorders showing greater evidence of prejudice. This thesis consists of three articles and an informational booklet about mental health in academic settings. The introductory article establishes the theoretical framework, contextualizing and conceptualizing the university environment, the theory of social representations, mental disorders, psychological suffering, and prejudice. It provides a historical and cultural overview of these themes. The second article undertakes a comparative analysis of the social representations of mental disorders and psychological suffering held by university students and teachers. This article includes 263 participants: 178 students and 85 teachers. Data was collected using the Free Word Association Technique (FWA), with the stimuli "mental disorder" and "psychological distress" and analyzed through prototypical analysis. Open-ended questions ("What does mental disorder mean to you?" and "What does psychological distress mean to you?") were also subjected to Descending Hierarchical Classification (DHC). Findings revealed that mental disorders were often represented as illness, suffering, depression, and madness. Psychic suffering, on the other hand, was depicted as pain, anguish, and sadness. The third article aims to explore indications of prejudice in the social representations of mental disorders and psychological suffering held by students and professors, particularly in relation to mentally ill peers. Utilizing the same sample as the second article, results were analyzed using CHD. Consequences of mental disorders included suffering/depression, exclusion/prejudice, and interference with daily life. For psychological suffering, representations emerged as disruptions to life and pain/depression. Elements suggesting prejudice included disregard/banalization/mockery for mental disorders, and exclusion/isolation as well as low performance/avoidance for mental suffering. Finally, the last text is an informational booklet aimed at providing insights into student mental health issues, guiding and/or sensitizing the academic community and the general population to gain a better understanding of what mental disorders and psychological distress entail, as well as their potential consequences within the academic context. Furthermore, the booklet presents several strategies for preventing the onset of mental health challenges in university educational spaces. We can observe that the social representations held by students and university faculty regarding mental disorders and psychological distress diverge in certain aspects between the two groups, as anticipated. However, they also share commonalities, such as the evocation of sadness and suffering in response to both stimuli. We also identified social representations that indicate the presence of prejudice, with evocations like prejudice itself, exclusion, and stigma. All the findings pointed toward the importance of initiatives that provide clarification and guidance regarding the concepts of mental disorders and psychological distress, as well as raising awareness within the academic community, in order to alleviate negative representations and prejudiced behaviors.
  • VICTOR CAMARGO ROSSINI
  • MANAGEMENT AND WORK: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEALTH AND WORK OF PRIMARY HEALTH CARE MANAGERS
  • Fecha: 18-ago-2023
  • Hora: 10:00
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  • This study aims to comprehensively understand the relationship between health and work among managers of Family Health Units (FHU). This purpose is further divided into specific objectives, starting by examining how these managers organize their work activities to maintain their health; understanding the nature of managerial work; investigating their understanding of health and work; identifying prevalent patterns of illness and their causes; exploring how managers balance work with their personal lives; and discovering the strategies used to prevent illness. Ten managers from a health district located in a capital city in the Northeast of Brazil participated in this study. These managers met the prerequisites for the research, namely, they held positions in FHUs and were effectively responsible for administration. Temporary managers or those covering for someone else's absence were excluded. The theoretical framework upon which this research is based is Ergology. As for the methodology, this work can be characterized as a case study, where the following instruments were used: a semi-structured questionnaire, with questions about social and professional data, and a semi-structured interview. The data analysis was conducted using content analysis as an analytical method that categorizes and complements the data, with the aim of obtaining a more meaningful interpretation. It was found that the managers have a complex and multifaceted job. Each of them employs different strategies to maintain their health at work, such as effective teamwork, separating personal and professional aspects, and achieving satisfactory results in solving the issues faced by the users of the FHUs they oversee. It was also noticed that the lack of recognition for their efforts and the inconsistencies in the work environment, whether from users or the team, result in difficulties in managing their lives and work. The study also addressed gender issues, as all the interviewees were women, and there were connections between their profession, remuneration, and their role in caregiving functions. Furthermore, it was observed that these managers demonstrated high satisfaction and feel healthy in their roles within these units. Recognition for their work, salary adjustments, and improvements in issues like infrastructure and the team are crucial aspects in ensuring the health of these managers, given that the question arose at the end of the research regarding the possibility of maintaining their health at work in light of these persisting problems.
  • CLAUDIA REGINA BOTELHO MONTEIRO
  • Analysis of work accidents occurred in a large sports footwear industry: an evaluation of the years from 2016 to 2022
  • Asesor : ANISIO JOSE DA SILVA ARAUJO
  • Fecha: 26-jul-2023
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • O process in globalization has impulsionado at industries The catch up new markets assumindo commitments with deliveries in products in high quality in one time Record for so much the investimentos sobrevêm in form what ever increase The productivity and if diversifique The mesh logistics bringing specifically for O sector calçadista that no it happens in mode different because that segment has buscado new techniques and one portfolio larger in products for grow up mercadologicamente of that form The gift dissertação has as objective Analyze the data acidentários in an industry in footwear in great postage we years in 2016 The 2022 The methodology started if with study what had start with The use in estatística descriptive two Factors through gives regressão logistics at where were considered at variables significativas for explain The probability in accidents in job in this company through two results Obtained verified if what The majority two accidents occurred with workers with up until 2 years in company with variation in 37 82 year in 2017 The 58 80 year in 2021 and what in all The rate in accidents predominates in individuals of Sex male fence in 97 79 two accidents in the year of 2019 fits highlight what O Model in regressão logistics Ordinal relacionou the Factors analyzed and The Chance in accidents in job with larger gravity for at regions gives head eyes and neck concluded if So what the accidents occurred in this industry have many Factors what ultrapassam at conditions in process and pass per aspects related The culture gives company
  • ERIKA MARQUES DE ALMEIDA LIMA
  • EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP: a psychosociological study
  • Asesor : MARIA DA PENHA DE LIMA COUTINHO
  • Fecha: 03-jul-2023
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • The emotional intelligence (EI) was associated with the concept of leadership, which came to be seen as a leader's competence in leading, benefiting the conduction, engagement and motivation of a group of people. In this context, this thesis aimed to study the emotional intelligence and leadership constructs anchored in the Theory of Social Representations (SRT), since this theoretical/methodological contribution makes it possible to access the network of senses and meanings, shared by a group to which one belongs, as well as study them through theoretical and historical concepts. Structurally, this thesis was developed in two parts: the first article was related, “The connections between Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership: a systematic review study”, which aimed to carry out a systematic review about the interconnection between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. Six articles were selected, whose contents were processed by the ALCESTE software, and analyzed by analyzing the Descending Hierarchical Classification. After processing the data by Alceste, three thematic classes emerged, which were named: (i) “Types of leadership and emotional intelligence in the context of education”, (ii) “Transformational leadership as a mediating factor for increasing the effectiveness of teams”, and (iii) “Emotional intelligence of the leader as a significant factor for the performance of employees at work”. It was also observed in the researched literature the scarcity of scientific productions on the themes in different continents and realities, as well as the need to apply studies in the Brazilian context. The second article was of an empirical nature “Emotional intelligence and its relationship with the concept of transformational leadership: a psychosociological study”. This study aimed to study the constructs of emotional intelligence with transformational leadership from the theoretical framework of Social Representations. 101 employees participated, aged between 18 and 55 years (M=35.47), from a higher education institution in the State of Paraíba. As instruments, a socio-demographic questionnaire and a semistructured interview were used. The textual production was processed with the aid of the ALCESTE software and analyzed by Descending Hierarchical Classification, sociodemographic data using SPSS (version 21). From the results of the processing of the dialogues of the social actors, three thematic classes emerged: (i) Concept of transformational leadership, (ii) conception of emotional intelligence and (iii) contributions of the leader to the team. The speeches of the interlocutors presented a profile of a participative leader, in the intervention of support to his subordinates, expanding the studied concepts for better personal and professional development of each one involved. Knowing how to deal with your emotions and the emotions of others becomes a necessary condition, not only for the leader, but also for everyone who deals with relationships, whether in the personal or professional sphere.
  • LEONÍDIA APARECIDA PEREIRA DA SILVA
  • PARENTAL EXPERIENCES IN RAISING CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER
  • Fecha: 29-jun-2023
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • This dissertation aimed to analyze the report of mothers of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) about their parenting experiences in three age groups, considering the stages of child development and also taking into account the changes over time that were listed by the mothers, in addition to the hindering and facilitating factors they face. This is a qualitative exploratory research with a cross-sectional design. The theoretical framework that underpinned the research was Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Model and relevant research on the proposed topic. Twelve mothers of children diagnosed with autism participated in this study. The selected age range included 3 groups with 4 mothers in each group: Group 01: mothers of children between 2 and 3 years old; Group 02: mothers of children between 4 and 6 years old; and Group 03: mothers of children between 7 and 11 years old. A family sociodemographic questionnaire and a semi-structured interview were used with the participants. The results were analyzed using Bardin's Content Analysis. The results allowed identifying that the diagnostic trajectory was marked by the characteristics of the investigation and disclosure of the diagnosis, including the impacts of disclosure and the lack of professional clarification. In Group 01, all children received the diagnosis at an earlier age (at 2 years old), unlike Groups 02 and 03, where the age of diagnosis ranged from 3 to 4 years. Half of the children had Level 1 support, two had Level 2 support, two had Level 3 support, and three children from Group 01 (2 to 3 years old) did not have a defined level. It was evident that the daily life of families focused mainly on the child with ASD, and the responsibility for care often fell on the mother. Mention of the father figure appeared when the mothers described the care provided by the father, and it was noted that they have less time available due to their work. Additionally, in all three groups, there was a predominance of references to the terms "difficult/difficulty" when describing what it means to them to be a mother of a child with ASD. Among the difficulties, in Group 01, the mention of the child's behavior was more frequent, followed by experiences of judgment and/or prejudice. In Group 02 (4 to 6 years old), the predominant reference was the difficulty in accessing treatments. In Group 03, the lack of acceptance by school professionals stood out. The mentions of personal and/or environmental resources used in the three groups demonstrate that family members are capable of reorganizing themselves in the face of difficulties. The importance of early intervention was emphasized, particularly in Group 01 (2 to 3 years old). Regarding the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, reverberations and challenges related to social isolation and changes in routine were identified, as well as repercussions on access to therapies. The expectations for the future of the child with ASD were also addressed, and references were made to the re-idealization of the child, hope in treatment, and hopes that the child would become more independent. The discussion of the results considered the maternal accounts, the characteristics of children with ASD, the literature on autism, the Bioecological Theory of Human Development (BTHD), and the PPCT Model (Person, Process, Context, and Time). The use of BTHD facilitated the understanding of parental experiences and provided access to important information that can assist parents, children with ASD, and other family members. However, it was found that there is still no robust literature that proposes to investigate the theme of autism from a bioecological point of view, thus suggesting that further studies be carried out with this focus. It has been shown that autism causes specific repercussions and demands for parental figures, influencing the interactions between parents and children throughout the child's development, and these reverberations impact parental beliefs and parental behavior.
  • WANESSA DE MACEDO GOMES
  • Conceptions and practices of school psychologists and teachers about curricular adaptations: a study in public education contexts
  • Asesor : FABIOLA DE SOUSA BRAZ AQUINO
  • Fecha: 28-jun-2023
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • The global movement for inclusion has become a political, cultural, social and pedagogical issue. As a result, the organization of schools must be rethought, implying structural and cultural change so that everyone has their specificities met. A relevant part of the discussion and effectiveness of inclusion in an educational context are curricular adaptations, which constitute an important tool for reflection and proposition of a responsive teaching to those who demand access to the offered educational proposal. The psychologist is considered an important professional to act as a mediator in the interrelation between the Specialized Educational Service (AEE), the multifunctional resource room and the elaboration of the development plan individual and school given that it can collaborate to enable the child's access to the school's curricular proposals. Given the above, the objective of this study is to understand and analyze the conceptions and practices of school psychologists and teachers about curricular adaptations in public schools in the city of João Pessoa-PB. As part of the study, the theme of inclusion was explored and discussed, with emphasis on curricular adaptations as a tool to make it effective, and a literature survey was carried out in order to investigate, in national and international databases, whether and how psychologists have acted facing demands for curricular adaptations. This investigation ratified, in the researched form, that there is a shortage of scientific productions in the field of psychology in dialogue with curricular adaptations. A qualitative field research was carried out in elementary schools in the municipal public network of João Pessoa-PB. The study included 10 school psychologists, 10 teachers from Elementary School I, and 10 teachers from Specialized Educational Assistance (AEE), who answered a sociodemographic questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. The analysis of the sociodemographic questionnaire showed that eight psychologists participated in specific training to work in the school area, seven took an improvement course related to inclusive education; nine AEE teachers and six teachers from the regular classroom took training focused on school inclusion, and nine AEE teachers and five from the regular classroom took further training related to inclusive education. These data indicate that professionals have sought to deepen their knowledge about the question investigated and improve their practices aimed at inclusive education. The analysis of the interviews was guided by the general guidelines of Bardin (1977) and organized into general axes for analysis. The results showed, through the speeches of the school psychologists, that there are joint actions carried out more frequently with the teachers of the AEE and of the regular classroom for the elaboration of the curricular adaptations, according to the Axes of Analysis: 'Participating in the Planning' and 'Guiding teachers '. However, it is important to reflect on how school psychologists have been working with teachers and how psychological work can specifically contribute to making curricular adaptations. With regard to the understanding of curriculum adaptation, the psychologists' responses indicate that they conceive it as: 'Adapting activities according to the degree of mentality/intelligence level', 'Individualized for each student' and 'Meeting the student's needs'. The teachers, on the other hand, presented in their speeches conceptions about curricular adaptations that refer to 'Making the activity/content accessible', 'Equivalent to the PEI [Individualized Teaching Plan]' and 'Achieving an objective/target of the content'. It is noticed that the professors express notions that converge with each other and that are close to the concepts found in the literature on curricular adaptations. However, it is worth noting that the PEI is an instrument that enables the implementation of curriculum adaptations. This study reaffirms the importance of school psychologists in teaching institutions, as mediators in the interrelationship between AEE and regular classroom teachers. For the implementation of these actions, it is essential to carry out continuous in-service training for Education professionals on the process of school inclusion of students with disabilities and/or special educational needs, and a deepening of theoretical-methodological procedures that favor teaching-learning processes that respect the different rhythms and styles of learning that characterize the human psyche. In this way, the school psychologist can contribute with knowledge about human development, learning processes, defend in their praxis the accessibility and equity of programmatic curricular contents, and collaborate with an inclusive education.
  • CLARA LOHANA CARDOSO GUIMARÃES FARIAS
  • FROM ASSESSMENT TO SOCIAL REPRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL INFIDELITY IN LOVE RELATIONSHIPS
  • Fecha: 21-jun-2023
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • Financial infidelity (FI) comprises actions aimed at financial issues in the context of romantic relationships, such as omitting or deceiving about bank accounts, debts, loans, expenses, etc., which can lead to some difficulties in couple and family life: conflicts, loss of trust and divorce. It is a theme that, despite the impact it can have on personal, loving, family, financial and social spheres, still deserves more attention from researchers and requires further studies for a better understanding and direction. In this context, the thesis is anchored to the Theory of Social Representations (SRT), in order to know and access the network of senses and meanings attributed to FI by married individuals, in a stable union or cohabitation, which will enable the construction of a knowledge practical and multifaceted theme. Thus, the following thesis aimed to understand the psychosocial aspects of FI in this population. Its structure is divided into two parts: the first consisting of two theoretical chapters and the second consisting of four studies. Study 1 comprises the review of national and international scientific production, published between 2013 and 2023. Seven articles were selected, analyzed by Descending Hierarchical Classification (CHD), Word Cloud and Similitude Analysis, using the Iramuteq software. The results indicated the recent character of the productions on the subject, most of a quantitative nature, with a main focus on the definition and identification of characteristic behaviors of FI, highlighting the need for a psychometric instrument adapted and validated for the brazilian context. Study 2 corresponds to the adaptation and validation of the Financial Infidelity Scale for the Brazilian context, which resulted in a unidimensional measure with adequate psychometric parameters. Two studies were carried out. In the first, 202 married individuals, in a stable or cohabiting relationship, aged between 18 and 58 years (M = 32.22; SD = 8.89) participated, whose data were analyzed using Exploratory Factor Analysis and Response Theory to the Item (TRI); in turn, in the second study, a Confirmatory Factor Analysis was performed, in which 311 married people, in a stable union and in cohabitation, aged between 18 and 60 years old (M = 31.9; SD = 8.12) participated. And, finally, Study 3, which is under development, and aims to apprehend the Social Representations (SR) of married people, in a stable union and cohabitation based on three evocative words (money, finances and financial infidelity). The study included 83 married people, in a stable relationship or cohabitation, aged between 21 and 74 years (M = 37.66; SD = 8.98), who answered the Free Word Association Technique (TALP), a semi-structured interview and the Sociodemographic Questionnaire. TALP evocations were processed by TriDeux-Mots and interpreted by Correspondence Factor Analysis; interviews using ALCESTE software and analyzed by CHD; and sociodemographic data by SPSS (version 21). The results showed that the three TALP stimuli (finance, money and financial infidelity) are represented in a multifaceted way through psycho-affective, affective-behavioral, psychosocial and sociocultural anchorages, in an elaborated and socially shared knowledge. In turn, the analysis of the interviews, through the Descending Hierarchical Classification (CHD), enabled the formation of three classes: Financial control as a predictive factor for FI, Financial organization and dream fulfillment, and the impact of FI on the quality of the relationship. The results obtained in this study point to the practical knowledge of the SR of the addressed theme, which can contribute to the elaboration of educational, financial and clinical actions and interventions that affect the relationships and social behavior of individuals. This time, it is expected to offer the scientific community greater knowledge about a construct little explored nationally, what has been studied and how it is addressed in the literature, a validated measure for the Brazilian context with good adjustment indices so that it is possible to verify possible implications of personal, social and sociodemographic variables in explaining FI, and individuals' knowledge about the subject. In short, we trust that the objectives are being achieved and that this work contributes to Social Psychology, especially in explaining opinions and behaviors that reflect on family, financial and social dynamics, and on the relationships of trust necessary for a good relationship between peers and in society. It is hoped that the results of this thesis will help planning effective educational, financial, clinical and social practices for this population and their dependents, given that the financial implications in the couple's life can have repercussions on the relationship, family and social life.
  • REBBECA HELLEN ARAÚJO LACERDA
  • The context of the covid-19 pandemic and the transition from remote to presential teaching: a study with professionals from schools in the public education network
  • Asesor : FABIOLA DE SOUSA BRAZ AQUINO
  • Fecha: 20-jun-2023
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • This dissertation addresses the performance of teachers and school psychologists from the municipal public network of João Pessoa-PB during the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic presented itself as a crisis in Brazil and in the world, causing social distancing and the consequent closure of school institutions, having a clear impact on the continuity of early childhood education. In this sense, the objective is to investigate and analyze practices of teachers and psychologists during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to map actions regarding the transition from remote teaching to blended and face-to-face teaching. This question was initially explored through the explanation of the cultural-historical theoretical framework and contemporary arguments about development transitions. Within the scope of the study, the theme of the COVID-19 pandemic was presented and discussed, and its implications for the school context, and a bibliographical survey was described on the professional practices of School Psychology during the pandemic. A qualitative field research was carried out, with a semi-structured interview applied to 22 participants, 11 teachers and 11 school psychologists from municipal schools in João Pessoa. The sociodemographic results indicate that most psychology professionals had an internship in the clinical area, and that most psychologists completed their graduation in public educational institutions and before the 2000s. The results of the analyzes of the interviews with the teachers indicate pedagogical demands generated during the pandemic, caused by the lack of access to technology or the lack of presence in the online classroom by students, difficulty in handling technology to create content for students or even doubts about what this return to face-to-face would look like. However, they also reveal practical reformulations to deal more adequately with the return to the physical space of institutions. In the interviews with the psychologists, actions aimed mainly at teachers, technicians, students and families were identified. These professionals perceived this return to the classroom as an ongoing readaptation, at the same time referring to the school space of power, readaptations and guarantee of rights. This research reaffirms the role of the school psychologist as a professional who can promote understanding of the reality and complexity of events related to the pandemic, as well as adapt the pedagogical team to a new practice and actions that value active and collective construction.
  • Erik Francisco Silva de Oliveira
  • SUICIDE AND SUICIDAL IDEATION: A PSYCHOSOCIAL VIEW IN THE CONTEXT OF PUBLIC SAFETY
  • Fecha: 07-jun-2023
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • Abstract: Suicide is a multifaceted phenomenon that affects all social strata. Considered a serious global public health problem. Suicidal ideation is the initial suicidal behavior, which, if not properly managed, can culminate in a fatal outcome. The multi-causal character of this phenomenon makes several branches of scientific knowledge such as psychology, history, sociology, philosophy, science of religions, psychiatry, biology, collective health, public security, among others, to focus on this theme in an attempt to understand, explain and prevent it. In Brazil, suicide among public security agents has drawn attention, professionals who in the exercise of their work are constantly confronted with accidents, tragedies and disasters, which involve violence, suffering, death and risk to their own lives. In this dissertation, suicide and suicidal ideation were investigated with public security professionals in the state of Paraiba through the Theory of Social Representations (TRS), where it was possible to access the network of interpretations and meanings, shared by these social actors, who built practical and multifaceted knowledge on the subject. Thus, this dissertation aimed to identify the social representations related to suicide and suicidal ideation in public safety professionals. Structurally, it was divided into two parts, the first consisting of theoretical chapters and the second consisting of three empirical studies guided by TRS. 277 professionals participated in the study, who answered the sociodemographic questionnaire and other instruments according to the objectives of each study. The first study aimed to apprehend the semantic fields regarding the inducing stimuli: suicide, suicidal ideation, my profession and myself. The sample consisted of 178 professionals, including military firefighters (40%), military police (46%) and civil police (14%), 48% of the sample aged between 18 and 28 years. Data were collected through the Free Word Association Technique (TALP), processed by Microsoft Excel and Tri-Deux-Mots and interpreted by Factor Correspondence Analysis (CFA). The results indicated consensual representations between suicide, suicidal ideation, associated with negative aspects. The profession brought ambiguous elements that expressed satisfaction and illness. The stimulus myself was associated with positive elements. The second study aimed to identify which psychosocial factors are related to suicide and suicidal ideation in the view of public safety professionals. 228 professionals made up the sample, 175 men and 53 women, including military firefighters (45%), military police (44%) and civil police (10%), 44% of the sample aged between 29 and 39 years. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, processed by Microsoft Excel and Alceste software and analyzed by descending hierarchical classification (CHD) and word cloud. The following axes of meaning emerged: suicide risk factors, suicide prevention measures and self-protection strategies against suicide. The results made it possible to highlight the factors that would lead to suicidal ideation and suicide, with emphasis on the anchoring in the professional field, Factors for prevention, anchored in psychological science and spirituality, and also factors of self-protection against suicide, anchored in the field psychosocial, psychoaffective and spiritual. The third study aimed to evaluate the level of suicidal ideation of public safety professionals. The study sample consisted of 277 professionals, 214 men and 63 women, including military firefighters (44%), military police (44%) and civil police (12%), 43% of the sample aged between 29 and 39 years. They responded to the Multi-Attitudinal Suicide Tendency Scale (EMATS). Data were processed using SPSS software, version 22. The results show that there was no significant difference between professions or between genders, with the general sample having a mild level of suicidal ideation. However, in a detailed analysis, some professionals showed a high level of suicidal ideation. Finally, it is expected that the results of this dissertation will help public security managers in the planning and implementation of public policies aimed at the mental health of professionals in this segment.
  • IZABEL CAVALCANTI BARROS LAMENHA PINTO
  • SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS OF TEACHERS AND UNIVERSITY STUDENTS ABOUT EMERGENCY REMOTE EDUCATION
  • Fecha: 31-may-2023
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • Emergency remote teaching is a teaching modality that was implemented by educational institutions worldwide, in response to the Covid-19 pandemic, to continue teaching and learning activities. At this juncture, we sought the theoretical contribution of the Theory of Social Representations - TRS, to explain how teachers and university students learned knowledge about the social environment, as well as the impacts that affected the way people thought, acted, and related during remote teaching. The aim of the study was to learn about the meanings and senses of university teachers and students about emergency remote teaching in the context of Covid-19. The thesis was divided into two parts one theoretical and the other composed of empirical studies. In the first part is the introduction, followed by two theoretical chapters. The first chapter is titled, contextualization of the object of study and the second is focused on the theoretical contribution of social representations. The second part contains three empirical studies on the theme. The first study, entitled, What do college professors and students think after remote teaching: a psychosociological analysis, aimed at knowing the social representations elaborated by the same participants, however, the data analysis occurred in the Alceste software, by the Descending Hierarchical Classification - HDC technique. The results pointed out that teachers and students developed adaptation strategies, anchored, in the psychosocial sphere, constructing the objectifications in the terms necessity and maintenance of teaching. As for the elements, future and hybrid, the anchoring occurred in a macro-structural sphere. Students perceived remote classes in a technological and ambivalent sphere, objectifying both for usability difficulties and digital tools and for the novelty of the modality. Study two, entitled, Emergency remote teaching: social representations for university teachers and students in the Covid-19 pandemic, aimed to apprehend the social representations elaborated by these participants about emergency remote teaching. The study sample was composed of 147 teachers and 130 college students who answered the Free Association of Words Technique - TALP, by the inductive stimuli, remote teaching and hybrid teaching, besides the sociodemographic questionnaire. The SPSS software (version 21.0) and the Correspondence Factor Analysis by means of Tri-Deux- Mots were used to analyze the data. The results for remote teaching pointed out that teachers, evaluative-valuative manifestations emerged according to the emergent character of the phenomenon and the affective-behavioral dimension, by facing the new. In the hybrid stimulus, besides the previous anchorages, manifestations also emerged in the sociocultural sphere, related to technological and methodological innovation. The students also anchored the remote teaching in an evaluative-valuative and affective-behavioral way, as well as in the hybrid teaching brought repercussions to the teaching-learning process. Study three, entitled Academic satisfaction of college students during emergency remote teaching, aimed to measure students' satisfaction during their experience with remote teaching, by means of the Scale of Academic Satisfaction of College Students - ESAU. A total of 208 college students from private higher education institutions in the state of Paraíba - PB were studied. The results revealed a balance between the general scores of satisfaction and dissatisfaction among the students. The lowest levels of dissatisfaction were related to the perceptions of the pedagogical environment, affective perceptions and self-esteem. The highest levels were identified in perceptions of the physical environment. It is recommended that educational institutions consider the unsatisfactory incidents to improve the educational process when adopting online or hybrid methodologies in their programs. Moreover, remote teaching was an emergency and temporary strategy, and the need arose for didactic- methodological organization to overcome the difficulties faced throughout the process, when elements emerge that are close and/or concomitantly present in both participants, such as challenge, difficulty, adaptation, and need. Moreover, it is necessary to strengthen the support to teachers and students, especially on the psychosocial and technological issues, so that they can increase the gains obtained throughout the process, as revealed by the elements important, flexibility, practical, and new. Moreover, it is believed that the results of this thesis can also contribute to the implementation of the hybrid modality, indicated in all studies as a positive experience by teachers and students, and emerges as an innovation to be widely consolidated in the future in higher education institutions as a teaching offer, ensuring more curricular flexibility and learning opportunities differentiated by the use of technological resources and tools.
  • MARIA EDNA SILVA DE ALEXANDRE
  • Psychosocial Mechanisms of Favorability towards Lynching: Moral Judgment, Empathy, and Motivations for Lynching.
  • Fecha: 31-may-2023
  • Hora: 14:30
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  • Lynching, a form of collective violence targeting individuals or groups accused of violating social norms, is a pressing issue in Brazil, with at least one occurrence reported daily. This alarming situation presents a significant challenge to public security entities, infringes upon human rights, and undermines peaceful societal existence. However, there is a notable lack of attention to the factors influencing societal favorability towards lynching. The current thesis aims to illuminate this issue by devising and testing an explanatory model of the psychosocial mechanisms underpinning favorability towards lynching. This model incorporates variables such as moral judgment, empathy, social and emotional motivations for lynching, and the type of crime committed, whether heinous or against property. The thesis is segmented into three empirical articles detailing the results of five conducted studies. The first article outlines two studies focused on the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Lynching Scale (EAL). The first study, involving 428 participants, demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties, suggesting a bifactorial structure of the EAL (crimes against property and heinous crimes). This structure was further corroborated in the second study with 481 participants. The second article presents two additional studies dedicated to the development and validation of the Motivations for Lynching Scale (EML). Study 1, with 454 participants, validates the bifactorial structure of the EML (social and emotional motivations for lynching) via psychometric adequacy, while study 2, with 455 participants, indicates that the two factors are likely replicable in subsequent studies. The third article outlines the results of testing an explanatory model of the psychosocial mechanisms of favorability towards lynching. The sample comprised 536 Brazilian individuals, ranging in age from 18 to 71 years (M = 34.4; SD = 11.82). Structural equation modeling outcomes revealed that the degree of moral judgment significantly influenced favorability toward lynching in the context of heinous crimes, mediated by both social (b = .469, SE = .099, p = .001) and emotional motivations (b = .169, SE = .071, p = .017) for lynching. In contrast, the moral judgment's influence on favorability toward lynching in response to property-related offenses was mediated by social motivations (b = .876, SE = .092, p = .001), but not emotional motivations (b = .028, SE = .058, p = .625). Empathy did not moderate the influence of moral judgment in any of the lists of motivations according to the types of crime.These results may support interventions that consider the multifactorial nature of favorability to lynching, with the promotion of post-conventional justice thinking as a strategy for its reduction.
  • JAIRTON COSTA FILHO
  • TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DYSFUNCTION, SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF DENTISTRY
  • Fecha: 30-may-2023
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) refers to conditions that affect the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and/or the musculature involved in the masticatory process. Its etiology is multifactorial, controversial and not yet fully understood. Individuals with TMD present several alterations caused by excessive forces, parafunctional habits, inflammatory processes, degenerative morphological alterations, infectious processes, genetic, psychological and anatomical factors. In this context, we sought to study the theme through the Theory of Social Representations (TSR), which made it possible to access the network of senses and meanings, shared by university students of dentistry, building a practical and multifaceted knowledge on the theme. In this direction, the following thesis aimed to know the psychosocial aspects interrelated to the impact of temporomandibular disorders on the quality of life of dental students. Structurally, it was divided into two parts, the first consisting of theoretical chapters and the second consisting of three articles. In the first article, there was a review of the scientific production supported by the Theory of Social Representations (TRS), about Quality of Life and Temporomandibular Disorders. The sample consisted of 11 articles, analyzed by Descending Hierarchical Classification (CHD) and Similitude Analysis, using Iramuteq. The results indicated the representative psychosocial aspects of falling ill. Pain was the figurative element of objectification, anchored by psycho-emotional factors. recent nature of the productions on the theme, with a main focus on health issues. The other two empirical studies were guided by TRS. The first empirical study analyzed and apprehended the Social Representations (SR) of dental students about temporomandibular disorders. The study included 352 Dentistry students aged between 18 and 35 years (M= 25,68; DP= 11,6), who answered a biosociodemographic questionnaire and an in-depth interview. The collected material constituted a textual corpus, which was submitted to the analysis of Descending Hierarchical Classification (CHD) and Similitude, using the ALCESTE and IRAMUTEQ software, sociodemographic data using SPSS (version 21), in addition to having been processed in and analyzed using descriptive statistics and lexical analysis. It was observed that the participants pointed out in their social representations, knowledge about temporomandibular disorders, highlighting the diagnosis, e.g. treatment were also anchored in physiological and emotional factors, which were permeated by negative emotions. The participants ratified notions of responsibilities, focused on the consequences of the disease, such as the daily maintenance of palliative treatment, understanding that it is a chronic disease that needs to be lived with, as it has no cure. The results point to the importance of an interdisciplinary approach that focuses on psychosociological support, aimed at the elaboration of strategies that can be adopted in the face of the control and care of temporomandibular disorders. The second empirical study aimed to know the SR on a psychosociological look at temporomandibular disorders from the perspective of dentistry students. Data were processed by SPSS (version 21) and Tri-deux-mots software. Highlighting the importance of knowledge of the subject about the impact of temporomandibular disorders on the quality of life of dental students. It is noteworthy that the SR on the impact of temporomandibular disorders on the quality of life of dental students acquired different facets. its applicability and suggesting the consequences of future research and interventions.
  • CLAUDIA LUCIENE DE MELO SILVA
  • Performance of the school psychologist in a team of specialists: a study in the municipal teaching network of João Pessoa-PB
  • Fecha: 30-may-2023
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • This thesis addresses the role of the school psychologist in a team of specialists of public schools in the municipality of João Pessoa (PB) and argues that the school psychologist can collaborate with actions that promote development and learning with the various actors that make up the school community. It aims to know and analyze conceptions of the team of specialists of the municipal public school system of João Pessoa-PB about the work of school psychologists and their respective actions with the team and the school group. The thesis defends that the work of school psychologists in a team of specialists has specificities that must be understood by the team itself and by the school group in order to facilitate a performance focused on the institutional demands and on the learning and development processes. For that, a socio-demographic survey was carried out with 62 school psychologists who work in the Elementary School I, II, and EJA, through an online questionnaire (Google forms), a semi-structured interview with 44 professionals, being 14 psychologists, eight social workers and 22 pedagogues, and reflective interviews with three psychologists who had answered the two instruments already mentioned. The results indicated that most of the professionals did not have a supervised internship in the area of School Psychology, which indicated an impact on the performance in the educational context, given the importance of the relationship between the professional training profile and the performance in the team. The data collected in both types of interviews demonstrated the necessary demarcation of the school psychologist's role for a practice consistent with the literature in the field of Educational School Psychology that supports an actuation in the educational context and, mainly, in the actuation as a member of a team of specialists. It was verified in the interviewed psychologists' reports that the specialists still expect a traditional performance from psychologists, based on a clinical perspective, focused on the student. That there are many actions they develop, with diverse objectives, which further highlights the need for this delimitation. The results also indicated that, among the psychologists, the team of specialists had not been considered as an object of intervention in their practice, in the sense of collaborating with its development, which was considered an important aspect to be the target of further reflection among the professionals. The other specialists (social workers and educators), in their analysis of teamwork, pointed out difficulties, criticisms, complaints, objectives and potentialities that characterize the work in this format, demonstrating the existence of issues that can be the focus of the school psychologist, to contribute to the development of the team of specialists. These data endorse the need for the school psychologist to perform a practice that seeks to promote reflections on the various issues involving the team of specialists and the team of specialists.
  • MATHEUS HENRIQUE CARDOSO DA SILVA
  • SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS ABOUT TRANSSEXUALITY FOR UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: FROM PATHOLOGIZATION TO SEXUAL DIVERSITY
  • Fecha: 15-may-2023
  • Hora: 14:30
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  • Transsexuality is a relevant topic for psychology studies because it is a current subject that needs a look at the recognition and affirmation of this gender identity. It is understood that transsexuality is characterized from the field of sexual and gender diversity, however, for a long time it was present in the main diagnostic and classificatory health manuals, being treated as a mental disorder. Therefore, the pathologization of transsexual identities is understood as a manifestation of prejudice against this population. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the social representations that university students have about transsexuality considering the levels of prejudice identified by this group. The Theory of Social Representations was used as a theoretical contribution to this study, which enables the recognition of the subjective dimension of individuals, as well as their cognitive aspects, which in turn interfere in attitudes, social practices and behaviors about the object represented. It Consists of a descriptive research and mixed approach, applied online with students from public and private university institutions in Brazil, with a total of 200 participants, who had a mean age of 26 years (SD = 8.88) and a predominant age group of 18 to 23 years, mostly residents, in the Northeast region of Brazil, identified largely as cisgender women. In addition, most recognize their sexuality as heterosexual. The most predominant area of knowledge among the participants is the Humanities, being a large part, university students of public institutions attending between the 7th and the 10th period of graduation. The instruments used were: Sociodemographic questionnaire, analyzed through simple frequency calculation; the Technique of Free Association of Words, analyzed with the aid of the program Interface de R pour les Analyses Multidimensionnelles de Textes et de Questionnaires (IRaMuTeQ); the Revised Scale of Prejudice Against Sexual and Gender Diversity (EPDSG-R); and the closed questions about transsexuality, analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics through the SPSS. In addition, open-ended questions were also used, which were analyzed through a Bardin Themed-Categorical Analysis. The EPDSG-R results indicated low levels of prejudice against transsexuality by the study participants, with a variant between 1.27 and 1.63, and variant standard deviation between 0.605 and 1.143. It was found that the students who participated in this study, in their majority, apprehend the phenomenon with a favorable look at transsexual identities, directing themselves to the recognition of gender identity. In addition, the sensitivity of the participants about the reality of transsexual people is highlighted when, for example, they are able to identify the obstacles that are faced by this community and also when they affirm that there is prejudice coming from society and suffered by this group and mention the repercussions of these difficulties in the social-emotional life of the transsexual individual. In view of the results found, the importance of social changes in our society and the encouragement of spaces of representation for transsexual people is considered as a relevant factor in the construction of social representations for individuals. It is believed that the data of this study can contribute to the development of more efficient strategies in the field of mental health and access to citizenship by the transsexual population, in addition to the expansion of spaces of representation, in order to promote the visibility of this group. We also highlight the need to create and maintain public policies that emphasize the guarantee of rights by this population, in order to remedy the psychosocial damage caused to this community.
  • SAMMYA GABRYELLA SOARES PEREIRA CAMPOS
  • INTERPERSONAL FORGIVENESS IN INJUSTICE SITUATIONS IN DAILY LIFE
  • Fecha: 31-mar-2023
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • The literature indicates that studies on forgiveness are directed to contexts of relationships in the family, between friends, intimate partners and relationship contexts at work. However, themes that work in everyday social contexts are not so explored by the literature. And, it is important to point out that injustices can occur in our daily lives regardless of the type and/or intensity of a relationship, be it, for example, the relationship between a student/teacher, coworkers, neighbors and even strangers. In this sense, this study aimed to analyze the degree of forgiveness spontaneously offered after offenses suffered in everyday life and carried out a field research, quantitative and qualitative, of the descriptive and correlational type. 359 people participated in the study, 273 (76%) women and 86 (24%) men, selected through nonprobabilistic convenience sampling. For data collection, carried out both online and in person, the following were used: sociodemographic questionnaire, injustice questionnaire, Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Enright Forgiveness Scale (EFI). For the analysis, the data were received in an excel spreadsheet and then transferred to the IBM 22.0. Considering the sample of people who felt very or tremendously hurt (hurt > 3), the results indicated that this population forgave more offenses of racial discrimination and political differences and the hurt was felt more intensely when the offense was caused by unknown persons or professionals. We also found that people with hurt > 3 forgive significantly less than people who felt little hurt (hurt < 3). In the correlation, we identified that in the hurt population > 3 there is a relationship between trait anger and negative affect, trait anger and positive judgment, trait anxiety and negative behavior, and in the comparison of means between state and trait of anxiety and state and trait anger of the hurt sample > 3, we noticed that the degrees of anxiety were significantly higher than the degrees of anger.
  • LEONAM AMITAF FERREIRA PINTO DE ALBUQUERQUE
  • Role of the child and adolescent rights councils in the policy of right to live in a family and community environment
  • Fecha: 30-mar-2023
  • Hora: 19:00
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  • The objective of this research is to analyze the role of child rights councils in the policy of the right to live in a family and community environment through the actions of social agents. This is a qualitative and exploratory work, divided into three studies: the first is a systematic literature review, the second is a documental analysis, and the third is a discussion group. Data were analyzed respectively using PRISMA, analytical treatment and Content Analysis. In the systematic review, was observed a significant amount of roles attributed to agents by the recovered works. In the documental analysis, the plans foresaw the division of responsibilities, the family support and the policy control, while the minutes prioritized the discussion on institutional reception and adoptive family. In the discussion group, the participants talked about the arrangements, mobilizations and strategies employed by the agents to implement the policy. The role of the child rights councils in the policy of the right to live in a family environment is exercising social control, promoting the institutional reception and proposing intersectoral actions. These fields are crisscrossed by the criticism of the liberal rhetoric of volunteering, the priority of the affective and social ties and the noise in communication between the State and society.
  • FADJA JAIRLES VIEIRA CARDOSO
  • The Sexuality and Achievement Dimensions in Partner Choice: Personal and Social Correlates
  • Fecha: 30-mar-2023
  • Hora: 17:30
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  • This dissertation presents three studies in order to know factors associated with the choice of heterosexual partner, considering achievement and sexuality as the main dimensions, including people aged 18 years or older (N = 691). All were convenience samples, with the participation of people who, invited, agreed to collaborate in the studies voluntarily and anonymously. The first study sought to find out to what extent the choice of attributes of achievement and sexuality are associated with human values, bright and dark personality traits and life stories, developing an explanatory model. Participants were 387 people from João Pessoa (PB), who answered the Partner Attributes Scale (PAS), the Basic Values Survey (BVS), the Mini-K (M-K), the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen (DTDD) and the Prosocial Personality Inventory (PSPI+), in addition to demographic questions. Results indicated that the ideal achievement attribute was explained by slow life history, existence value and narcissistic personality trait; in the case of the ideal attribute of sexuality, the value of experimentation replaced that of existence. In this sense, the explanatory models were similar, showing the importance of life strategy, human values and the narcissism trait to explain the partner's ideal attribute. The second study aimed to test the explanatory model elaborated in the previous study, considering an inner city in Paraíba, reflecting a context of economic scarcity and low human development. Participants were 200 people residing in Santa Inês, who will answer the same instruments previously listed. This study confirmed the importance of the slow life strategy, the values of existence (ideal achievement attribute) and experimentation (ideal sexuality attribute), but the most important personality trait was gratitude, which explained both attributes. In the explanatory model, the life strategy, which previously directly influenced the partner's ideal attributes, do it mainly through gratitude. Finally, the third study sought to test whether the explanatory model of partner choice, developed in Study 1 and refined in Study 2, would work when an implicit measure of partner attributes was employed. Participants were 104 people from a public university in João Pessoa (PB), who responded, in addition to the previous instruments (PAS, BVS, M-K, DTDD and PSPI+), the computerized version of the test of implicit association of partner attributes (i.e. , TAI Achievement-Sexuality). Results indicated that only gratitude correlated with the D score (implicit measure); when considering the explicit measures separately, only the achievement value explained the ideal attribute of achievement, while when considering the ideal attribute of sexuality, only the forgiveness trait explained this attribute. In conclusion, the three studies provided an overview of partner choice, showing the importance of personal and social factors for its explanation. These findings were discussed based on the literature, indicating potential limitations of the studies and future directions.
  • ANDRESA FERNANDA GOMES PEREIRA
  • “DON´T LEAVE FOR TOMORROW WHAT YOU CAN DO TODAY”: A STUDY ON PRÉ-CRASTINATION IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
  • Asesor : VALDINEY VELOSO GOUVEIA
  • Fecha: 30-mar-2023
  • Hora: 16:00
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  • This dissertation aimed to know to what extent personality traits, human values and anxiety explain the phenomenon of pré-crastination. For this, three studies were developed, being structured here in three articles. Article 1, of a theoretical nature, aimed to bring together concepts, definitions and main characteristics, as well as the convergences and divergences with procrastination. In article 2, the elaboration of the Pré-crastination Scale (PE) was proposed, gathering evidence of its validity and psychometric adequacy. In view of this, two studies were carried out, with samples of higher education students, in Study 1, 200 students with a mean age of (Mage = 23.80; SD = 7.9) participated who answered the initial version of the EP, consisting of 25 items and sociodemographic questions. An exploratory factor analysis a three-dimensional structure consisting of 18 items that showed satisfactory internal consistency (ω = 0.85). In study 2, we sought to confirm the structure found in the previous study, thus, 200 students with the average age (Mage = 24.42; SD = 7.67) participated, who answered the EP version with 18 items. Through a confirmatory factor analysis, it was possible to prove the three-dimensional structure: Task anticipation (ω = 0.89) Task management (ω = 0.75) and Feelings towards the task (ω = 0.66) [χ² = 232.658 ; p< 0.001; χ²/gl = 1.76; CFI = 0.92; RMSEA = 0.062 and TLI = 0.91, showing evidence of PE factorability and adequacy. Continuing on, in Article 3, which aimed to explain pré-crastination based on personality traits, human values and anxiety, in a specific way, we sought (1) to know the relationship between pré-crastination, personality traits, values and anxiety and (2) understand the role of personality traits, human values and anxiety in explaining the phenomenon of pré-crastination. For this purpose, 400 higher education students with an average age of (Mage = 23,18; SD = 5.1) were interviewed. The participants answered sociodemographic questions and the following instruments: Pré-crastination Scale (EP), Dark Triad Dirty Dozen (DTDD), Light Triad Scale (LTS), Questionnaire of Basic Values (QVB) and Cognitive Anxiety Scale. The results showed that pré-crastination was correlated with dark and bright personality traits, anxiety and values of existence, achievement, normative, suprapersonal and interactive, making it possible to confirm the hypotheses outlined. In view of the above, it is estimated that the proposed objectives were achieved, with the construction of a measure that gathered psychometric evidence of factor validity and consistency, in addition to contributing to the dissemination and understanding of such a relevant behavioral trend, starting not only from its origins, but also relates to other constructs.
  • MIRIAN CARLA LIMA CARVALHO
  • Parental socialization practices and aggressive behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder Master's Dissertation
  • Fecha: 30-mar-2023
  • Hora: 16:00
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  • This dissertation was structured in four chapters. In the first chapter, a non-systematized review was presented, explaining the following themes: socialization practices, aggression and the characteristics of Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In the second chapter, a review was carried out, whose general objective was to systematically evaluate the bibliographical production, over the last 20 years, on the relationship between parental socialization and aggressive behavior in children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Articles published in the last 20 years were adopted as inclusion criteria, within the chosen theme and with children diagnosed with ASD as a sample; the exclusion criteria were theses, dissertations and duplicate articles. 25 articles were selected for data discussion. The contents found were organized and discussed in three thematic categories: (1) Aggressive Behaviors in people with ASD; (2) Practices adopted by parents in the education of their children diagnosed with ASD; and (3) Parenting Practices and Aggression in Children with Autism. Regarding the first category, it was found that aggressive behaviors could not be considered specific symptoms of ASD, they may exist as a result of other factors such as communication deficits, sensory deficits, behavioral patterns and comorbidities. Regarding the second category, it was possible to notice that the parents used practices of excessive protection and control, and, sometimes, showed fear that the child would grow up and low level of pressure. With specific regard to maternal practices, some studies have shown that mothers have a low level of pressure and rules, demonstrate excessive protection, make little use of Rules and Discipline and use Positive Parenting more. Regarding the third category, it was found that aggressive behaviors were positively correlated with Discipline and Harsh Punishment, and parenting styles (permissive, authoritarian and authoritative) were positively and statistically related to aggressive behaviors. The third chapter consisted of field research, with a correlational design, on maternal socialization techniques and the perception of mothers about the aggressiveness of their children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and in typical development (TD). The general objective of this study was to find out to what extent the socialization practices adopted by mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and mothers who had typically developing children were related to their perception of their children's aggressive behavior. For this study, the following hypotheses were elaborated: (a¹) The use of the external control technique by mothers of children with ASD positively predicts the mothers' perception of the aggression attributed to their children; (a²) The use of internal control by mothers of children with ASD negatively predicts the perception of anger attributed to their children; (b¹) Mothers of children with ASD at mild and moderate levels of support use more internal control techniques than mothers of children with severe ASD; (b²) Mothers of children with a severe level of support use more external control techniques than mothers of children with mild and moderate ASD; (c¹) Mothers perceive their sons with ASD to be more aggressive than their daughters with ASD; (d¹) Mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder perceive more aggression in their children than mothers with typically developing children; (e¹) Mothers of children with ASD will make more use of external control than mothers with TD; (e²) Mothers of children with TD will make more use of internal control than mothers of children with ASD. Ninety mothers of children diagnosed with ASD were interviewed. The mothers were aged between 26 and 66 years (M= 37.10; SD=7.54) and the children, diagnosed with ASD, were aged between 8 and 10 years and 11 months (M= 8 .93; SD=0.79). Also, there were 46 mothers of typically developing children, aged between 22 and 49 years (M = 33.80; SD=5.74); the children were aged between 7 and 10 years (M = 8.28; SD = 1.10), 19 (41.3%) males and 27 (58.7%) females. For data collection, the following were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Aggression Questionnaire – BPAQ Adapted version for mothers and the Socialization Techniques Instrument. In general, it was observed that: the mothers' perception regarding external control was able to predict the perception of physical aggression and anger, these data corroborate the studies by Chaves (2018), Campbell et al. (2010) and Kane and Mazureck (2011). Mothers with children with a more severe level of ASD made little use of explanations and those with mild or moderate children made more use of explanations, which confirms hypothesis b¹ and b². It was also found that girls with ASD showed more anger and hostility than boys with ASD, which differs from studies that found more aggression in boys with ASD and TD (Magalhães & Otta, 1995; Zequinhão 2016; Kaartnen et al., 2012). When comparing the perception of mothers of children with ASD with mothers of children with TD, it was possible to notice a significant difference in the perception of aggression, since mothers of children with ASD perceived more anger than mothers of children with 10 TD, thus, hypothesis d¹ was verified only in relation to the anger factor. When mothers of children with ASD were compared with mothers of children with TD, regarding the perception of the use of practices, it was observed that mothers of children with ASD made less use of internal control than mothers with children with TD , confirming hypothesis e¹, corroborating the study by Chaves (2018). Finally, in the fourth chapter, a general discussion was carried out, based on the empirical studies already carried out.
  • BIANCA FERNANDES DE SOUZA
  • ANALYSIS OF THE WORK OF THE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGIST DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC: REPORTS OF PROFESSIONALS FROM MUNICIPAL SCHOOLS IN JOÃO PESSOA (PB)
  • Fecha: 30-mar-2023
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • From the perspective of Critical School Psychology, the practice of the school psychologist is understood as fundamental in the mediation of the teaching, learning and development processes in the daily life of the school. By understanding this contextualized action, it is considered that the events that permeate the social environment will affect the practice of this professional. In the context experienced in recent years, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Brazilian educational system can be highlighted, the scenario in which this research was carried out. In this sense, with the suspension of classes and then the transition to the remote teaching model, it was necessary to reconfigure the work of the school psychologist during this period. This research aims to understand and analyze the performance of the school psychologist in face-to-face and remote teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic. It was, then, a qualitative research, which had as a sample 25 psychologists from municipal public schools in the city of João Pessoa (PB). A test instrument with questions related to sociodemographic, training and professional performance profiles, a panel containing three drawings that illustrated the school context experienced before and during the pandemic, and a semi-structured interview script were used as instruments. The interviews with the psychologists took place in person at the schools where the professionals were located and were recorded with a cell phone voice recorder, which had its content literally transcribed for analysis. Through the instruments, used in a complementary way, reports were obtained that included memories and affections that said about their practices before and during the pandemic period, which contributed to the understanding of how these moments of action occurred. In addition, it was possible to access which resources and tools were used and the challenges faced in working remotely. Difficulty in accessing technological resources by students is pointed out as prevalent in the speeches, as well as a bias towards blaming families and the use of clinical practices at school by a portion of psychologists. In view of the results, a defense of a contextualized school psychology is made, in which the school psychologist can contribute to the elaboration and production of institutional actions that value quality education, through an ethical and conscious work under the conditions of reality. It is hoped that the study can contribute to new reflections and proposition that stimulate the construction of knowledge in the field of school psychology.
  • EMANUELLE PEREIRA SOBRINHO
  • PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS RELATED TO QUALITY OF LIFE AND DEPRESSION IN CHILDHOOD
  • Fecha: 29-mar-2023
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • Childhood depression is a multifaceted mood disorder that encompasses biological, psychological and social aspects. These aspects go beyond the sensation of normal and temporary sadness, it is an organic disturbance that involves several variables. In this context, we sought to study the theme through the Theory of Social Representations (TRS), which enabled access to the network of interpretations and meanings, shared by social actors, building a practical and shared knowledge on the subject. In this sense, the following dissertation aimed to characterize social aspects of the symptomatology of depression in the school context. Structurally, it was divided into two parts, the first consisting of the theoretical chapter and the second consisting of two studies. In the first study, the contextualization of the object of study. The other two empirical studies were guided by the TRS. The first empirical study analyzed the Social Representations (RS) of social actors, based on three evoked words (depression, depressed person and myself). 120 students, aged 8 to 12 years, from private institutions in Campina Grande-PB participated. The participants answered the Sociodemographic Questionnaire and the Free Association of Words Technique. The data were processed by SPSS (version 21) and TriDeux-Mots and interpreted by Correspondence Factor Analysis. It was observed that depression has implications in the social life of social actors, as well as in their quality of life and perceptions of themselves. The second empirical study aimed to know the RS on depression, prepared by children. Thirty students, between 8 and 12 years old, regularly enrolled in elementary school participated. They answered the sociodemographic questionnaire and the semi-structured interview. The data were processed by SPSS (version 21) and TriDeux-Mots and interpreted by Correspondence Factor Analysis. It was observed that depression has implications in the social life of social actors, as well as in their quality of life and perceptions of themselves. The second empirical study aimed to know the RS on depression, prepared by children. Thirty students, between 8 and 12 years old, regularly enrolled in elementary school participated. They answered the sociodemographic questionnaire and the semi-structured interview. The data were processed by SPSS (version 21) and software Alceste and Iramuteq, and analyzed by CHD, Word Cloud. Two main axes of meaning emerged: "Self-perception and social relations" and "Depression as a psychological disease. In them motherhood was marked by the loss of psychosocial bonds between mother-child. Being a mother was objectified as synonymous with suffering, uncertainty and guilt for the absence of maternal care and separation of children and family members. In this way, the shared representations and elaborated by the students, in the construction of meanings of the depressive picture can subsidize the development of preventive practices in the school context.
  • ELZENIR BATISTA DE LUCENA CAMPOS
  • Practices of tutelary council based on children experiences assisted by the institution.
  • Asesor : MARIA DE FATIMA PEREIRA ALBERTO
  • Fecha: 28-mar-2023
  • Hora: 17:00
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  • The objective of this dissertation is understanding the experiences of the children interviewed and assisted in the Tutelary Councils (TCs) João Pessoa city - Paraíba. The specific objectives were to characterize the biosociodemographic profile of children interviewed and assisted at the TCs in João Pessoa – PB; Identifying how the children interviewed and assisted in the TCs in João Pessoa – PB, understanding the work of the institution; Analyzing the experiences of assisted children in the TCs in João Pessoa - PB; Analyzing what the Tutelary Council does and what works for the child and; Identifying the reason that led children to the CT. So we used the literature review and the theoretical framework that is based on the experience category from Historical- Cultural Psychology - PHC of Vygotsky. The qualitative method was used. The seven Tutelary Councils of João Pessoa were the locus of this study with 12 children, their age are about 9 to 11 , using the Game of Incomplete Sentences and proceding with content analysis. The results revealed six thematic classes: reason that led to the TC, meaning, feeling, learning, evaluation and resolution. What revealed that the reasons that led the children to the TC were violence, and that they understand the TC between the place that helps and punishes. Comfortable experiences of solving their problems were evidenced.
  • REBBECA HELLEN ARAÚJO LACERDA
  • THE CONTEXT OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC AND THE TRANSITION FROM REMOTE TO PRESENTIAL TEACHING: A STUDY WITH PROFESSIONALS FROM SCHOOLS IN THE PUBLIC EDUCATION NETWORK
  • Asesor : FABIOLA DE SOUSA BRAZ AQUINO
  • Fecha: 28-mar-2023
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • This dissertation addresses the performance of teachers and school psychologists from the municipal public network of João Pessoa-PB during the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic presented itself as a crisis in Brazil and in the world, causing social distancing and the consequent closure of school institutions, having a clear impact on the continuity of early childhood education. In this sense, the objective is to investigate and analyze practices of teachers and psychologists during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to map actions regarding the transition from remote teaching to blended and face-to-face teaching. This question was initially explored through the explanation of the cultural-historical theoretical framework and contemporary arguments about development transitions. Within the scope of the study, the theme of the COVID-19 pandemic was presented and discussed, and its implications for the school context, and a bibliographical survey was described on the professional practices of School Psychology during the pandemic. A qualitative field research was carried out, with a semi-structured interview applied to 22 participants, 11 teachers and 11 school psychologists from municipal schools in João Pessoa. The sociodemographic results indicate that most psychology professionals had an internship in the clinical area, and that most psychologists completed their graduation in public educational institutions and before the 2000s. The results of the analyzes of the interviews with the teachers indicate pedagogical demands generated during the pandemic, caused by the lack of access to technology or the lack of presence in the online classroom by students, difficulty in handling technology to create content for students or even doubts about what this return to face-to-face would look like. However, they also reveal practical reformulations to deal more adequately with the return to the physical space of institutions. In the interviews with the psychologists, actions aimed mainly at teachers, technicians, students and families were identified. These professionals perceived this return to the classroom as an ongoing readaptation, at the same time referring to the school space of power, readaptations and guarantee of rights. This research reaffirms the role of the school psychologist as a professional who can promote understanding of the reality and complexity of events related to the pandemic, as well as adapt the pedagogical team to a new practice and actions that value active and collective construction.
  • ANDRÉA BEZERRA DE ALBUQUERQUE
  • Emotional Exhaustion: contribution of personality traits and human values
  • Fecha: 27-mar-2023
  • Hora: 16:00
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  • This dissertation aimed to verify the pattern of relationships between emotional exhaustion, personality traits and human values. For this, two (2) studies were carried out in article format. Article 1 aimed to gather psychometric evidence of the measure Escala de Cansancio Emocional (ECE) in Brazil, and two (2) studies were carried out. In Study 1, 275 university students from Paraíba (Age = 22.49) participated, who answered the ECE and demographic questions. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a one-dimensional solution with adequate reliability, Cronbach's alpha (α) and McDonald's omega (ω) equal to 0.90. In Study 2, 223 university students from Piauí (Age = 21.65) participated. Confirmatory factor analysis showed adequate indicators (CFI = 0.99; TLI = 0.98; RMSEA = 0.05), with satisfactory reliability (α= 0.88) and (ω = 0.91) and unidimensional structure of the Study 1. In short, the studies provide a short measure of 10 items (SCE), which assess emotional fatigue globally with psychometric evidence for Brazil, which may be useful for researchers interested in the subject and its correlates. Article 2 aimed to test the mediating role of human values in the relationship between personality traits and emotional fatigue in university students. A sample of 350 university students (Mage = 23.81; SD = 6.69) from the Northeast region of Brazil was used, 68.6% of whom were female. Participants answered the Basic Values Questionnaire (QVB), the Big Five Personality Factors Inventory (ICGFP), the Emotional Stress Scale (ECE) and sociodemographic questions. Descriptive statistics, correlations, regressions were performed and a mediation model was tested. The mediation model tested showed that the achievement subfunction did not mediate the relationship between the personality trait neuroticism and emotional fatigue, indicating that people with strong traits of neuroticism tend to be tired. Thus, it is concluded that personality traits and human values contribute to the explanation of emotional fatigue, as well as they can help professionals in designing strategies that favor the development of skills in order to minimize the effects of emotional fatigue.
  • HEITOR MARINHO DA SILVA ARAÚJO
  • A MAN ALSO CRIES”: SEXISM AND MASCULINITY PRECARIOUS FACING GENDER ANTI-NORMATIVE SITUATIONS
  • Fecha: 27-mar-2023
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • With the advancement of discussions and public policies around gender equity and the fight against various forms of sexual discrimination, this research sought to investigate to what extent adherence to the belief in precarious masculinity and ambivalent sexism influences the taking of a position in relation to normative and counter-normative situations related to the sexual division of gender roles. Four experimental scenarios were elaborated addressing a child's choice of toy and the father's decision to buy it. It was characterized as quasi-experimental research, with design 2 (child gender, male or female) X 2 (type of toy, car or doll). A total of 303 university students with a mean age of 24.1 years (SD=5.62) participated, almost half of whom declared themselves racially white and mostly from the middle class. The participants answered the scales of Ambivalent Sexism and Conceptions of Masculinity, as well as open questions justifying their perception. Using SPSS, statistical analyses of correlation, hierarchical regression, univariate analysis (ANOVA) and PROCESS were performed to test the explanatory model of mediation. The IRAMUTEQ software was used for Descending Hierarchical Classification and Correspondence Factor Analysis procedures. The results show that, being moderated by the emotional restraint factor of Masculinity and adherence to Total Sexism, the scenarios are good predictors of the perception of the father's attitude. The justifications of the participants about the social judgment given to the child and the father presented heterogeneous classes ranging from the recognition of gender roles as well as the deconstruction of such conceptions.
  • FRANCIANE FONSECA TEIXEIRA SILVA
  • STIGMATIZATION PROCESS, CAUSATION ATTRIBUTION AND RESILENCE IN FAMILIES IN THE CONTEXT OF CHEMICAL DEPENDENCE
  • Asesor : MARIA DE FATIMA PEREIRA ALBERTO
  • Fecha: 24-mar-2023
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • This thesis aims to analyze the processes of stigmatization, attribution of causality and resilience by family members of people in chemical dependence. A cross-sectional, exploratory and descriptive study was conducted, with quantitative design and non-probabilistic (convenience) and dependent (the same sample for all studies), accounting for 111 participants aged between 18 and 70 years, most of them female, married with high schooling. The collection took place via online electronic form, according to the resolutions of the Current Ethics Council and stored on the internet server. The results were organized into four articles. The first article aimed to identify the causes attributed by the family member to the chemical dependence of the family member, considering their location/internality (internal or external to the individual), stability (stable/instable) and controllability. Based on the Attributeal Model of Action (Weiner, 1972), he used the Locus Scale of Parental Control in Health. The results indicated instability (detoxification treatment + relapse) for 52% of the chemical dependents being attributed external control location, in this case to the field of medicine, specifically to the hospital, physician and psychiatrist or to fatalism. The second article aimed to identify the perception of the stigma suffered, as well as interpersonal rejection linked to stigma due to a chemicaldependent family member. Based on Goffman's studies (1988), the Perceived Stigma Scale (Soares, 2011) was used as an instrument. The results indicate the presence of moderate internalized stigma, with the highest means and correlation in the factors Stereotype Approval followed by Resistance to Stigma. No statistically significant difference was found between the perception of stigma in relation to the typification of the psychoactive substance. Thus, it is confirmed that the perception of stigma directed at their group of belonging results in negative self-perceptions when taking for themselves the stereotypes and social stigmas about the chemical dependent family member. The third article, based on the Model of Resilience, Stress, Adjustment and Family Adaptation (McCubbin & McCubbin, 1993), aimed to verify the capacity of family resilience considering coherence, flexibility, involvement and social support. The Resilience, Stress, Adjustment and Family Adaptation Questionnaire was used, which allowed the evaluation of how the family responds to stress and crisis situations. The fourth article aimed to verify the correlation between the variables related to Attribution of Causality, Perception of Stigma and the factors of Family Resilience. For this purpose, descriptive and multivariate statistics were used to correlate and analyze the variables identified in previous studies. It is expected to contribute to the construction of therapeutic interventions from the perspective of the family of the chemical addict.
  • ERICARLA VERÔNICA ALMEIDA DIAS
  • EXPOSURE AND ATTITUDES TO THE LGBTQ+ MEDIA: DEVELOPMENT OF MEASUREMENTS AND THE MODERATING ROLE OF SEXUAL ORIENTATION
  • Fecha: 21-mar-2023
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • Exposure to positive LGBTQ+ media significantly influences attitude change towards the community, on the other hand, exposure to negative media can increase LGBTphobia. Given this, this work aimed to create and validate the Scales of Attitudes towards LGBTQ+ and Exposure to LGBTQ+ Media, as well as to understand how these are associated with LGBTphobia and personal variables. Three studies were carried out: a systematic literature review, a development and validation study of the two instruments, and a last correlational one. In the end, the results of Study 1 indicate that there are changes in attitudes towards the LGBTQ+ public from exposure to LGBTQ+ media. Study 2 gathered psychometric evidence of the measures developed in the study, presenting the following results: Study 2.1 pointed to a two-factor organization of the Negative Media Exposure Scale (Media with Negative Portraits, α = 0.82 and Media with Positive Portraits , α = 0.80) and a single-factor organization of the LGBTQ+ Media Attitudes Scale (α = 0.91 ). Study 2.2 corroborated these factorial structures, presenting satisfactory fit indices (Mean Exposure: CFI = 0.97, TLI = 0.97, GFI = 0.97, SRMR = 0.07, RMSEA = 0.07 | 90% CI 0.06 - 0.09 | Attitudes: CFI = 1.00, TLI = 1.02, GFI = 0.99, SRMR = 0.01, RMSEA = 0.01 | 90% CI 0.01 - 0.02 ), the discrimination indices of the Exposure scale ranged from 0.54 (Item 5) to 2.11 (Item 6) and those of the Attitudes scale ranged from 1.98 to 5.22, considered very high. Finally, Study 3 found a correlation between negative media representation and attitudes (r = 0.34, p < 0.01), moderated by sexual orientation [b = 0.62, (95% CI = 0.27 - 0.97), t = 3.52, p < 0.01]. Through the scales, we can observe that there is still a predominance of media representation focused on negative aspects, such as victimization and discrimination.
  • PAULO GREGORIO NASCIMENTO DA SILVA
  • CYBERSTALKING IN INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS: CONTRIBUTIONS OF INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIAL VARIABLES
  • Fecha: 28-feb-2023
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • This research protocol has the general objective of verifying which personality traits (Big Five and dark) and human values can explain cyberstalking behavior. For that, four studies were proposed, corresponding to four different articles. The first article sought to adapt, gathering psychometric evidence from the Intimate Partner Cyberstalking Scale (IPCS) in a Brazilian context. In two studies (N = 467), the psychometric parameters of the IPCS were evaluated using different techniques (e.g., Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Item Response Theory), in addition to proposing a short version of the scale. Both versions had a reliable one-dimensional structure and had similar correlations with machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. Second article aimed to adapt the Assessment of Sadistic Personality (ASP) for Brazil, investigating the psychometric qualities of the instrument. Two studies with participants from different Brazilian states have been conducted. Study 1 (N = 242), the ASP was adapted, and an exploratory factor analysis was performed, which suggested a unifactorial structure. Study 2 (N = 225), the confirmatory factor analysis indicated adequate indicators and satisfactory reliability, in addition to athering evidence of convergent validity of ASP with the Dark Triad and the = cyberstalking. Third article certainly verifies the predictive power of personality traits, controlling for the gender variable, in cyberstalking perpetration behaviors. 267 people from different Brazilian states participated (M = 22.83). IPCS, Big Five Personality Factors Inventory and sociodemographic questions were applied. Results assessed, through hierarchical multiple regression, that the neuroticism personality trait explained the perpetration behavior of cyberstalking and that the gender variable did not influence this relationship; however, it demonstrated that people with high levels of emotional instability can exhibit cyberstalking perpetration behaviors. Fourth article aimed know the extent which human values could mediate the relationship between dark personality and the perpetrator behavior of cyberstalking in intimate relationships. 316 people from different Brazilian regions participated (M = 26.92). These are mostly women (57.9%), dating (42.1%) or married (24.1%), who answered the instruments: IPCS, Dark Triad Dirty Dozen, Assessment of Sadistic Personality, the Questionnaire of Basic Values and socio-demographic issues. Correlations and regressions made it possible to test a mediation model, which indicated that personal values were mediators (partial mediation) of the relationship between narcissism and the perpetrator behavior of cyberstalking. Importance of the dark traits of the dark personality (narcissism) in explaining cyberstalking in intimate relationships is reinforced, and it is worth considering the inclusion of personal values (experimentation) to expand the monological network associated with this conduct, aiming to systematically understand its causes and consequences.
  • PEDRO PAULO HONORATO ALVES
  • Analysis of the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in the Labor Market
  • Asesor : ANISIO JOSE DA SILVA ARAUJO
  • Fecha: 10-feb-2023
  • Hora: 10:30
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  • The work seeks to carry out an analysis of the process of inclusion of people with disabilities (PwD) in the labor market. At first, we carried out a literature review of articles with the descriptors: disability and work. Using two databases of articles, Scielo (Scientific Electronic Library Online) and Pepsic (Electronic Journals in Psychology), we searched the manuscripts. Then, we apply filters in the search, such as: articles between 2008 and 2020, scientific journals with topics on psychology, health, education and society; articles available in full; in Portuguese and national journals. At the end of the research and with the selected articles, we used bibliometric analysis of the data in order to extract information about the articles in the last 12 years (2008 to 2020). Then, we seek to understand the role of the mediating institution in the entry of PwD in the market, from semi-structured interviews with professionals in a specialized institution in João Pessoa. Finally, in a third moment, we interviewed people with disabilities and used the technique of instruction to double with the objective of knowing the work of these individuals, as well as evaluating the extent to which inclusion has been happening or not in practice. This work is justified by the low representation of individuals with disabilities in the market and the lack of equal opportunities. Currently in Brazil, according to the IBGE (2010), only 1% of the population that has some type of disability has a formal job, even with laws that seek to equalize the chances of being hired, such as the Brazilian Law of Inclusion (nº 13.146, 2015). The results pointed to: (1) the breadth of support from mediating institutions in the service of inclusion of people with disabilities in the labor market encompasses the technological, educational, medical, institutional, legal scope, and goes far beyond contact with private organizations ; (2) the discrepancy between the high expectations and minimum requirements of companies and the low level of training of candidates with disabilities; (3) deviations from the day-to-day work of people with disabilities; (4) the search for a job is a challenging task for people with disabilities and that the lack of information about their disability and rights makes this process difficult, (5) exclusionary selection processes can restrict entry into the market, (6) organizational environment socially inclusive, but not physically, (7) mostly operational vacancies with little or no possibility of professional advancement. Finally, we understand the influence of prejudice and stigma in the lives of people with disabilities, and because of this, how this individual does not have power in the employee-employer relationship. In addition, the service of including people in the market is a necessity due to the restrictions that the market itself imposes with excluding practices. In addition, there is an emerging demand for studies aimed at structuring expectations between companies and the reality of PwD, as well as discussing and building ways to provide a more inclusive understanding of disability.
  • MIRELLA DARC DE MELO CAHU ARCOVERDE DE SOUZA
  • THE APPROACH TO THE RELATIONSHIP MENTAL DISORDER AND WORK BY THE LABOR COURT
  • Asesor : ANISIO JOSE DA SILVA ARAUJO
  • Fecha: 10-feb-2023
  • Hora: 08:30
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  • This dissertation aims to analyze how professionals who are involved in labor court actions deal with the relationship between mental disorders and work. Psychodynamics of labor is the theoretical basis used to analyze this relationship. The research was structured as follows: first, a review of the relationship between mental disorder and work from the point of view of the psychodynamics of labor; then, the treatment of the theme given by professionals who work in labor court actions in four clippings of procedural documents (initial application, defense, expertise and sentence) and, finally, the analysis of five concrete cases from each of the geographic regions of Brazil. The research hypothesis was confirmed in the sense that the lawsuits have requested from the subjects involved in the process (judges, lawyers, experts) technical support, not always sufficient, in order to give attention to the singularities of the relationship between mental disorder and work, since this theme is not ordinary for most of the subjects involved. Furthermore, judges have been nominating experts with different backgrounds, such as general physicians, occupational physicians, psychiatrists, or psychologists, who have taken on the task of producing an expert report that will serve as support for the decision. That the reports normally produced are based on theoretical criteria freely chosen by the professional responsible for the task, without any prior indication in the legal regulations about the methodology of approach, capable of demonstrating to the parties of the process which elements can be considered as definers of the disease/work relationship. We propose as an action that there should be theoretical improvement on the theme, with an interdisciplinary exchange involving mental health and work, so that individual aspects of the ill worker can be analyzed, but also the collective experience undergone, in order to effectively guarantee justice in the lawsuits that are being processed in the labor courts.
  • CLÁUDIA HELENA COSTA DE OLIVEIRA ZAMBRONI
  • SUBJECTIVE EXPERIENCES IN THE SUCCESSION PROCESSES IN FAMILY BUSINESSES
  • Fecha: 09-feb-2023
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • Considering that most studies conducted on succession processes in family businesses are instrumental, since they analyze succession processes as a set of steps, actions and activities, and relegate the subjective dimension between predecessor and successor, it is necessary to deepen the study of the phenomenon of succession bearing in mind this subjective experience and considering the affective, social and domination dimensions that take place in family relationships and that will often be present in family-owned companies. Thus, this investigation had as its main objective the understanding of the subjective experience of the predecessor and the successor during the succession process in small family businesses. For this research, the psychodynamics of work was chosen as a theoretical framework. Regarding the methodology, an interpretive paradigm and a qualitative approach were used, using thematic oral history as the method of data collection. The participants of this investigation were ten business owners (predecessors and successors) of five small companies located in the city of João Pessoa – PB (Brazil) who have already gone through the process of business succession and met the following criteria: the company must be family-owned and at least ten years old; the process of business succession must have happened at least two years ago; and the successor must be the predecessor's son or daughter. The data collection tools were two interview scripts, one for the predecessor and another one for the successor. For the analysis of the participants' statements, we chose to use sociological discourse analysis (SDA), which revealed the existence of thematic categories for each of the dimensions studied. The affective dimension revealed love and renunciation, frustration, hurt and forgiveness. The social dimension revealed the meaning of work for predecessors and successors, company and family: "all together and mixed up", and the challenges faced by the predecessor in carrying out the succession. The dimension of domination revealed the conflict between parents and children over the administration of their companies, the lack of recognition of the successor by the predecessor, and the gender prejudice. This study concludes that it is not possible to understand the succession processes in family businesses without considering the subjective experience of predecessors and successors. By adopting a subjective view on studies on family businesses succession, this thesis aimed to make business families able to perceive and overcome the obstacles that often prevent the family and the company from moving forward together.
2022
Descripción
  • JESSICA QUEIROGA DE OLIVEIRA
  • SECONDARY VICTIMIZATION OF WOMEN VICTIMS OF RECURRENT AND CONTINUING INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE
  • Asesor : CICERO ROBERTO PEREIRA
  • Fecha: 16-dic-2022
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • Confrontation with intimate partner violence (IPV) can trigger distorted behaviors and evaluations related to victims, a phenomenon we refer to as secondary victimization. This victimization occurs through victim blaming, devaluation, avoidance, and minimization of their suffering. However, if victims remain in the relationship under continued suffering, observers are more likely to behave in ways that secondarily victimize these victims than if they end the relationship, thereby ending the suffering. With this in mind, we hypothesize that victims are more likely to be secondarily victimized if they remain in an abusive relationship than if they permanently end the relationship. To this end, we developed a research program in which we conducted seven studies that are summarized in three empirical articles. In the first article, we presented the results of four studies and describe the development and validation of the Secondary Victimization Scale for Women Victims of Marital Violence (SVS). Study 1 involved item creation and content analysis of these items using a rating by expert judges. In Study 2 (N = 374), we conducted an exploratory factor analysis, from which four factors emerged, and calculated reliability and internal consistency indices. We developed Study 3 (N = 292) to compare the proposed measurement model with alternative models and to examine the convergent-discriminant validity of the SVS. In this study, we found a bi-factor structure suggesting the presence of a general factor of secondary victimization and four specific factors (victim blaming, devaluation, avoidance, and minimization of suffering). In Study 4 (N = 311), we experimentally examined the criterion validity of the SVS by manipulating societal sexism. The results showed satisfactory indices of validity and reliability for the SVS. In the second article, we developed an experimental study (N=261) to test the hypothesis that a woman victim of IPV is more likely to be secondarily victimized if she chooses to resume an abusive relationship than if she does not, and that men are more likely to use secondary victimization strategies if victims return to relationship than if she do not. Results showed that participants acknowledged the victim's suffering, devalued and avoid victims more when they resumed the relationship with the aggressor than when they did not or when they did not receive information about reconciliation with the aggressor, and that men blamed, devalued, and acknowledged the victim's suffering less. In the third article, we designed two experimental studies to examine the role of societal sexism in the secondary victimization of female victims of IPV and to test the hypothesis that women are more victimized when the exit process involves multiple returns to the abusive relationship and that this phenomenon occurs particularly in a context where societal sexism is strong. The results we found suggest that when participants are instructed to respond as society thinks, they more readily express societal sexism and tend to secondarily victimize a woman victim of IPV, and this is especially true when participants were given information that this victim had a history of leaving and returning to the relationship with the abuser. In summary, these studies are consistent with our central hypothesis that women are more likely to be secondarily victimized when they repeatedly return to an abusive relationship. They also support empirical evidence of the role of societal sexism in this victimization.
  • TATIANA CAVALCANTI DE ALBUQUERQUE LEAL
  • The Effects of Institutional Trust on the Relationship between Belief in a Just World and Secondary Victimization of Wrongfully Convicted Persons
  • Fecha: 12-dic-2022
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • Miscarriages of justice, like wrongful convictions, are severe flaws in the justice system that happen daily in all justice systems in the world. The majority of these cases are due to institutional misconduct. Society, however, blames, derogates, and does not offer support to wrongfully convicted persons, resulting in their secondary victimization. We address this phenomenon by proposing the hypothesis that the Belief in a Just World (BJW) predicts the secondary victimization of wrongfully convicted people and that the level of trust in institutions mediates this relationship. We developed a research program of three articles comprising five studies. The first article consisted of a preliminary study (N = 381) in which we assessed the level of trust in several institutions, and we compared these levels between two different political contexts in Brazil, the years 2018 and 2019. We found a low level of institutional trust, specifically in democratic political institutions. We also found a change in these levels from one context to another, as trust in coercive institutions was stronger in 2019 than in 2018. In the second article (N = 381), also a preliminary study, we investigated whether the institutional trust was related to the BJW and if this relationship was moderated by social and political factors. The analysis revealed that the BJW related to institutional trust indeed, but only in left-wing and lower-income participants. The third article, with three studies, focused more directly on the nuclear hypothesis of this thesis. We experimentally tested our main hypothesis: that the BJW would predict the secondary victimization of wrongfully convicted people and that it would happen indirectly through institutional trust, depending on whether injustice threatened the BJW. In the first study (N = 150), we experimentally activated the threat to the BJW. We found that trusting social coercive, political, and justice institutions mediated the relationship between BJW and blaming the wrongfully convicted victim. Moreover, trusting political and justice institutions also mediated this relationship when it came to minimizing the victim's suffering. In the second study (N = 539), we replicated the first study with a larger sample. Specifically, in the threat condition to the BJW, we verified that trusting the media mediated the relationship between the BJW and victim blaming. Likewise, trusting social coercive and justice institutions mediated the relationship between this belief and minimizing the victim's suffering and trusting social coercive institutions mediated this relationship with the dimension of victim avoidance. The third study (N=252) was conducted in England, a cultural context where democracy is well consolidated. We found that trust in political institutions mediated the relationship between BJW and victim blaming and minimizing the victim's suffering. We confirmed the role of mitigation of the secondary victimization played by trust in justice institutions. In general, the results have been consistent with the hypothesis proposed and showed how the BJW contributes to the process of legitimation of injustices committed by nuclear institutions of the Brazilian and English society. It also points out that trusting these institutions can sometimes be a bridge for this legitimation
  • LÍVIA BRAGA DE SÁ COSTA
  • Resolution of family conflicts: the role of social domains and the legitimacy of parental authority
  • Fecha: 18-nov-2022
  • Hora: 14:30
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  • Understanding the ways in which adolescents resolve conflicts with their parents is central to comprehending how the healthy adjustment of adolescents occurs. So far, research has started from a generalist approach with the objective of finding the predominance of one resolution strategy over others. The objective of this doctoral dissertation was to test the hypothesis that the conflict resolution strategies used by adolescents in their relationships with their parents may vary, within the individual, depending on the type of perception that the adolescent has about social events (theory of socio-cognitive domains). In addition, the hypothesis that the legitimacy of adolescent parental authority mediates the relationship between social domains and conflict resolution strategies was tested. The dissertation was structured into three articles. The first article, of a theoretical nature, aimed to examine the problem of conflict resolution in light of the theory of social domains and to provide a basis for conducting research aimed at testing the hypothesis that social domains influence the conflict resolution strategy that teenager adopts. In addition, conflict resolution strategies were theoretically articulated with two other psychosocial aspects: the legitimacy of parental authority and family decision-making. The second article, of an empirical and psychometric nature, aimed to adapt and validate the Conflict Resolution Styles Inventory (CRSI) for the Brazilian context, the most used instrument in the international scenario to assess the strategies adopted by adolescents to resolve conflicts between them and their parents. In Study 1, we analyzed content validity through expert analysis (N = 4 expert raters) and conducted a pilot study with adolescents (N = 15). In Study 2, we examined the psychometric properties of CRSI in a sample of adolescents (N = 276), gathering evidence of factor validity and reliability, in addition to analyzing the quality of the items using Item Response Theory. In Study 3, we evaluated the adequacy of the CRSI factor structure (N = 224). The results showed that the CRSI is a reliable and adequate instrument to assess the conflict resolution strategies that adolescents use in disagreements with their parents.The third and final article, of an empirical nature, sought to respond to the main objectives of the dissertation. In this sense, two experimental studies were carried out: the first study (N = 316) aimed to test the hypothesis that the conflict resolution strategies that adolescents adopt in interactions with their parents vary depending on the social domain to which the conflict belongs.The second study (N = 356) was carried out with the aim of testing the hypothesis that the legitimacy of parental authority works as a mediator in the relationship between social domains and conflict resolution strategies. In general, the results confirmed the proposed hypotheses, indicating that the conflict resolution adopted by adolescents varies according to social domains and is mediated by the legitimacy of parental authority.Taken together, the results of this research have important implications for understanding the process of developing adolescent autonomy, suggesting that family conflict resolution should be thought of considering the specificity of the domain involved in the conflict situation and in terms of legitimacy. of parental authority, since, depending on them, positive or negative strategies for conflict resolution are adopted.
  • RAFAELA ROCHA DA COSTA
  • TRAJECTORIES AND LIFE PROJECTS OF ADOLESCENTS IN COMPLIANCE WITH THE PROVISION OF SERVICES TO THE COMMUNITY (PSC)
  • Asesor : MARIA DE FATIMA PEREIRA ALBERTO
  • Fecha: 25-oct-2022
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • The general objective of this thesis is to analyze the life trajectories and life projects of adolescents to whom Community Services (PSC) were assigned. The specific objectives are: to present the biosociodemographic characteristics of adolescents to whom PSC was attributed; knowing the life trajectories, identifying the violations suffered and social policies accessed; discuss the interests and needs of adolescents who have been assigned PSC; identify perspectives on PSC; knowing the life projects of adolescents to whom the PSC was assigned; reflect on the role of the PSC for the construction of life projects. The thesis is that the trajectories of adolescents in compliance with the Provision of Services to the Community are permeated by violations and even with access to some social policies these were not enough to guarantee the widespread and instituted integral development from the ECA, since the lack of emphasis on interests, feelings and needs contributed to the maintenance of expressions of the social issue, of trajectories marked by planned negligence and limited and limiting future perspectives in the face of objective conditions that make life projects unviable and motivating. This is qualitative research, carried out through open interviews, descriptively analyzed using Thematic Content Analysis and an explanatory analysis based on the Equifinality of Trajectories Model. In addition to the interviews, the field diary was also used for descriptive and reflective records, highlighting four moments in which thematic workshops on life projects and youth leadership were conducted. The results and discussions of this thesis are theoretically supported by Historical-Cultural Psychology, guided by the categories Human Development, Life Trajectories, Life Projects and Social Policy. The results were directed towards the understanding that the trajectories of adolescents in compliance with PSC are marked by a planned negligence based on different expressions of the social issue, such as poverty, violence, homicide, child labor and school dropout, which mutilate their potential, their feelings, their autonomy and perspectives for the future. From the Equifinality Model of Trajectories, it was possible to understand that most of the unrealized trajectories were trajectories of access to rights and that child labor was an activity that became the main activity early on, violating other rights and the guarantee of integral protection. The services and programs accessed – despite being necessary given the objective conditions of life – were not able to guarantee that social development situations would materialize from experiences of social protection, but reproduced inequalities that had the socio-educational measure as a consequence. With the PSC, from the trajectory marked by child labor they move to the place of “socio-educational workers” and the practices developed from the measure are perceived as punitive. It is considered essential that there is attention to the development trajectory of these subjects and to interventions that are oriented to their needs, interests, feelings and to the construction of motives (providers of meaning) for activities that promote omnilateral development. For that, it is necessary a project of State, Justice System and Society that does not make them invisible, does not violate them and does not make them oblivious to their life and society projects, but that allows autonomy in the construction of their trajectories in decent living conditions.
  • ANNE KAROLINE PINTO ROCHA
  • SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS ABOUT THE USE OF CONVENTIONAL CIGARETTES AND ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
  • Fecha: 29-sep-2022
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • Similar to conventional cigarettes, electronic cigarettes are a device that releases nicotine and has been used as an auxiliary tool for smoking cessation, although scientific data on its efficacy are scarce. In this dissertation, literature review and empirical studies were conducted. In the first study, whose objective was to conduct a literature review on the use of electronic cigarettes as a tool for smoking reduction or cessation, searches were conducted at the Scopus, Scielo and PubMed databases until June 2020, and included only empirical studies dealing with the use of electronic cigarettes for smoking reduction or cessation . As for the results of the review, a great acceptance of the lay population was identified, which sees electronic cigarettes as harmless and reinforces the idea of a new social identity for vapers (e-cigarette users); while health professionals highlight the importance of information based on scientific evidence consistent with the device; to the extent that studies on the efficacy of electronic cigarettes and their long-term safety remain inconclusive. For empirical research, studies were conducted with mixed method, collection and analysis of quantitative-qualitative data. In the second study, conducted to access and compare the social representations of electronic and conventional cigarettes, which included 119 participants from the general population, a sociodemographic questionnaire and the technique of free association of words (with the stimuli "Electronic Cigarette" and "Conventional Cigarette" were used as instruments. In the results of the study, it was noticed that the representations about electronic cigarettes are mostly related to an idea of modernity and youth, relating it to recreational use; while representations about conventional cigarettes are more consistently related to a negative image, unpleasant factors and even the consequent health harms. In the third study, conducted with the objective of investigating the positioning of participants in the face of electronic cigarettes and performing a screening of their mental health, which had 154 participants from the general population, the instruments used were the sociodemographic questionnaire, open questions about electronic and conventional cigarettes, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Life Satisfaction Scale; the data were analyzed with spss software. Regarding the results of the study, no significant differences were found between the participants who were smokers and nonsmokers; most participants believe that conventional cigarettes are more harmful than electronic cigarettes; 41.2% of the participants who used e-cigarettes did not have their own device; most participants believe that electronic cigarettes can be used for smoking cessation, although this was not the reason for the beginning of use for 49% of the participants; most users of e-cigarettes only do not consider themselves "smokers"; most participants believe that the use of electronic and conventional cigarettes is used to calm the nerves and that the use of electronic cigarettes occurs for reasons such as: having an environment is conducive, for group integration, having a technological appearance, odor that does not bother or because they believe they are harmless devices. In addition, the representation of most participants recognized the harms related to electronic cigarettes and their composition different from conventional cigarettes, but is unaware that their commercialization is prohibited in Brazil. In general, it was possible to detect the need for longitudinal studies, studies capable of presenting real evidence, in order to clarify doubts and gaps regarding the impacts of the use of electronic cigarettes on people's health and on the efficacy or not of electronic cigarettes for smoking reduction or cessation. It was possible to make some reflections on the role of electronic cigarette for society and how people have introjected the information accessed and shared about the device. Finally, the need for further studies to support the necessary and appropriate regulatory regulations is emphasized, in addition to updating and improving new strategies for prevention and health promotion aligned with control over issues related to electronic cigarettes.
  • ANNE KAROLINE PINTO ROCHA
  • SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS ABOUT CIGARETTE USE CONVENTIONAL AND ELECTRONIC CIGARETTE: AN ANALYSIS COMPARATIVE
  • Fecha: 29-sep-2022
  • Hora: 14:00
  • Mostrar Resumen
  • Similar to conventional cigarettes, electronic cigarettes are a device that releases nicotine and has been used as an auxiliary tool for smoking cessation, although scientific data on its efficacy are scarce. In this dissertation, literature review and empirical studies were conducted. In the first study, whose objective was to conduct a literature review on the use of electronic cigarettes as a tool for smoking reduction or cessation, searches were conducted at the Scopus, Scielo and PubMed databases until June 2020, and included only empirical studies dealing with the use of electronic cigarettes for smoking reduction or cessation . As for the results of the review, a great acceptance of the lay population was identified, which sees electronic cigarettes as harmless and reinforces the idea of a new social identity for vapers (e-cigarette users); while health professionals highlight the importance of information based on scientific evidence consistent with the device; to the extent that studies on the efficacy of electronic cigarettes and their long-term safety remain inconclusive. For empirical research, studies were conducted with mixed method, collection and analysis of quantitative-qualitative data. In the second study, conducted to access and compare the social representations of electronic and conventional cigarettes, which included 119 participants from the general population, a sociodemographic questionnaire and the technique of free association of words (with the stimuli "Electronic Cigarette" and "Conventional Cigarette" were used as instruments. In the results of the study, it was noticed that the representations about electronic cigarettes are mostly related to an idea of modernity and youth, relating it to recreational use; while representations about conventional cigarettes are more consistently related to a negative image, unpleasant factors and even the consequent health harms. In the third study, conducted with the objective of investigating the positioning of participants in the face of electronic cigarettes and performing a screening of their mental health, which had 154 participants from the general population, the instruments used were the sociodemographic questionnaire, open questions about electronic and conventional cigarettes, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Life Satisfaction Scale; the data were analyzed with spss software. Regarding the results of the study, no significant differences were found between the participants who were smokers and nonsmokers; most participants believe that conventional cigarettes are more harmful than electronic cigarettes; 41.2% of the participants who used e-cigarettes did not have their own device; most participants believe that electronic cigarettes can be used for smoking cessation, although this was not the reason for the beginning of use for 49% of the participants; most users of e-cigarettes only do not consider themselves "smokers"; most participants believe that the use of electronic and conventional cigarettes is used to calm the nerves and that the use of electronic cigarettes occurs for reasons such as: having an environment is conducive, for group integration, having a technological appearance, odor that does not bother or because they believe they are harmless devices. In addition, the representation of most participants recognized the harms related to electronic cigarettes and their composition different from conventional cigarettes, but is unaware that their commercialization is prohibited in Brazil. In general, it was possible to detect the need for longitudinal studies, studies capable of presenting real evidence, in order to clarify doubts and gaps regarding the impacts of the use of electronic cigarettes on people's health and on the efficacy or not of electronic cigarettes for smoking reduction or cessation. It was possible to make some reflections on the role of electronic cigarette for society and how people have introjected the information accessed and shared about the device. Finally, the need for further studies to support the necessary and appropriate regulatory regulations is emphasized, in addition to updating and improving new strategies for prevention and health promotion aligned with control over issues related to electronic cigarettes.
  • FLÁVIA MARCELLY DE SOUSA MENDES DA SILVA
  • MULTIDIMENSIONAL MODEL OF RECOGNITION: PSYCHOMETRIC EVIDENCE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CORRELATES
  • Asesor : VALDINEY VELOSO GOUVEIA
  • Fecha: 23-sep-2022
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • The present thesis aimed to test a multidimensional psychological model of the recognition construct, as well as to investigate the psychological and intersubjective correlates of this variable in the Brazilian context. Three articles were elaborated. The Article 1 consisted of a theoretical essay proposing a multidimensional model of recognition within psychology encompassing four different and related dimensions: love, family, work, and friendship. Thus, we implemented a theoretical revision on the theme of recognition within social contemporary theories, as well as in psychology literature in order to support the plausibility of such recognition dimensions. Article 2, a psychometric study, aimed to elaborate and gather psychometric evidence of the internal and external structure of the Multidimensional Recognition Scale (MRS). In Study 1 (n = 210), 40 initial items of the MRS were elaborated. After the phase of content analysis, a final list of 32 items was provided. An exploratory factor analysis (extraction method: parallel analysis) revealed four factor solution with adequate reliability indices: work (ω = .90), love (ω = .86), family (ω = .61), and friendship (ω = .94). In addition, through Item Response Theory, a brief version with 20 items (MRS-20) was provided, maintaining a good range of information across the latent trait among the four dimensions. In Study 2 (n = 235), the four-factor solution of the MRS proved to be adequate, with the reduced model being statistically superior in the confirmatory analysis (i.e., MRS-20). Finally, evidence was found based on relationships with external variables by observing relationships in the expected directions with the constructs of positivity, gratitude, vitality, life satisfaction, and flourishing. Finally, in Article 3 (n = 235), we aimed at identify the relationships between the Multidimensional Recognition Model (MRM), human values and the dark and bright personality traits. The data were analyzed using the technique of network analysis. The results showed moderate magnitude relationships between the variables analyzed. With regard to the dimensions of multidimensional recognition, the dataset showed the centrality and strength of the variables Psychopathy and Forgiveness (i.e., personality) and the interactive, normative and existence value subfunctions. In conclusion, the perception of feeling recognized in multiple spheres can be explained both from stable variables (i.e., personality) and from intersubjective processes, more dependent on the socialization context (i.e., human values). In conclusion, the objectives were reached by proposing a multidimensional psychology model of the recognition construct. The empirical evidence, psychometric and correlational, indicated the practical plausibility of the mentioned results since the operationalization of recognition and its relations with intraindividual constructs and classical variables of the field of social psychology. In short, we hope to encourage future studies that investigate new practical implications of the phenomenon of recognition in a wide range of social spheres of individuals.
  • LAWERTON BRAGA DA SILVA
  • Homosexualities and LGBT: their social representations in the academic and media environment
  • Fecha: 23-sep-2022
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • This thesis aims to analyze the social representations of Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals, Transvestites and Transgenders (LGBT) propagated and disseminated in the academic and media environment. In this sense, two studies were carried out. The first is a systematic review that aims to internationalize the knowledge produced on homosexualities and LGBT by the Brazilian social and human sciences, highlighting important sub-themes that deal with the experiences, prejudice and struggle for rights of this population, emphasizing the little attention to lesbians. and transvestites. The second analyzes articles from Veja magazine over a period of 50 years that talk about homosexuality and the LGBT population. The thesis shows that the knowledge and interests produced in these media are concomitant; silence specific groups and reverberate racism, whose intrinsic relationship with this population is evident in the fact that its greatest achievements, such as the criminalization of homophobia and LGBTphobia, are equated with crimes of racism.
  • MARIA RENATA FLORENCIO DE AZEVEDO
  • Between normalizations and strangeness: subjective tensions in the processes of become a mother
  • Fecha: 30-ago-2022
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • In our historical reality, we identified that there is an ideal model of motherhood rooted in sexist discourses, which works as a device of power when we analyze that, the conditions of emergence of this model of motherhood and the injunctions that stem from it in the process of maternal subjectivation, it is less a concern for the well-being of children, and more of a political project. At the same time, we have that this historical reality - which gave emergency conditions for this device - has been undergoing significant changes in its assumptions, so that maternal subjectivation is no longer the only form of personal fulfillment for women, in other words, is no longer the only way for women to become people. However, the experience of possible motherhood, subordinates’ women to a subjective performance - pre-established relationships about what should be thought, said, seen and practiced, centralizing subject positions on them, which tries to address them to an overload of work and a progressive subjective and social erasure. Based on this understanding, we propose the thesis that, in the process of maternal subjectivation, the lines of subjectivity move between the estrangement and the normalization of sexist discourses, which address women to repositionings that socially weaken the way they experience themselves. and reinforce gender inequalities. Thus, the present study has the general objective: To analyze the subjective productions in movement in the experience of motherhood, from subject positions, actions and discursive effects in the process of becoming a mother, and how these have reverberated in the treatment of the self. This was an exploratory, cross-sectional study with a qualitative design, which allowed the analysis of subjective productions in motion in the experience of motherhood and the vicissitudes encountered by these mothers in this context. The surveys were carried out in the places proposed by the participants, considering the physiological and emotional condition of women-mothers and their children, mainly due to the limitations imposed by the social isolation experienced during the Covid-19 pandemic. This is a convenience sample (non-probabilistic), composed of 9 primiparous mothers with children between 1 year and 2 years old, married, aged between 24 and 35 years. A sociodemographic questionnaire was used and a semi-structured interview was carried out. The analysis of the data collected in the interviews was carried out from the Discourse Analysis, inspired by the Foucauldian contributions, outlining the relations produced from the normative practices and their discursive effects, we observed that the lines of subjectivation that work as a guide to action and subjectivity-forming fragments, move between the normalization of discourses with positions legitimized by sexist discourses, being able to address frameworks of understanding of reality based on the reproduction of these historical roots that only contribute to the perpetuation of relations of inequality, exploitation and oppression, and the estrangement of these discourses with insurgent positions, being able to address to frameworks of understanding of reality that maximizes the possibilities of conducting oneself in relationships with oneself in the experience of motherhood. I can conclude from this that the power relations that women establish with the lines of subjectivation of the maternal device, when analyzed with a view to understanding their tensions - between normalization and estrangement - with their respective effects, considering the historical constitution that made them emerge, it will be possible to build maternal conjugations that do not end in individual conflicts and ambivalences, that is, it will be possible to think of other forms of relationship with truths, other ways of being and acting that are not always reiterated by hegemonic truths, which produce a stylization mass of subjectivities.
  • THAÍS DE SOUSA BEZERRA DE MENEZES
  • Explained model against fat people
  • Fecha: 26-jul-2022
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • The excess weight (which includes overweight and obesity), despite being a phenomenon that involves social aspects, is mostly investigated by individual aspects. This thesis aimed to propose and validate an explanatory model of prejudice against fat people based on the Attribution of control over the onset weight gain, Attribution of overweight instability, Blame beliefs and Stereotypes about fat people. Thus, the thesis was structured in one theoretical chapter, five studies and final considerations. The first chapter of the thesis is a theoretical chapter whose purpose is to introduce constructs of interest to the work in addition to tracing a historical course on the theme of prejudice against fat people. The first study was presented in article format and aimed to identify beliefs and stereotypes related to prejudice against fat people through a systematic review of the literature. The second study, also presented in article format, was exploratory in nature and aimed to analyze the beliefs identified as relevant to the explanation of prejudice against fat people according to the first study (Attribution of control over the onset weight gain, Attribution of overweight instability, Blame beliefs and Stereotypes about fat people). The sample was 200 individuals from the general population residing in Paraíba. Open questions were used and analyzed through Content Analysis. Closed questions were also included and analyzed with descriptive statistics in SPSS, for the apprehension of beliefs. Free Association (FA) was also used, with the inducing stimulus “fat person”, to obtain stereotypes about fat people. The results indicated the need to assess these beliefs together, investigating their interactions in explaining prejudice against fat people. The third study, in chapter format, presented cross-cultural adaptation studies and exploratory factor analyses of the scales Controllability Scale-Revised (Parry, 2011); Implicit Theories of Weight Management (Burnette, 2010); Competence and Warmth of the Stereotype Content Model by Fiske et al. (2002); Paternalistic Anti-Fat Attitudes Scale (Parry, 2011) and the Measure of Fat Bias (UMB-FAT) (Latner et al., 2008). This study included 200 participants from the general population of Brazilian residents for the exploratory factor analysis, performed using the FACTOR software. The results indicated satisfactory psychometric properties. Furthermore, all cross-cultural adaptations had factor structures similar to those of the original studies. The exception was the UMB-FAT which presented 3 factors instead of the 4 in the original study. Despite this, the UMB-FAT items were grouped in a theoretically and qualitatively coherent way, in addition to having adequate psychometric indices. and 194 participants from the general population of Brazilian residents for the confirmatory factor analysis, performed using the JASP software. The fourth study, also in chapter format, presents the confirmatory analyzes of the scales that were cross-culturally adapted in study III. The study included 194 participants from the general population of Brazilian residents and the analyzes were performed using the JASP software. The psychometric indices proved to be adequate for the factors defined by the exploratory analyzes in study III. Thus, this study indicated that these instruments are suitable for measuring, respectively: Attribution of control over the onset weight gain, through the cross-cultural adaptation of the Controllability Scale-Revised, Attribution of overweight instability through the cross-cultural adaptation of the Implicit scale Theories of Weight Management; Stereotypes about fat people through the cross-cultural adaptation of the Competence and Warmth scales of the Stereotype Content Model, Benevolent prejudice through the cross-cultural adaptation of the Paternalistic Anti-Fat Attitudes Scale and Hostile prejudice against people through the cross-cultural adaptation of the Measure of Fat Bias scale, in future studies. The fifth study, presented in article format, use the instruments previously validated and the blaming instrument against fat people validated by Obara and Alvarenga (2018) to test an explanatory model of prejudice against fat people. The model was built in the Mplus 8 software. It is hoped that this work stimulate future studies and interventions that present accurate information about excess weight that can reduce prejudice towards fat people.
  • THEREZA CHRISTINA GARCIA BEZERRA
  • PREDICTING DIGITAL ABUSE IN LOVE RELATIONSHIPS IN THE LIGHT OF EMOTIONAL DEPENDENCE AND ACCEPTANCE OF VIOLENCE
  • Fecha: 19-jul-2022
  • Hora: 10:00
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  • The present dissertation aimed to evaluate different aspects of digital abuse in romantic relationships and their associations with emotional dependence and violence acceptance. To this end, three studies were conducted, distributed in two articles. In article 1, the construction of the digital abuse in romantic relationships' Implicit Association Test (IAT) was carried out. Two empirical studies were conducted. Study 1, referring to the elaboration of the measure, involved 100 people, mostly women (78%), with a mean age of 23.8 years (SD = 5.6). As a result, satisfactory scores were presented regarding C Score (M = 671.70; SD = 475.58) and D score (M = 0.94; SD = 0.62), as well as the following results regarding the comparison of correct answers between the congruent and incongruent blocks: Wilks Lambda = 0.96, F (2, 136) = 2.54, p > 0.05. Study 2 involved 143 people, mostly female (80.4%), with a mean age of 24.7 years (SD = 7.9). The process of convergent validity was carried out between the IAT developed in study 1 and the Questionnaire of Digital Abuse in Romantic Relationships (QADRA) and discriminant validity between the IAT and the Social Desirability Scale. As a result, the following correlations were found: social desirability and both C (r = 0.007, p < 0.93) and D scores (r = -0.008, p < 0.92), victim-related questionnaire: [C Score – General Aggression (r = 0.05, p < 0.54) and Control/Monitoring (r = -0.02, p < 0.79); D Score - General Aggression (r = 0.05, p < 0.54) and Control/Monitoring (r = -0.03, p < 0.70)]; abuser-related questionnaire: [C Score – General Aggression (r = 0.15, p < 0.07) and Control/Monitoring (r = -0.10, p < 0.20); D Score - General Aggression (r = 0.13, p < 0.12) and Control/Monitoring (r = -0.11, p < 0.18)]. As for article 2, the aim was to find out to what extent emotional dependence and violence acceptance are related to the dimensions of digital abuse in romantic relationships, as well as to verify if emotional dependence and violence acceptance can predict the digital abuse in romantic relationships' dimensions. To this end, 302 volunteers participated, most of them university students (86.4%), women (77.5%), middle class (48.7%), with a mean age of 26.5 years (SD = 8.46). In addition to sociodemographic questions, they answered the QADRA, the Emotional Dependence Questionnaire (EDQ) and the Dating Violence Acceptance Scale. As a result, it can be highlighted that there were statistically significant relationships between some dimensions of digital abuse in romantic relationships with the general emotional dependence and factors of violence acceptance, both for the victim and for the perpetrator. It can also be highlighted the predictive power of violence acceptance regarding digital abuse in dating, both in victims [β = 0.43; t(355) = 9.99; p < 0.003], and in the perpetrators [β = 0.46; t(360) = 8.79; p < 0.001]. The general emotional dependence factor, on the other hand, predicted digital dating abuse in the abuser version [β = 0.16; t(332) = 9.10; p < 0.005]. It is believed that the present dissertation contributed to the literature in the area, providing an implicit measure for measuring a variable susceptible to social desirability (i.e., digital abuse in romantic relationships), in addition to expanding the understanding around digital abuse in dating and its relationship with other psychosocial constructs.
  • MOISES FERNANDES DE ARAUJO SILVA
  • Empathy, Moral Reasoning and Pro-environmental Behavior
  • Asesor : CLEONICE PEREIRA DOS SANTOS CAMINO
  • Fecha: 29-abr-2022
  • Hora: 15:30
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  • The aim of this thesis was to build and validate a model to explain Pro-environmental Behavior (PEB) based on Moral Reasoning and Empathy. For this proposition, this thesis was structured in three articles. The first article presented a review study whose objective was to identify, describe and analyze how some moral dimensions are related to PEB. Based on a review of 71 international publications, it was observed that studies have been concerned with showing relationships between the PEB and: moral obligation; moral favorability; moral skills; moral emotions; sociomoral influence; moral self-assessment; moral license and moral cleansing. Based on this review, the second article presented a theoretical study that aimed to establish a theoretical link between some of these moral dimensions and theoretical perspectives on Empathy, Moral Reasoning and PEB. Thus, the second article proposed that involvement with the execution of the PEB requires three conditions: (1) cognitive and affective skills typical of moral judgment that can favor the construction of certain (2) beliefs that activate moral obligation, which by turn can become a PEB after one (3) moral self-regulation. From this theoretical articulation, the third article tested the validity of an explanatory model of the PEB based on Moral Reasoning and Empathy. It was hypothesized that Empathy may favor the relationship between Moral Reasoning and PEB, and that the relationship between these variables could be mediated by environmental beliefs and environmental concern. In this study, 315 subjects answered a questionnaire made available online. The answers were analyzed through Hierarchical Regressions to verify the predictor variables of the PEB, and later the relationships of these variables were tested by Structural Equation Modeling. The results allowed us to confirm the validity of a model in which the Empathic Concern dimension was able to predict Post-Conventional Moral Reasoning, and the relationship of these variables with the PEB dimensions was mediated by general environmental beliefs (NEP) and biospheric environmental concern. Furthermore, the model showed direct relationships between post-conventional moral reasoning and activism and consumption behaviors, as well as between Perspective Taking and water and energy savings. Thus, it is believed that the results allow us to affirm that the PEB can be morally motivated and that this motivation can be favored by empathy.
  • ERLAYNE BEATRIZ FELIX DE LIMA SILVA
  • SENSES AND MEANINGS OF SOCIO EDUCATION IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIO-EDUCATIONAL MEASURES OF INTERNMENT
  • Asesor : MARIA DE FATIMA PEREIRA ALBERTO
  • Fecha: 01-abr-2022
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • This study refers to a doctoral thesis whose goal is to analyze the senses and meanings of socio education arising from the double sanctionative-pedagogical character present in the legal regulations for socio-educational measures of internment (SEMI). The specific goals are: to characterize the meanings of socio education determined by the national regulations for socio-educational measures of internment; identify the senses and meanings of socio education present in regulations and in the Political-pedagogical project of an institution that manages socio-educational measures of internment in a state of Northeast Region of Brazil; describe the meanings and significances of socio education present in the Political-pedagogical projects of socio-educational units of a state in Northeast Region of Brazil. It is argued that the senses and meanings of socio education in the context of the socio-educational measures of interment is constructed based on a double pedagogical-punitive character, based on different perspectives and epistemological bases that represent conceptions present in the society and political and economic interests in the process of application and execution of SEMI, highlighting the punitive perspective of youth criminalization historically impoverished by the capitalist mode of production. This is qualitative research, composed of documental research carried out in two stages: the first refers to the meanings of socio education in the national regulations for socio-educational measures of internment, and the second stage focuses on knowing the senses and meanings of socio education in the context of the managing institution and in socio-educational units in a Brazilian northeastern state. The research results were described through Thematic Content Analysis and analyzed based on Vigotski's Historical-Cultural Psychology and Saviani's Historical-Critical Pedagogy. Through the research results, it was noticed that the concept of socio education has been constructed based on different theoretical perspectives, among which social education, restorative justice, and public policies stand out. In addition, the analyzed documents made it possible to understand that the legal regulations for SEMI in the last 30 years have been seeking the application of these measures in a guaranteeing perspective of fundamental human rights proclaimed in the Brazilian Federal Constitution of 1988. This finding can be considered an advancement for the implementation of socio-educational policies, considering that the defense and guarantee of human rights are a necessary first step to achieving political emancipation and exercising citizenship in a capitalist society. However, due to the characteristics of social policies in a capitalist political and economic setting, the socio education policy, as being a tool of the State for the accountability of adolescents and young people to whom the authorship of infractions is attributed, has been presented as mainly punitive and has managed to promote their access to a supposed exercise of citizenship in the capitalist system, which is characterized by the formal acquisition of rights, but not sufficient to promote emancipatory and liberating human development. In this sense, it is argued for a socio-educational perspective that is committed to the emancipation of subjects, based on the construction of a human, solidary and equitable pedagogical project, which constitutes a mediating element for the transformation of life projects and the subjects' social relationships established in their socio-historical reality, going beyond the formal conquest of rights, and materializing as a concrete exercise of the emancipation of subjects from an oppressive and unequal system. In summary, such a socio-educational perspective cannot be implemented in contexts of deprivation of liberty.
  • DANIEL DE OLIVEIRA SILVA
  • "Whatever I take I turn into art”: meanings of access to culture by impoverished youth.
  • Asesor : MARIA DE FATIMA PEREIRA ALBERTO
  • Fecha: 31-mar-2022
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • This dissertation has the general objective to analyze the meaning of access to the right to culture for impoverished youth. The specific objectives are: To map the public and private cultural organization that provide services to the population available in the cities of João Pessoa-PB and Juazeiro do Norte-CE; To analyze the young people's conception of culture; Identify young people who accessed the culture through public and private agencies; Characterize which were the means of access to culture that this youth had; To analyze the implications of access to culture for the development of young people. Therefore, we will start from Dialectical Materialism, from Vygotsky's Cultural-historical psychology and from Saviani's Historical-Critical Pedagogy. To carry out this investigation, the perspective of qualitative research was adopted in two moments. The first consisted of mapping public and private cultural bodies that provide services to the population in two cities: Juazeiro do Norte, in Ceará and João Pessoa, in Paraíba, which consisted of a documentary research carried out from a survey of these services through electronic resources, seeking to understand the quantity, the types of spaces and the areas of activity. For this first moment, there was a description of the identified aspects in the mapping, composing the locus of the method. In the second moment, open interviews were carried out, seeking to analyze the meanings of access to the right to culture by impoverished youth. They took place in the cities of Juazeiro do Norte-CE, at the Department of Culture, and João Pessoa-PB, in a Socio-Educational Internment Measure Unit. Participated in this investigation 8 young people deprived of their liberty and 4 young people who attend cultural spaces and services, public or private, but as a locus of the expression of citizenship. For data analysis, the Constant Comparison Method was used, with the help of MaxQDA software. The analysis made it possible to identify that young people's access to artistic expressions did not take place through public cultural policies, but through other ways, such as school and community. This participation took place through the elements arranged in these spaces, such as theater, literature, dramaturgy, writing, popular parties, capoeira, rap, skateboarding and graffiti, both elements of popular and erudite culture. The deprivation of liberty proved to be an impediment to the access and development of artistic activities by young people in compliance with a Socio-educational Measure, in which the State does not guarantee this right or does it in a fragile way, factors that prevent the omnilateral development of individuals. Young people signify this access both in a positive way, when they recognize the potential that these artistic elements have in their lives, presenting positive impacts and enabling development, and in a negative way, when this right is not guaranteed, generating anguish due to the absence of something that they deem important. In this way, it is concluded that it is the duty of the State to guarantee the right of access to culture by young people, since the contact with the erudite and popular expressions enable positive meanings, promoting new forms of psychic and social development.
  • LUDWIG FÉLIX MACHADO LEAL
  • MEDIA EXPOSURE AND PERSONALITY: LONG-TERM EFFECTS ON CYBERBULLYING
  • Fecha: 31-mar-2022
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • The general objective of this dissertation is to analyze the relationship between exposure to violent, prosocial media and personality with the cyberbullying through the General Model of Aggression - GAM. Four studies were planned, of which the first is a systematic review of the literature, the second and third consist of psychometric studies, which are, respectively, exploratory (N = 263; M age = 29.1) and confirmatory (N = 266; M age = 30.2) of the Extended version of the content-based media exposure scale (C-ME2). Finally, the last one has a correlational design (N = 265; M age = 27.2) considering the relationships between the variables already highlighted. Validation studies showed that the scale presented a satisfactory internal consistency index for both factors, estimating a factor model indicating structural adequacy of this construct for samples of Brazilian people. The results of the last study demonstrate that exposure to antisocial content on different media platforms is positively correlated with cyber aggression and cyber victimization, being a significant mediator of this relationship. In addition, a mediation model was tested indicating that emotional stability does not directly impact cyber victimization, it only happens when considering the scenario in which the individual is a cyber aggressor.
  • NATALIA LINS PEQUENO DE ASSIS
  • The contribution of empathy and justice to conflict resolution strategies in university villas
  • Fecha: 31-mar-2022
  • Hora: 10:00
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  • The purpose of this thesis was to verify whether the dimensions of empathy, combined with moral principles of justice, could explain the conflict resolution strategies that undergraduate students believed to adopt in situations of disagreements in the university housing where they lived. For the construction of this study, the thesis was structured in three empirical articles. The first article, of an exploratory nature, aimed to investigate to know the complaints on possible situations that trigger conflicts in university residents in a student housing, their perceptions about the habitation and if they resolve their conflicts. 60 residents were interviewed and it was found, through content analysis, the existence of 215 complaints, classified into three categories of conflicts: Transgression of the law, Institution and Residents themselves. It was also found that the coexistence problems were the main triggers of conflicts and that most conflicts were not resolved, leading to dissatisfaction with the social relations and loneliness of students in student housing. The second article is in the field of psychometry and aimed to elaborate a Student Housing Conflict Resolution Strategies scale (ERCME), gathering evidence of factorial validity and internal consistency, based on the exploratory study. Two studies were conducted with students residing in housings of public universities in Paraíba state. In Study 1, after the elaboration of the ERCME, the scale was applied in 200 residents (Mage=23 years; SD=4,20). The exploratory analysis revealed a three-factor structure: Aggressive Strategy, Assertive Strategy and Submissive Strategy, with an internal consistency indicator above recommended. Study 2 consisted of a new sample of 200 residents (Mage=23 years; SD=3,04). Through confirmatory factor analysis, it was observed that the three-factor structure represented the best alternative, observing meritorious adjustment indicators [χ² (101) = 176,860, p < 0,001, χ²/gl=1,751, CFI= 0,90, GFI = 0,90, TLI = 0,88 e RMSEA = 0,06 (IC90% = 0,04 – 0,07)]. It was concluded that the ERCME is a reliable and adequate instrument to assess the conflict resolution strategies of students who live in student housing, enabling its use in research on this topic. In order to understand the psychological processes involved in conflict resolution strategies in the context of student housing, the third article tested a theoretical model that explains the set of associations between sociomoral variables: empathy - empathic concern, personal distress, perspective taking, fantasy –, justice judgment and the three conflict resolution strategies – assertive, aggressive and submissive. A total of 394 college students living in student housing participated in this study (Mage=24.02, SD=3.43) and, through structural equation modeling, it was verified that different dimensions of empathy were responsible for differences in the way residents university students thought to resolve their conflicts in student housing. It was also identified that the higher the level of moral judgment of justice, the lower the chance of the individual to be submissive in conflicting situations. (χ²(12)=12.225; p=0.428; χ²/g.l= 1.019; GFI=0.991; AGFI=0.979; CFI=0.998; MSEA=0.07). Thus, this study showed the importance of using developmental psychological dimensions to understand the conflict resolution process and contributed to its expansion to broader social contexts. Furthermore, the results of this study may contribute to the elaboration of interventionist activities that promote more assertive and pro-social conflict resolution strategies in student housing.
  • MAYARA ELLEN MORAIS DE OLIVEIRA MENDES
  • "This Stuff Got Crazy" The Youth Re-existence in the Socio-Educational System
  • Asesor : MARIA DE FATIMA PEREIRA ALBERTO
  • Fecha: 30-mar-2022
  • Hora: 14:30
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  • The reality of adolescents and youngs deprived of their liberty in Brazilian juvenile detention centers is marked not only by the violation of rights in the present, but also by a history of various types of violence prior to detention. In this sense, rebellions are events that permeate the daily life of the units. The concept of resistance is used to analyze the rebellions as social movements of youth with whom the law comes into conflict, in a confrontation with the contradictions of capitalist society. It also talks about the juvenile experiences in the contexts of development from the perspective of Vygotsky's Cultural-Historical Psychology to understand how these forms of violence occur in social relations, being internalized and starting to guide the development. In light of this, the general objective of this research is to analyze the rebellions that take place in detention units for adolescents and young people who come into conflict with the law, under the assumption that they are forms of expressions and reactions to domination. To reach the objectives, a qualitative research was carried out, composed of a documental research and open interviews with social actors that are part of the Socioeducation Policy in Paraíba, Brazil. For analysis we proceeded with the Constant Comparative Analysis made with the support of the MaxQDA Software. The results inform that the rebellions occur in the form of a process and taking place in a context of daily and incessant violations, being motivated by various elements such as power relations, feelings of revolt against reality and the desire for freedom. They give rise to experiences determined by the domination of juvenile affections, that are considered inadequate. Thus, the analyses indicate that rebellions are movements of juvenile resistance against the experience of a context of violations of rights and domination of their affections, which, when reaching the limit of the unbearable, culminate in acts of revolt against oppressive structures.
  • JANDIRLLY JULIANNA DE SOUZA SOUTO
  • ASSESSMENT OF VISUAL PERCEPTION OF COLORS IN ADULTS AFFECTED BY COVID-19
  • Fecha: 30-mar-2022
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • From the world of climates, impact and pandemic. The disease-central nervous system of the SARS-Communication virus is considered neuroinvasive because the main nervous system (CNS) mainly causes cognitive and perceptual sequelae. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of COVID-19 on the CNS, using sensory measures sensitive to the visual perception of the nuclei as a parameter. Volunteers aged 27.5 ± 9.1 years participated in the study and possible differences were found between two groups: GRU COVID-19 (GC; n=13) and GROUP NON-COVID-19 (GNC; n=17). As a way of analyzing subgroups, the CG was subdivided into VACCINATED COVID-19 GROUP (GCV; n=5) / UNVACCINATED COVID-19 GROUP (GCNV; n=8) and GNC into VACCINATED NON-COVID-19 GROUP (GNCV; n ) =10) / NON-COVID-19 GROUP NOT VACCINATED (GNCNV; n=7). As a form of control and comparisons between groups, the following were used: Sociodemographic and clinical data questionnaire, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories (BAI and BDI II). Visual perception of nuclei was measured using the Lanthony Desaturated D-15 Test (D15d) for nuclei discrimination and the Cambridge Color Test (CCT) for chromatic sensitivity. Results are unimportant, between GC and GNC in any of the tests. Subgroup analysis had a significant difference in GNCNV when compared to GNCV for the Tritan difference axis (p=0.033). In the BDI, the symptoms of profundity also differ in the GCNV (p=0.045) when compared to the GCV (p=0.045) and in the GNCNV (p=0.019). This demonstrates that the effects of COVID-19 do not appear to directly alter the visual perception of nuclei. Data, the changes are preliminary and the pathophysiological mechanisms that explain the persistent changes by COVID-19 in the CNS are insufficient in the literature. It is expected to contribute to studies that can be implemented as more precise management alternatives, as predictors of experiments, as all management alternatives must be implemented.
  • FERNANDA MOREIRA LEITE
  • FULL-TIME SCHOOL AND CONFRONTING SOCIAL VULNERABILITY
  • Fecha: 28-mar-2022
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • This thesis aims to analyze the role of full-time schools in confronting social vulnerability. Its specific objectives are: analyze how the Integral Education Policy was constituted; identify how the full-time school is configured in the city of João Pessoa; characterize the operation of the full-time school in the city of João Pessoa; characterize the performance of such types of schools in the face of situations of social vulnerability; characterize the actions related to the teaching-learning process in full-time schools; analyze which actions of the full-time school enable the students to develop. The defended thesis herein is that full-time schools contribute to minimize situations of immediate social vulnerability, but they do not guarantee access to the diversity of systematized knowledge, which is promoter of development. Qualitative research was conducted in two stages: the first one was documental research on federal and municipal regulations about the constitution of the integral education policy and the configuration of the full-time school in João Pessoa; a descriptive analysis of the data was made following the temporal order of publication of the documents. As for the second stage, semi-structured online interviews were held with professionals working in municipal full-time schools; the data were submitted to thematic content analysis with systematization and coding of the data in the MAXQDA software. The results indicate that the integral education policy was constituted in Brazil in a procedural way, conditioned by each historical moment of the country. The full-time school is conceived by the legislation as a way to promote full-time education, providing more learning possibilities and minimizing social vulnerability through social protection actions. Thus, it is in this context that the full-time school in João Pessoa is constituted. The reports of the professionals reveal that the main form of confronting social vulnerability in full-time schools is the longer time spent in the school space, which protects from external vulnerability. Concurrently, the school provides institutional vulnerability by functioning without adequate conditions and without a consistent pedagogical proposal. The pedagogical aspect is situated in the confrontation of social vulnerability as it enables students to have adequate education for the labor market, as well as the discovery and development of skills in extracurricular activities. The confrontation of social vulnerability is considered to happen in a punctual and fragmented way, acting on the expressions of the social issue manifested at school, but without the possibility of overcoming social inequalities. Despite having the potential to provide access to the knowledge historically accumulated by mankind – which is fundamental to the process of human development and the overcoming of oppressive conditions –, under the current operating conditions, full-time schools do not guarantee this access and are not always promoters of development.
  • FRANCISCA ADILA DOS SANTOS
  • Discrimination against Blind People: The Role of Threat Perception and Prejudice
  • Fecha: 28-mar-2022
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • People with disabilities have carried negative stigma attached to them since the most primitive societies. However, with the advent of human rights and the anti-prejudice norm in democratic societies, discrimination has become more subtle. This occurs because people have begun to use justifications that disguise the prejudiced nature of their actions, such as the notion that the very existence of the target of those actions poses a social threat. We examined this phenomenon in a series of studies on the influence of intergroup threat on discrimination against visually impaired people and wondered whether prejudice against this group attenuates such influence. To this end, we conducted three experimental studies in which we manipulated intergroup threat (threat salience condition vs. non-salient threat) in a fictitious applicant selection situation (visually impaired vs. non-visually impaired) in a higher education context (Study 1) and the resources (favorable to visually impaired vs. non-visually impaired) to be used in education (Studies 2 and 3). In Study 1 (N = 182), we tested our hypotheses on a sample of students enrolled in Brazilian federal universities. In Study 2 (N = 121), we repeated the procedure with a sample of elementary school teachers. In Study 3 (N = 234), we extended the results found to a sample of students enrolled in different educational programs. The results obtained in the three studies showed that the threat of the mere presence of visually impaired people influences discriminatory behavior toward visually impaired students and, more importantly, that this effect occurs only among participants who have high levels of prejudice. For participants who expressed lower levels of prejudice, threat familiarity did not significantly affect discrimination. The effects of discrimination against visually impaired people are discussed, particularly in the educational context, as well as the importance of reducing prejudice to minimize discrimination in response to the threat.
  • LÍVIA LAENNY VIEIRA PEREIRA DE MEDEIROS
  • Sexual Violence Belief Scale Short Version: Evidence of Validity and Accuracy
  • Fecha: 28-mar-2022
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • The dissertation aimed to investigate the phenomenon of beliefs about sexual violence against women. Specifically, it seeks to present validity and reliability evidences of the Beliefs about Sexual Violence Scale (BSVS). Therefore, three studies were carried out. Study 1 (N = 231) aimed to carry out the exploratory factor analysis of the BSVS short version. Through principal axis factoring, an unifactorial organization was observed with the fifteen items (eigenvalue = 3.43; explained variance = 23%), which showed adequate reliability (α = 0.81). Study 2 (N = 231) sought to carry out the confirmatory factor analysis of the instrument. The model fit indices supported the validity of the 15-item version (χ2/df = 1.21; GFI = 0.91; CFI = 0.96; TLI = 0.96; RMSEA = 0.03 | 90% CI 0.01 — 0.05|). Finally, Study 3 (N = 240) analyzed the correlations between beliefs about sexual violence and other variables of interest. Positive relationships were observed with the four factors of the Acceptance of Rape Myths Scale (woman's accountability minimization of severity; female excuses and male instinct), demonstrating the convergent validity of the instrument. Furthermore, beliefs about sexual violence were positively correlated with physical aggression, anger and the conscientiousness personality trait and negatively with openness.
  • GABRIELLA MEDEIROS SILVA
  • EFFECTS OF COVID-19 ON VISUAL CONTRAST FUNCTION FOR SINE GRIDS IN ADULTS
  • Fecha: 25-mar-2022
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • There are many gaps as to the extent of damage caused by COVID-19. An example is the absence of publications relating it to the Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF). In this sense, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the CSF for low spatial frequencies; averages and highs in people with and without a history of COVID-19. Thirty volunteers, aged between 18 and 49 years, divided into two groups, based on the presence or absence of the diagnosis of COVID-19, participated: Study Group (GE; M= 28.00; SD= 8.92 years) and Control Group (CG; M= 26.27; SD= 4.89 years). The following instruments were used: Sociodemographic and clinical data questionnaire, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories (BAI and BDI II) and the COVID-19 Subjective Scale of Sensory and Perceptual Anomalies (SSSPA- COVID-19). CSF was measured using the Metropsis software (version 11), using vertical sinusoidal grids for spatial frequencies between 0.2 and 19.8 cycles per degree (cpd) as stimuli. The results indicated that there is an effect of COVID-19 for CSF on spatial frequencies 6.1 (U = 36,000; p = 0,003; r = - 0,55), 13.2 (U = 29,000; p = 0,001; r = - 0,61), 15.9 (U = 17,000; p = 0,001; r = - 0,70) e 19.8 cpd (U = 13,000; p = 0,001; r = - 0,73).]. This demonstrates a reduction in contrast sensitivity for high spatial frequencies, signaling that COVID-19 seems to affect mainly the left hemisphere, associated with analytical information processing and that it appears to be more specialized in processing high spatial frequencies. Thus, it is assumed that the disease can impair the processing of fine details, such as edges and corners at high contrast levels. However, the data are still preliminary and further studies are needed to better assess the effects of COVID-19 on visual functions.
  • MÍSIA CAROLYNE PEREIRA DE MORAIS
  • EFFECTS OF CYBER VICTIMIZATION ON MENTAL HEALTH: A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN NON-HETEROSEXUALS AND HETEROSEXUALS
  • Fecha: 25-mar-2022
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • Cyberbullying is the term that has been used to characterize intentional and harmful aggression that occurs through the exchange of electronic information. This type of violence is usually directed at people or groups that belong to some type of minority, and can cause damage to the victims' mental health. The present dissertation aimed, based on the Minority Stress Theory, to investigate possible relationships between cyber victimization, sexual minorities and mental health. A systematic review of the literature was carried out in the search for variables that could act within the relationship between these three constructs, as mediators or moderators. Based on the results of the review, hypotheses were created for two empirical studies. The first study was carried out with 256 participants, with a mean age of 25.92 years (SD = 5.19), and the second, with 254 participants with a mean age of 27.56 years (SD = 7.56). They excelled in understanding the relationship between cyber victimization and mental health, respectively: (1) the role of self-efficacy in physical activity and social support; and (2) smartphone addiction and frequency of substance use. In both, differences between heterosexuals and non-heterosexuals were analyzed. Moderation and mediation analyzes did not show significant results. On the other hand, in the first empirical study, a one-way ANOVA indicated higher rates of anxiety among those belonging to the LGBTQIAP+ group [F (1.254) = 7.08; p = 0.01; η2 = 0.03]. The second study draws attention to the fact that, in general, the LGBTQIAP+ group consumes, to a greater extent, both alcohol, tobacco and marijuana. Emphasis on tobacco [t (254) = 3.90; p = 0.00]. In view of its complexity and actuality, further studies on the subject are necessary.
  • LUIZA LINS ARAUJO COSTA
  • Does every woman in politics represent me? Normativity and ideology in supporting a candidate.
  • Fecha: 22-mar-2022
  • Hora: 10:00
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  • This thesis aimed to analyze the relationship between the social representation of women and support for a female candidacy, specifically considering the impact of normativity and ideology in supporting a woman in politics in Brazil and Spain. Considering these constructs, we present a work composed of three articles. The first one is a theoretical study (Article 1) wich consists of a systematic review of the scientific literature on women’s social representations. This review supported the construction of the experimental scenario of the empirical articles presented below. Their results indicated an ambivalent image of women based on normativity and indicated the central position that the maternity norm occupies in this analysis. In Article 2 (N = 370), through an experimental design, we investigated the impact of ideological positioning and normativity in supporting a female candidate, analyzing the moderating role of sexism in this relation. The results, in both countries, indicated that the positioning of the participants in the political spectrum, left-right wings, is the main determinant of support and in Brazil there was also an impact of normativity, when related to the participants’ideology. In Spain, in turn, the fact that women deviated from gender roles did not affect support for their candidacy. The results also indicated the moderating role of sexism in this relation, especially in Brazil, where 7 there was greater endorsement of sexist ideologies. In Article 3 (N = 370), starting from the same experimental manipulation, we investigated the moderating role of Political Values in the relation between normativity, ideology and support for a female candidate in Brazil and Spain. The results in Brazil indicated the moderation of values such as Law and Order and Traditional Morality in the relationship between normativity and support, which does not occur among the participants from Spain. On the other hand, political values such as Equality and Free Enterprise seem to refine the analysis of ideological aspects, explaining the direction and strength of the relation between ideology and support for the female candidate in both countries. In general, the results confirm the main hypothesis of this thesis that there is a relationship between the social representation of women and their presence in politics, with normativity and ideology acting in support of a female candidacy, varying their expression depending on the characteristics and peculiarities of the cultural context. The articles gathered aim to add elements to the understanding of support for female leadership, raising discussions about what (or who) a woman in politics represents.
  • LAWERTON BRAGA DA SILVA
  • Homosexualities and LGBT: their social representations in the academic and media environment
  • Fecha: 21-mar-2022
  • Hora: 10:00
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  • This thesis aims to analyze the social representations of Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals, Transvestites and Transgenders (LGBT) propagated and disseminated in the academic and media environment. In this sense, two studies were carried out. The first is a systematic review that aims to internationalize the knowledge produced on homosexualities and LGBT by the Brazilian social and human sciences, highlighting important sub-themes that deal with the experiences, prejudice and struggle for rights of this population, emphasizing the little attention to lesbians. and transvestites. The second analyzes articles from Veja magazine over a period of 50 years that talk about homosexuality and the LGBT population. The thesis shows that the knowledge and interests produced in these media are concomitant; silence specific groups and reverberate racism, whose intrinsic relationship with this population is evident in the fact that its greatest achievements, such as the criminalization of homophobia and LGBTphobia, are equated with crimes of racism.
  • ISABELLA LEANDRA SILVA SANTOS
  • Antisocial Online Behavior: A General Aggression Model approach
  • Fecha: 16-mar-2022
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • This research aimed to analyze antisocial online behavior through the General Aggression Model. The specific objectives were to investigate the impact of personality and exposure to antisocial online content and to observe the role of attitudes towards violence and positive and negative affects as possible mediators. To this end, four studies were conducted. Study 1 aimed to carry out a systematic literature review on the topic. Twenty-five studies comprised the analyzed sample, with four main categories of antisocial online behavior being observed: cyberbullying, cyberstalking, trolling and antisocial sexual behavior online. Study 2, subdivided into 2.1 (N = 215, 72.1% women, mean age = 26.58 years, SD = 7.84) and 2.2 (N = 214, 71.5% women, mean age = 23.57 years, SD = 7.04), sought to validate measures for the two subsequent behaviors. The Global Assessment of Internet Trolling (Eigenvalue of 2.28, explained variance of 28.55%, ω = 0.74 in study 2.1, GFI = 0.98, CFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.02 | 90% CI between 0.01 - 0.03 |, and SRMR = 0.04 in study 2.2) and the Antisocial Sexual Behavior Online Scale (Eigenvalue of 1.54, explained variance of 38.57%, ω = 0.71 in study 2.1. GFI = 0.97, CFI = 0.96, RMSEA = 0.05 | 90% CI between 0.01 - 0.15 |, and SRMR = 0.10 in study 2.2) demonstrated adequate validity and reliability indices. Study 3 (N = 397, 71% women, mean age = 29.3 years, SD = 8.54) aimed to observe the relationships between the four antisocial online behaviors, personality, exposure to antisocial online content, and attitudes towards violence. The personality traits agreeableness (cyberbullying: r = -0.21, p < 0.01, cyberstalking r = -0.10, p < 0.05, trolling: r = -0.27, p < 0.01, sexual behavior r = -0.11, p < 0.05) and emotional stability (cyberbullying: r = -0.13, p < 0.01, cyberstalking r = -0.17, p < 0.01, trolling: r = -0.12, p < 0.05, sexual behavior r = -0.14, p < 0.01) were negatively related to the four behaviors. Finally, study 4 experimentally analyzed the impact of antisocial online content on behavior of this nature, in addition to the role of personality and positive and negative affects in this model. 302 volunteers participated (73.2% women, mean age = 26.57 years, SD = 8.87), divided into two groups (antisocial stimulus and neutral stimulus). Multivariate effects of exposure on behavior, positive and negative affects were observed (Wilks Λ = 0.936; F[3, 298] = 6.812; p = 0.001; η2 = 0.064). Additionally, the explanatory model including exposure to antisocial content, personality, affects and behavior obtained significant indices of adequacy (GFI = 0.98, CFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.01 | 90% CI between 0.01 — 0.04|, SRMR = 0.05). It is possible to conclude that the aims were met, highlighting the role of content consumed on the internet in the development of antisocial behaviors.
  • TACIANA SILVA NEGREIROS
  • THE SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY OF MONGREL COMPLEX: CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATIONAL IDENTITY STUDY
  • Fecha: 03-mar-2022
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • The "mongrel complex" was described in 1958 by the writer and journalist Nelson Rodrigues as a national characteristic that manifests itself in the "inferiority to which Brazilians voluntarily place themselves in the face of the rest of the world.". Recent studies have shown that this is a selective phenomenon: white Brazilians favor Europeans over Brazilians (i.e., outgroup favoritism), but devalue Africans (i.e., ingroup favoritism). In the present study, we analyze the role of participants' skin color and identity factors and hypothesize that the behavior of white but not black Brazilians is influenced by a selective "mongrel complex" (SMC). We also examine the relationship between national identification and this phenomenon. In Study 1 (N = 410), we varied the skin color (White vs. Black) of a target of police violence and the cultural origin of that target (Europe vs. Brazil) and demonstrated that White participants' behavior was SMC while Black participants were ingroup favorites. Study 2 (N = 423) repeated this experimental paradigm and added a new cultural origin of the target (Latin America) to test SMC's selectivity toward a target of Latin American origin. Results showed differences in attribution of compensation to the victim of violence, with the target of European origin scoring higher than Brazilian and Latin American. Study 3 (N = 413) introduced a new paradigm to the study of SMC. The experimental situation concerned the hiring of an applicant, varying skin color (black vs. white) and cultural origin (Europe vs. Brazil vs. Latin America), in addition to analyzing the role of participants' national identity along with cultural origin. The results of this study showed the presence of a SMC in the behavior of Brazilians who valued Europeans over Brazilians; and Brazilians over Latin Americans. Contrary to what we expected, this pattern was present mainly among black participants. Discussion of these studies suggests that the SMC is consistent with the postulates of system justification theory. However, it is also possible that this is a national identity coping strategy used by Brazilians to distance themselves from their African and Native American origins.
  • TAMYRES TOMAZ PAIVA
  • The Legitimising Role of Justice Perceptions in the Relationship between Sexism and Violence Against Women
  • Fecha: 21-feb-2022
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • Violence against women is one of the most severe expressions of subjugation to which social minorities are subjected. In this work, we hypothesized that societal sexism influences the support for violence against women in marital relationships and that this influence is facilitated by a legitimation process that involves the perception of justice, particularly the limitation of the scope of justice and the belief in a just world. To this end, we developed a research program in which we conducted nine studies, which are summarized in three empirical articles. In the first article (N = 922), we conducted four studies in which we developed and validated the Acceptance of Violence Against Women Scale (AVAWS), which assesses the social acceptability of violence against women in domestic violence scenarios. The results showed that this scale has a bi-factor structure and proved suitable for evaluating people's support to five types of violence. In the second article (N = 314), we conducted a study to test the hypothesis that refusing to apply basic principles of justice to marital relationships (restricting the scope of justice) contributes to legitimizing support for violence against women. We also predict that this process occurs among university students who strongly believe that the world is a just place to live. Results showed that the relationship between sexism and narrowing the scope of justice was mediated among participants with high BJW. In the third article (N = 1,579), we conducted four experimental studies in which we demonstrated that societal sexism influences support for violence against women and that this influence is mediated by the restriction of the scope of justice, but this phenomenon only occurred in participants with a low general BJW, but not in those with personal BJW. However, when general BJW was experimentally manipulated, narrowing the scope of justice was positively related to the acceptance of violence. In summary, people who are in a sexist context and are confronted with the misfortune of domestic violence tend to endorse this violence because they easily restrict their justice scope, i.e., they follow the adage, "a quarrel between husband and wife is no one's business". We discussed these findings considering theories on the processes of legitimation of social inequalities, especially within the framework of the justified discrimination model and the just-world theory.
  • KALINE DA SILVA LIMA
  • Prejudice and Discrimination against Transgender People: The Role of Threats to Gender Distinctiveness
  • Fecha: 01-feb-2022
  • Hora: 11:00
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  • Negative attitudes and discrimination against transgender people are widespread in Brazil. However, little attention has been paid to the specificity of transphobic prejudice and the role of threats to gender distinctness in discriminatory attitudes towards these people. To address this question, we developed a research programme in which we conducted eight studies, which we present in three empirical articles. In the first article, we present four preliminary studies in which we describe the development and validation of a scale of prejudice against women (PTS -W) and transgender men (PTS -M). The results showed consistent empirical evidence for the construct validity and reliability of PTS -M and PTS -W. In the second article (N = 300), we conducted an experimental study examining the specificity of discrimination against transgender people expressed in the social value people attribute to transgender people who are victims of injustice. We manipulated the victim's sex reported at birth (male vs. female) and information about their categorical membership (heterosexual vs. homosexual vs. transgender). The results showed that a heterosexual victim was rated more highly than a transgender victim. Article 3 describes three experimental studies that test the hypothesis that discrimination against transgender people is stronger among men than women and that this difference is due to threats to gender distinctiveness and transphobic prejudice. In Study 1 (N = 162), we manipulated the victim's sex determined at birth (female vs. male) and gender identity (cisgender vs. transgender) and measured the social support the victim received. Male participants expressed less social support for the transgender victim, and this effect was mediated by transphobic prejudice. In Study 2 (N = 196), we manipulated threat to gender distinctiveness using a fictional news story that highlighted the similarity (i.e., a threat to distinctiveness) between cisgender and transgender people and a control condition (i.e., neutral news). Results indicated that perceptions of gender difference and prejudice against transgender people sequentially mediated the relationship between participants' gender and lower social support for the transgender victim, particularly in the gender difference threat condition. In Study 3 (N = 350), we manipulated gender distinctiveness threat through false feedback describing the similarity (i.e., distinctiveness threat) or difference (i.e., distinctiveness assertion) between cisgender participants' (vs. transgender) personalities. Cisgender men who perceived greater distinctiveness from transgender people expressed more prejudice and offered less social support to trans people than cisgender people, especially in the condition of affirming gender distinctiveness. Overall, the results are consistent with our hypotheses and the observed inconsistencies were discussed based on social identity theory, highlighting the role of threats to intergroup distinctiveness.
2021
Descripción
  • OLINDINA FERNANDES DA SILVA NETA
  • Flow in love relationships: measurement and intra-individual and psychosocial correlates
  • Fecha: 15-dic-2021
  • Hora: 14:30
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  • This thesis aims to verify the role of dark and virtuous personality traits, human values and love components on the flow experience in romantic relationships. Thus, the thesis was structured in three articles. Article 1, theoretical in nature, aims to present a brief background on the development of the Theory of Flow Experience proposed by Csikszentmihalyi (1997), its theoretical assumptions, measurement and correlates. In turn, Article 2 aimed to adapt to the Brazilian context a measure to measure flow in love relationships, the Flow State Scale (FSS). In Study 1, of an exploratory nature, 230 people participated (Mage = 30.27). Principal component analysis revealed a hexafactorial structure [focus (α = 0.83), perception of time (α = 0.77), loss of reflexive self-awareness (α = 0.76), fusion between action and consciousness (α = 0.57), autotelic experience (α = 0.76) and control of actions (α = 0.80)]. In study 2 (N = 249, Mage = 27.94) we sought to verify evidence of confirmatory factor validity, internal consistency and convergent validity. The results indicated that the hexafactorial model presented a significantly better fit when compared to the hierarchical and unifactorial models. The results of Cronbach's alpha, composite reliability and average variance extracted indicated that the components presented good levels of internal consistency, with the exception of the dimensions loss of reflexive self-awareness and fusion between action and awareness. Finally, it was found that the flow dimensions showed significant correlations with the well-being indicators. Article 3 aimed to understand the role of personality, human values and love components on flow in love relationships. Therefore, two studies were carried out. In Study 1, 249 people aged between 18 and 56 years participated, who answered the Flow Scale in Love Relationships, Dark Triad Dirty Dozen, Pro-Social Personality Inventory, Basic Values Questionnaire, in addition to sociodemographic questionnaires. The results indicated that narcissism was negatively correlated with loss of self-awareness. The virtuous personality traits correlated positively with the flow dimensions, especially the altruism and gratitude traits. Furthermore, the evaluative subfunctions were also positively correlated with the flow dimensions, especially interactive and experimentation. In Study 2, 201 people participated (M = 28.81, SD = 11.0). In addition to the Flow Scale in Love Relationships, participants responded to the Tetrangular Love Scale. In addition to the Flow Scale in Love Relationships, participants responded to the Tetrangular Love Scale. The results indicated a positive correlation between the components of love, within the scope of the Tetrangular Theory of Love, and the flow dimensions, highlighting the romantic passion component, which was an important predictor. Given the results, it is concluded that the Flow Scale in Love Relationships is psychometrically adequate and can be used to measure flow in love relationships in the Brazilian context. Furthermore, the role of intra-individual and psychosocial variables in the understanding of flow in romantic relationships was verified.
  • POLLYANA LUDMILLA BATISTA PIMENTEL
  • THE PSYCHOLOGY OF EMERGENCIES AND DISASTERS IN THE FACE OF POLIDEMIA OF COVID-19: DIALOGUES BETWEEN MENTAL HEALTH, VULNERABILITIES, AGING AND ONLINE SOCIABILITY
  • Fecha: 15-dic-2021
  • Hora: 08:00
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  • The Covid-19 pandemic has become the largest international public health emergency unprecedented in the modern world. In this sense, the general objective of this study was to carry out an analysis of mental health and the use of online social networks by people in maturity and old age, during the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic, as well as the self-perception of vulnerability in the face of the new coronavirus. Therefore, it starts from the thesis that users of online social networks have better mental health rates than non-users, since these networks work as a facilitator of social interaction, especially in view of the social isolation adopted as a measure to contain the virus . Furthermore, it is believed that people in maturity and old age have a high level of self-perception of vulnerability to the new coronavirus, given the great media impact on the lethality of the disease in this age group, one of the main risk groups. Structurally, this thesis was divided into four distinct studies. The first study was an integrative review of the national scientific literature of the last ten years (2009-2019), aiming to know the national literature on the use of online social networks by Brazilians aged 50 or over. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, two articles were selected. It was found that the scientific production related to the theme is very scarce. The results showed that the main networks used by the participants were: Whatsapp, Facebook, Messenger, Instagram, Snapchat and Linkedln. In addition, it was found that online social networks are an important tool in contributing to a healthy aging process, improving the quality of life of people in the aging process. The second study aimed to understand the social representations of people aged 50 or over about the internet and online social networks. The sample that makes up this study is independent from the sample that makes up study III and IV. 50 people participated, with an average age of 60 years, ranging between 50 and 82 years. Participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Free Word Association Technique (TALP), having as stimuli: “Internet” and “online social networks”. Using the Iramuteq software, multiple frequency analysis, similarity analysis, as well as prototypical analysis were performed. The results show that the participants' social representations about the internet refer to a means of communication, which helps in the search for information and in the provision of virtual social networks. On the stimulus online social networks, social representations were observed as a source of updating, in addition to being another means of communication. In general, the internet and online social networks are seen by participants as both good and bad simultaneously, demanding care from users. The third study presents an investigation and analysis of the prevalence of common mental disorders and symptoms of anxiety and depression in Brazilians, aged 50 or over, during the Covid-19 pandemic, as well as the self-perceived vulnerability of this population to the new coronavirus . A total of 571 people participated, aged between 50 and 88 years (M=58.83; SD=6.74), with 41.5% (N=237) elderly (over 60 years). The majority (78.5%) were female, with 93.3% claiming to be in quarantine (or social isolation?). As instruments, a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) and the Perception of Social Support Scale (EPSS) were used. All scores showed significant differences regarding the gender of the participants. Women had higher means for anxiety, depression, Common Mental Disorder, and distress. While men have a higher average than women in the Perception of Social Support. It was also observed that adults aged 50 to 59 years, with monthly income less than two minimum wages and those with a greater perception of vulnerability to Covid-19 had a higher prevalence of Common Mental Disorders, anxiety, depression and distress than the elderly. Mental health care is necessary, especially for women, for people with less access to income and for those who feel more vulnerable to the virus. Finally, the fourth study presents an analysis of the impact of the use and non-use of online social networks on the mental health of Brazilians aged 50 years and over during the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic in Brazil. A total of 571 people participated, aged between 50 and 88 years (M=58.83; SD=6.74), 78.5% of whom were female, with 93.3% claiming to be in quarantine. It is important to emphasize that of the total number of participants, 41.5% (N=237) were elderly (over 60 years old). Regarding the use of online social networks (RSO), 93% of the participants stated that they made use of these tools. Most have been using RSO for over 5 years and remain connected for more than 3 hours a day. The online social networks most used by participants are Whatsapp, Facebook and Instagram. As instruments, a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) and the Perception of Social Support Scale (EPSS) were used. Regarding the scores of anxiety, depression, CMD and Perception of Social Support, there were no differences between people who use OSR and those who do not use OSR. However, when the length of RSO use was moderated by sociodemographic variables, significant differences were found in relation to the participants' gender, age group, income and level of religiosity. Women had higher averages in relation to anxiety and depression, while men had higher averages than women in the Perception of Social Support. It was also observed that adults aged 50 to 59 years, with monthly income less than two minimum wages, had greater psychological damage when compared to the elderly. The importance of using online social networks during the Covid-19 pandemic period is perceived for all participants, especially for the elderly, as more benefits were found for them in terms of mental well-being. Therefore, it is expected that the results of this thesis help in planning psychosocial and health practices, as well as effective public policies for this population.
  • POLLYANA LUDMILLA BATISTA PIMENTEL
  • THE PSYCHOLOGY OF EMERGENCIES AND DISASTERS IN THE FACE OF POLIDEMIA OF COVID-19: DIALOGUES BETWEEN MENTAL HEALTH, VULNERABILITIES, AGING AND ONLINE SOCIABILITY
  • Fecha: 15-dic-2021
  • Hora: 08:00
  • Mostrar Resumen
  • The Covid-19 pandemic has become the largest international public health emergency unprecedented in the modern world. In this sense, the general objective of this study was to carry out an analysis of mental health and the use of online social networks by people in maturity and old age, during the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic, as well as the self-perception of vulnerability in the face of the new coronavirus. Therefore, it starts from the thesis that users of online social networks have better mental health rates than non-users, since these networks work as a facilitator of social interaction, especially in view of the social isolation adopted as a measure to contain the virus . Furthermore, it is believed that people in maturity and old age have a high level of self-perception of vulnerability to the new coronavirus, given the great media impact on the lethality of the disease in this age group, one of the main risk groups. Structurally, this thesis was divided into four distinct studies. The first study was an integrative review of the national scientific literature of the last ten years (2009-2019), aiming to know the national literature on the use of online social networks by Brazilians aged 50 or over. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, two articles were selected. It was found that the scientific production related to the theme is very scarce. The results showed that the main networks used by the participants were: Whatsapp, Facebook, Messenger, Instagram, Snapchat and Linkedln. In addition, it was found that online social networks are an important tool in contributing to a healthy aging process, improving the quality of life of people in the aging process. The second study aimed to understand the social representations of people aged 50 or over about the internet and online social networks. The sample that makes up this study is independent from the sample that makes up study III and IV. 50 people participated, with an average age of 60 years, ranging between 50 and 82 years. Participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Free Word Association Technique (TALP), having as stimuli: “Internet” and “online social networks”. Using the Iramuteq software, multiple frequency analysis, similarity analysis, as well as prototypical analysis were performed. The results show that the participants' social representations about the internet refer to a means of communication, which helps in the search for information and in the provision of virtual social networks. On the stimulus online social networks, social representations were observed as a source of updating, in addition to being another means of communication. In general, the internet and online social networks are seen by participants as both good and bad simultaneously, demanding care from users. The third study presents an investigation and analysis of the prevalence of common mental disorders and symptoms of anxiety and depression in Brazilians, aged 50 or over, during the Covid-19 pandemic, as well as the self-perceived vulnerability of this population to the new coronavirus . A total of 571 people participated, aged between 50 and 88 years (M=58.83; SD=6.74), with 41.5% (N=237) elderly (over 60 years). The majority (78.5%) were female, with 93.3% claiming to be in quarantine (or social isolation?). As instruments, a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) and the Perception of Social Support Scale (EPSS) were used. All scores showed significant differences regarding the gender of the participants. Women had higher means for anxiety, depression, Common Mental Disorder, and distress. While men have a higher average than women in the Perception of Social Support. It was also observed that adults aged 50 to 59 years, with monthly income less than two minimum wages and those with a greater perception of vulnerability to Covid-19 had a higher prevalence of Common Mental Disorders, anxiety, depression and distress than the elderly. Mental health care is necessary, especially for women, for people with less access to income and for those who feel more vulnerable to the virus. Finally, the fourth study presents an analysis of the impact of the use and non-use of online social networks on the mental health of Brazilians aged 50 years and over during the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic in Brazil. A total of 571 people participated, aged between 50 and 88 years (M=58.83; SD=6.74), 78.5% of whom were female, with 93.3% claiming to be in quarantine. It is important to emphasize that of the total number of participants, 41.5% (N=237) were elderly (over 60 years old). Regarding the use of online social networks (RSO), 93% of the participants stated that they made use of these tools. Most have been using RSO for over 5 years and remain connected for more than 3 hours a day. The online social networks most used by participants are Whatsapp, Facebook and Instagram. As instruments, a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) and the Perception of Social Support Scale (EPSS) were used. Regarding the scores of anxiety, depression, CMD and Perception of Social Support, there were no differences between people who use OSR and those who do not use OSR. However, when the length of RSO use was moderated by sociodemographic variables, significant differences were found in relation to the participants' gender, age group, income and level of religiosity. Women had higher averages in relation to anxiety and depression, while men had higher averages than women in the Perception of Social Support. It was also observed that adults aged 50 to 59 years, with monthly income less than two minimum wages, had greater psychological damage when compared to the elderly. The importance of using online social networks during the Covid-19 pandemic period is perceived for all participants, especially for the elderly, as more benefits were found for them in terms of mental well-being. Therefore, it is expected that the results of this thesis help in planning psychosocial and health practices, as well as effective public policies for this population.
  • THALITA LAYS FERNANDES DE ALENCAR
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  • Fecha: 12-nov-2021
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • MARIA GABRIELA COSTA RIBEIRO
  • HUMAN VALUES AND THE AFFECTIVE SOCIAL TOUCH: AN ANALYSIS FROM COGNITIVE-EMOTIONAL VARIABLES
  • Fecha: 29-oct-2021
  • Hora: 14:30
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  • The current thesis aimed to verify the extent to which the relationship between human values and the affective social touch may be predicted by cognitive-affective variables. In Article 1, a systematic review was performed taking into account studies of social touch in the context of psychology between 2000 and 2020. The results indicated that this topic has become increasingly investigated in the last five years, encompassing research lines in the field of love relationships, the experience of social touch, the location of social touch, the psychological domain, and the relationship with an unknown person. Overall, these results showed the behavioral facet of this construct and its relationships with psychological well-being outcomes. Article 2 sought to elaborate and investigate the psychometric properties of the following measures: Affective Social Touch Scale (Recipient version; ASTC-R) and Affective Social Touch Scale (Provider version; ASTC-P). Three studies were performed and the first focused on the construction of the items (i.e., based-content validity). Specifically, 24 items were elaborated for both measures, ASTC-R and ASTC-P, and were submitted to judge evaluations: the results showed an agreement index above 0.83. The second study verified the dimensionality of these scales. Participants were 204 individuals (Mage = 28.8 years old; SD = 9.47), and they answered the initial versions of the ASTC-R and ASTC-P. A Principal Axis Factoring (Promax rotation) was performed for both scales. A parallel analysis, to determine the number of factors to be extracted, indicated a two-factor solution for ASTC-R presenting satisfactory reliability for both dimensions: touch receiver - intimate partner (α = 0.92) and touch receiver - family, friends, and strangers (α = 0.93). For the ASTC-P, under same procedures, a two-factor solution was observed, presenting satisfactory reliability for both dimensions: touch provider - intimate partner (α = 0.93) and provider touch – family, friends, and strangers (α = 0.94). Finally, the third study, aimed to confirm the factorial structure of the mentioned scales. Participants were 200 individuals (Mage = 29.7 years old; SD = 9.19), and they answered the same measures of the second study, with 43 items. The unifactorial, bifactorial and correlated multifactorial models were tested for both scales. Specifically, a four-factor model evidenced the best model-data fit for ASTC-R and ASTC-P (e.g., CFI = 0.99; TLI = 0.99; RMSEA = 0.03), in line with the Social Touch Theory. In sum, the studies provide evidence for the adequate psychometric parameters of both scales. Finally, Article 3 investigated the extent to which perceived social support and subjective well-being may predict the relationship between human values and affective social touch. In study 1 (n = 242; Mage = 29.0; SD = 10.75), of an exploratory nature, tested the relationship between human values, social touch and subjective well-being. In addition, the mediating role of subjective well-being was tested on the link: interactive values and affective social touch (receiver and provider) and its dimensions. In study 2 (n = 404; Mage = 29.3; SD = 9.33), it was observed that the inclusion of perceived social support as mediator, in addition to subjective well-being, explain the relationship between interactive values and affective social touch. In conclusion, the current results demonstrated the behavioral facet of the affective social touch, as well as expand the evidence for the correlates of this construct in Brazil toward indicators of psychological well-being and classical variables in the field of social psychology.
  • JULLIANA DINIZ PEIXOTO
  • The use of the oneself to the extreme: a look at the suffering experiences of workers in work leave situation by RSI / WMSD
  • Fecha: 29-sep-2021
  • Hora: 14:30
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  • This dissertation aims to analyze the experiences of suffering of workers in work leave situation affected by some pathology related to RSI / WMSD. To achieve this goal, the study is organized first with the presentation of a theoretical chapter using the Psychodynamics of work as bases. Following is a first article that comprises a review of the bibliography on experiences of suffering and RSI / WMSD, in Scielo, Lilacs and Index Psi databases. From the analysis of the sample articles, it was possible to observe three dimensions with regard to musculoskeletal disorders: the physical dimension, the psychosocial dimension and the relationship between work organization and illness. The second study presents itself as a qualitative research carried out through telephone interviews, with five workers in a work leave situacion, affected by RSI / WMSD, and users of the Reference Center for Occupational Health of João Pessoa (CEREST-JP). From the reports, it was possible to observe that the worker in work leave situacion due to this syndrome faces, in addition to physical pain, feelings of guilt, worthlessness and uncertainties about the future. The subjective dimension is a key factor in illness and contributes to the experiences of both physical and psychological suffering of workers. RSI / WMSD are one of the biggest causes of workers' removal from their jobs. It is in this perspective that the importance of looking at the experiences of suffering of workers in work leave situation due to RSI / WMSD is understood.
  • ISABELLE TAVARES AMORIM
  • SOCIAL BELIEFS ABOUT GENDER VIOLENCE
  • Fecha: 27-sep-2021
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • Based on the thesis that sociodemographic and socioeconomic elements can reflect on the way the individual sees and evaluates the world, and the influences of such elements can also contribute to the process of construction, maintenance and sharing of beliefs about violence of gender, emerged as general objective analyzing societal beliefs about gender violence, two studies with independent samples were proposed. The first study addressed the elaboration and psychometric parameters of the Societal Beliefs Scale for The Legitimation of Gender Violence for the adult population. From the Free Words Association Technique applied to 201 high school students, 61 items were obtained, grouped into five subscales predetermined from the classification of the Maria da Penha Law, later applied to a sample of 220 adults. Factor analysis was used by the Main Components method and Cronbach's alpha to evaluate the internal consistency indexes. The analysis of variance and comparison of means (pair by pair) was made by one-way variance analysis (ANOVA), verifying the significance of the differences by the Tukey test. As a result, a unifactorial structure was obtained for all subscales: (1)Sexual Violence,13 items explaining 41.4% of variance and Cronbach's Alpha of 0.858; (2) Psychological Violence, 14 items explaining 39.3% of variance and Cronbach's Alpha of 0.871; (3) Physical Violence, 13 items explaining 40.8% of variance and Cronbach's Alpha of 0.849; (4) Property violence, 08 items explaining 46.3% of variance and Cronbach's Alpha of 0.820; and (5) Moral Violence , 12 items explaining 43.3% of variance and Cronbach's Alpha of 0.849. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey Test showed significance of the differences between the means of the items. It was concluded that, despite the need to collect more information that supports these psychometric properties, especially in increasing the variability of responses, the results indicate evidence of content and criterion validity, as well as internal consistency of the measurement. The second study aimed to identify the modal typology of societal beliefs about gender violence and the influence of associated socioeconomic and institutional variables. The sample consisted of 202 participants, via online platforms, being 59.9% female, with ages ranging from 19 to 59 years, 68% in the age group from 18 to 29 years, who answered the "Gender Violence Legitimizing Beliefs Scale for Adults" and a questionnaire including socioeconomic aspects, analyzed by descriptive statistics, association test (ANOVA and Test t), Pearson correlation and Multivariate Regression (Stepwise). The results showed a greater explanation of Physical Violence (R²=,844), presenting three predictor variables: age group (5% of variance); Religious Affiliation (5% explanation); Gender and Family Income (with 5% and 2% prediction, respectively). Mental Violence: Religiosity (6%); Sex (5%) and Marital Status (2%). Psychological Violence was predicted by sex (6%), religiosity (7%) and marital status (3%). Property violence with sex (5%), religious affiliation (7%), racial identity (2%), marital status (2%) and schooling (2%). Finally, Sexual Violence with Religious Affiliation (6%), Age Group (4%) and Sex (3%). Gender Violence should be understood as structural because it materializes in any aspect of life and is transmitted from the mechanisms of socialization. Finally, in the Final Chapter, general considerations are made at the intersection between the proposed theory and the results achieved.
  • JENNIFER OLIVEIRA AMARO DOS SANTOS
  • Subjective experience of professionals from a CEREST regarding Occupational Health Surveillance in bullying at work
  • Fecha: 20-sep-2021
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • The new transformations in the work context are increasingly recommending work spaces that promote high levels of performance and productivity, based on requirements that often exceed the physical and mental capacity to support them, which happens from increasingly sophisticated means of control and coercion mechanisms and, therefore, moral harassment is part of this gear. Moral harassment at work occurs through a process of silencing social work relations, which is emphasized in the logic of structural unemployment, so that silence becomes a resource of submission by the worker to keep working for fear of that your voice implies some retaliation or even unemployment. In this scenario, the importance of Occupational Health Surveillance (VISAT) is highlighted as a practice of strengthening workers in the fight for health and interventions of a transforming nature of intervention in work contexts. This thesis had as general objective: To analyze the subjective experience of professionals from a CEREST in Northeastern Brazil with regard to Occupational Health Surveillance in Moral Harassment at work. For specific objectives, we can mention: Understand the VISAT process from the experience of the interviewees; Understand what are the skills and strategies needed for VISAT; Analyze the relationship between the current scenario and VISAT; Check how the relationship between VISAT and bullying takes place. Regarding the methodology, the qualitative approach was privileged, making use of two instruments: a socio-demographic questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. Six workers of both sexes participated in this study. Data analysis was conducted through a hermeneutic approach based on the Psychodynamics of Work. It was found that, even in the face of the organization's attempts to distort its reality, the team demonstrates to be competent and acts collectively to understand the subjective elements that permeate the work context. It was also observed that even in clear conditions of suffering, professionals point to recognition as a way of fighting for health. It was obtained that cooperation in the team work as a primordial factor to keep fighting for their health.
  • ISAAC RODAS ARAÚJO
  • ENTERTAINMENT MEDIA PREFERENCES AND THE EFFECTS IN THE AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR AND SUICIDE
  • Fecha: 20-ago-2021
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • The use of entertainment media has become something very common in people's daily lives, based on this, several studies involving this theme were carried out with a proposal to understand the impact of these media on human behavior. One of the themes that has been most related to the use of media is aggression, especially with films, music and video games. Thus, this dissertation aimed to analyze the existing relationships between preferences for different types of entertainment media, aggression and suicidal behavior, in addition to taking personality factors into account. Therefore, it is assumed that people who have a preference for considerably violent media, will have higher scores in the presence of aggressive behavior, either against other people or against yourself. To reach these results, it was initially necessary to divide this dissertation into three studies, presented in chapter 2, namely: 1) a systematic review on the psychology of the media in Brazil in the last five years, understanding that this theme has been related with great frequency to media of journalistic format and had an increase of the studies in the last two years; 2) the validation of the Scale of Preferences by Entertainment Media (Rentfrow, et al., 2011) for the Brazilian context, considering the original five-factor model, proving itself favorable after the adaptations and analyzes; 3) conducting a study (in progress) to verify the existing relationships between preferences for entertainment media, aggression against oneself and others and with aspects of human personality. After completing this dissertation, it is expected to understand the impact of entertainment media on human behavior, confirming the theoretical hypotheses of the General Model of Aggression which states that the use of certain violent media can increase the frequency of aggressive behavior.
  • ADRIELE VIEIRA DE LIMA PINTO
  • MOTHERS DEPRIVED OF THEIR LIBERTY: A PSYCHOSOCIAL LOOK AT MOTHERHOOD
  • Fecha: 25-jun-2021
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • Motherhood in Brazilian prisons is marked by experiences of vulnerability and psychological suffering. These aspects are accentuated by the historical invisibility associated with female incarceration, which denies the specificities of women, including issues related to motherhood. In this context, we sought to study the theme through the Theory of Social Representations (TRS), which made it possible to access the network of senses and meanings shared by mothers in prison, building a practical and multifaceted knowledge about the theme. In this direction, the following thesis aimed at knowing the psychosocial aspects interrelated to maternity in the prison context. Structurally, it was divided into two parts, the first consisting of theoretical chapters and the second consisting of three studies. In the first study, a review of the national scientific production, published between 2009 and 2019, was carried out. Fifteen articles were selected, analyzed by Descending Hierarchical Classification (DHS) and Similarity Analysis, through Iramuteq. The results indicated the recent character of the productions about the theme, focusing mainly on health issues, guarantee/violation of rights, damage to the mother-child relationship, and issues related to prenatal care, pregnancy, and breastfeeding. The other two empirical studies were guided by the SRT. The first empirical study analyzed the Social Representations (SR) of mothers deprived of freedom, based on six evocative words (being a mother, maternity, paternity, family, prison, and myself). Participants were 52 mothers, aged 21 to 64 years (M=33.08; SD=8.71), from the Female Resocialization Center of João Pessoa, Paraíba. The participants answered the Sociodemographic Questionnaire and the Free Word Association Technique. The data were processed by SPSS (version 21) and Tri-Deux-Mots and interpreted by Correspondence Factor Analysis. It was observed that the prison context has implications in the production of senses and meanings attributed to different aspects of the lives of mothers in custody. The results indicated consensual representations between being a mother, maternity, paternity and family. Prison was associated with stigmatizing negative experiences and psychic suffering. The stimulus myself brought up ambiguous elements that manifested engagement and self-punishment. The second empirical study aimed to know the SR about maternity, elaborated by mothers deprived of freedom. Fifteen mothers, between 21 and 44 years old (M=30.47; SD=6.25), imprisoned in the same female re-socialization center as in the previous study, participated. They answered the sociodemographic questionnaire and the in-depth interview. The data were processed by SPSS (version 21) and Alceste software, and analyzed by CHD. Two main axes of meaning emerged: "Prison and its system of duties and rights" and "Vulnerabilities and the meaning of maternity". In these, motherhood was marked by the loss of psychosocial ties between mother-child. Being a mother was objectified as synonymous with suffering, uncertainty, and guilt due to the absence of maternal care and separation from children and family. It is noteworthy that the SR on maternity in prison acquired different facets that were sometimes close to and sometimes distant from the socially disseminated ideal of maternity. Thus, the maternal condition of mothers in prison leads to the recognition that the imprisonment of women cannot be considered in isolation, because there will be implications for their family and children and, broadly speaking, for society. Therefore, it is expected that the results of this thesis will help in the planning of effective social and health practices for this population and their dependents.
  • ALESSANDRO TEIXEIRA REZENDE
  • BELIEFS ABOUT THE HOMOSSEXUALITY CURE: AN EXPLANATION FROM SOCIOCULTURAL VARIABLES
  • Fecha: 18-jun-2021
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • BELIEFS ABOUT THE HOMOSSEXUALITY CURE: AN EXPLANATION FROM SOCIOCULTURAL VARIABLES
  • HEMERSON FILLIPY SILVA SALES
  • INVESTIGATION OF ATTENTIONAL BIAS IN ANXIETY THROUGH EXPRESSION EXHIBITION FACIAL: EYE TRACKING EVIDENCE
  • Fecha: 17-jun-2021
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • The present thesis sought to study the mechanisms involved in Attentional Anxiety Bias (VAA) in the face of the exposure of facial expressions through measurements of Eye Tracking (RO). Two articles were prepared for this. Article I aimed to analyze the use of ocular screening measures in the assessment of anxiety, through a review of the literature. For this, a comprehensive electronic search was carried out in the PsycINFO, PubMed and Web of Science in which 57 reports were identified. However, after the elimination of duplicates, the sorting of titles and summaries, and the evaluation of the eligibility, only eight studies remained. The results brought significant questions regarding the use of eye screening in the investigation of attentional bias in anxiety. This fact differs from most previous research, bringing important implications for the understanding of how anxious symptoms are maintained. Article II, on the other, aimed to investigate the VAA through the exposure of facial expressions with RO measurements. A convenience sample of 76 participants was used, divided into three groups, according to the STAI-T score: Low Trait Anxiety (BAT; n = 26), Moderate Trait Anxiety (MAT; n = 25), and High Trait Anxiety (AAT; n = 25). Through mixed ANOVAs, the results showed a bias of vigilance for expressions of disgust regardless of the level of anxiety; and a maintenance bias for expressions of joy of the BAT group compared to the AAT group, regardless of the time of presentation of the stimuli. Although the data partly agree with studies in the field, the hypotheses raised in this research were not corroborated. Unlike this, the results showed a differentiated adoret processing and evidenced fundamental issues related to the importance of positive stimuli in the treatment of anxiety and the specificities of the types, levels and characteristics of the stimuli used in Research. Thus, it is concluded that, in general, this thesis shows a somewhat different direction from what has been found in the literature and proposes a differentiated adidl processing pattern, which can be considered in future studies in VAA research.
  • HEMERSON FILLIPY SILVA SALES
  • INVESTIGATION OF ATTENTIONAL BIAS IN ANXIETY THROUGH EXPOSURE OF FACIAL EXPRESSIONS: EVIDENCE OF EYE TRACKING
  • Fecha: 17-jun-2021
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • This thesis aimed to study the mechanisms involved in Attentional Bias in Anxiety (VAA), face of the exposure of facial expressions with Eye Tracking (RO) measures. For this purpose, two articles were developed. The Article I aimed to analyze the use of eye tracking measures in the assessment of attentional bias in anxiety, through a literature review. For this, an electronic search was carried out in the PsycINFO, PubMed e Web of Science databases, in which 57 reports were identified. However, after the elimination of duplicates, the screening of titles and abstracts, and the assessment of eligibility criteria, only eight studies remained. The results raised relevant questions regarding the use of eye tracking in the investigation of attentional bias in anxiety. Some of them concern the need for improvements in the protocols, but the main issue concerns the observation of the maintenance mechanism as the main factor in the processing of attention in anxiety. This fact differs from most of the previous researches, bringing an important priority to the understanding of how anxiety symptoms are maintained. The Article II, on the other hand, aimed to investigate the VAA face of exposing facial expressions with OR measures. A convenience sample of 76 participants was used, divided into three groups, according to the score on the STAI-T: Low Trait Anxiety (BAT; n = 26), Moderate Trait Anxiety (MAT; n = 25), and High Trait Anxiety (AAT; n = 25). Through mixed ANOVAs the results showed a vigilance bias for expressions of disgust regardless of the level of anxiety; and a maintenance bias for expressions of joy in the BAT group compared to the AAT group, regardless of the time of presentation of the stimuli. Although the data agree in part with studies in the area, the hypotheses raised in this research have not been corroborated. Differently from that, the results showed a differentiated attentional processing and indicated fundamental questions related to the importance of positive stimuli in the treatment of anxiety and to the specificities of the types, levels and characteristics of the stimuli used in the research. It is concluded, therefore, that, in general, this thesis shows a direction slightly different from what has been found in the literature and proposed a differentiated attentional processing pattern, which can be considered in future studies in the investigation of AAV.
  • CIBELE SOARES DA SILVA COSTA
  • DEVELOPMENT CONTEXTS AND LIFE PROJECTS OF YOUNG PEOPLE IN FOLLOW-UP PROGRAMS FOR EGRESSES OF SOCIO-EDUCATIONAL MEASURES IN CLOSED REGIME
  • Fecha: 20-abr-2021
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • The main goal of the present thesis is to analyze the development contexts provided by follow-up programs for young egresses of socio-educational measures in a closed regime (SEMCL) for the development and implementation of life projects. The specific goals are: to identify the principles and guidelines that direct follow-up programs for young egresses of SEMCL; to identify the goals of counseling sessions offered in the follow-up programs for young egresses of SEMCL; to characterize the profile of young people that are monitored by these programs; to characterize the offered initiatives in these programs; to analyze the trajectory and permanence of young people in the programs; to analyze all activities offered and whether these allow for the development and implementation of life projects. We argue that the implementation of follow-up programs for young egresses of socio-educational measures is characterized as fragmented and compensatory actions in socio-educational policy that don't seek the omnilateral development of the young. But, by exerting a mediating function and articulation of social policies, the programs can guarantee social rights and provide activities for the implementation of life projects of the young. The theoretical references that led the analysis are the critical-dialectical perspective of Social Policies and Historical-Cultural psychology. The field research was carried out in programs from three Brazilian states - Bahia, Paraíba, and Rio Grande do Sul, conducting two empirical studies: Study I - characterization of the follow-up programs for young egresses of SEMCL, performed in two stages, namely: Stage I - documental analysis of the guidelines of the follow-up programs for SEMCL egresses and Stage II - the analysis of the follow-up programs in the egresses' perspective. In the first stage, documental research was carried out, analyzing laws, guidelines, booklets, and technical notes and in the second stage, semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 professionals from the technical reference teams and 4 members from coordination and management from the three programs. In Study II, individual, open interviews were performed with 9 egresses from SEMCL accompanied by the programs. The data from both studies were analyzed based on Thematic Content Analysis, and the MaxQDA software was used in documental research. The analysis made it possible to identify that the follow-up programs for SEMCL egresses require greater investments, which ensure a continuous offer of the service; that the actions carried out in the programs are guided and articulated with the pedagogical axes of socio-educational care; that the young people that are accompanied by these services need and recognize the intervention of the follow-up programs in helping the development and implementation of a life project; for the monitoring and construction of the life project to be effective, the programs need to offer conditions of access and permanence; the development and implementation of life projects of the young assisted by the programs occur to the extent that planning and distribution of main and co-determinant activities are carried out for the development of the young. Therefore, it is concluded that the follow-up programs to SEMCL egresses can work as guides for the development of the life projects of the young, to the extent that, when performing mediation with social policies, they provide the elements and activities fundamental to the creation of new interests, arranging new social situations of development.
  • VANESSA DA CRUZ ALEXANDRINO
  • Historical-cultural psychology art and human development: contributions to the practiceof children education professionals
  • Fecha: 08-abr-2021
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • Art is considered an intentional human action, which brings together elements of the cultural environment and influences the development of human psychological functions, like the imagination, enhanced by the diversity of experiences experienced by the subjects. Supported by arguments presented in research in the field of Early Childhood Education and in official documents that guide practices in this context, this Thesis defends that the child has the right to aesthetic experiences that enhance the global development of children. Therefore, the general objective of this study was to analyze the conceptions and performance of Early Childhood Education professionals about art and its configurations, in this context. Participated in this study, 14 education professionals who worked with Reference Centers in Early Childhood Education (CREI), in the city of João Pessoa-PB. To meet the objectives of this study, a survey of the literature was carried out in academic databases on this topic; the analysis of the sociodemographic profile of the professionals participating in the study; an analysis of official documents from Reference Centers in Early Childhood Education - CREIS; interviews with Early Childhood Education professionals; and observations in Early Childhood Education contexts, which included the mapping of spaces and photography of children's artistic productions. The results of this study were discussed based on the historical-cultural psychology of human development by Vigotski, including contemporary researchers from this theoretical perspective and from the field of Early Childhood Education. With regard to the survey of the literature, most studies related to the theme are focused on storytelling, although academic productions have not been found in which the school psychologist is the professional who uses artistic resources as a mediation tool in the institutions of Early Childhood Education. The analysis of the official documents of the researched Early Childhood Education institutions allowed us to identify that imagination and creation appear in these documents, but associated with the commemorative dates and culminations of the institutions' projects. The interviews made it possible to verify that art is understood by the professionals interviewed through the expressions of children's creative acts and the pedagogical activities carried out. This collection of information also allowed us to verify that the education professionals interviewed, attribute the ability to create to the “artistic gift” or even to the maturation of children to create. However, a group of psychologists mentioned the importance of continuing education so that Early Childhood Education professionals can internalize concepts about imagination and creation, and thus help the dialogues with other professionals in these contexts. The observations, described and analyzed, revealed that the activities developed with the children were performed by painting xerographed materials, reading books by the teacher, building a poster with the students, and drawings, all based on what was worked by the teachers. These observations led to the perception that Early Childhood Education teachers did not explore artistic resources, and when they explored some type of material, activities limited the imagination of children and their creations. It is defended the right of children in the early years of schooling to have diverse learning experiences, mediated by Early Childhood Education professionals, who use artistic resources as a pedagogical tool, since such resources enhance the development of higher psychological functions and collaborate with processes of learning in these contexts. In addition, human development mediated by art since childhood, is supported by official documents of Early Childhood Education, research in the field of historical-cultural Psychology and Early Childhood Education, which make them essential for Early Childhood Education professionals, in their practices with children.
  • JESSICA ANDRADE DE ALBUQUERQUE
  • Analysis of the ability of joint attention in educator-infant interactions: a study in the context of daycare centers
  • Fecha: 08-abr-2021
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • This thesis highlights the educator-infant interactions in the context of daycare centers and highlights the relevance of the socio-cognitive ability of joint care as an important element for the overall development of children, being organized in three studies that explore the theme. The first study consists of a systematic review of the repercussions of joint attention on children's social cognition in educator-infant interactions in daycare settings. The review followed the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyze (PRISMA) and the analysis of the selected studies revealed that infants engaged in episodes of joint attention with their educators showed the development of communication and oral language, started to be more interested in the partner's actions, to communicate their intentions more frequently and to actively direct attention to the object or activity of interest, which made it possible to affirm that the joint attention established between educator and infant, in daycare settings, reverberates in the infant's social cognition. The second study refers to research on the conceptions of early childhood educators about their work with infants, discussing their repercussions on the established interactions. The results of this study showed a dissonance between the verbalizations of kindergarten educators about the development of infants, their performance in daycare centers, and what theoreticians of developmental psychology of historical-cultural basis postulate and the official documents that guide Brazilian early childhood education on the subject. The impact of these conceptions for the established interactions and the relevance of continuing in-service training aimed at early childhood educators are discussed, to promote practices based on scientific theoretical-methodological assumptions that emphasize the early childhood education space as a promoter of learning and development. The third study addresses longitudinal research that investigated the configurations of joint attention in educator-infant interactions in daycare centers in three stages of development in a situation of free and structured play. The results of this study demonstrated different configurations of the skill of joint attention over the three periods of development observed and the emergence of other socio-communicative and linguistic skills that mobilize and redirect interactions with educators in each period. It is considered that the set of results extracted from the present thesis contributes to the discussion about the development processes of infants in daycare centers in the first year of life, for the planning of interventions in the scope of early childhood education, to promote actions that enhance development in daycare centers and in proposing future research in the area.
  • JÉSSYCA CRISTINA MOURA NUNES
  • VANDALISM IN SCHOOL: AN EXPLANATION BASED ON PERSONALITY, HUMAN VALUES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
  • Fecha: 31-mar-2021
  • Hora: 17:00
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  • This dissertation aimed to know to what extent personality traits, human values and academic performance explain vandalism at school. To this end, two articles were prepared and the third is under construction. In Article 1, of a theoretical nature, it was proposed to introduce the theme of vandalism in schools, characterized by the act of destroying or making school spaces and objects unfeasible, which may cause environmental and social damage. Article 2 dealt with the elaboration of the Vandal Behaviors in Schools Scale (VBSS), gathering evidence of its psychometric properties. To this end, two studies were carried out with samples of students from elementary school II. In Study 1 (N = 200; Age = 13.8; SD = 1.51, 54% male), students answered the Vandalism Conduct Scale at School and sociodemographic questions. An exploratory factor analysis indicated a two-factor structure, consisting of 24 items. In Study 2 (Age = 13.7; SD = 1.71; 51.5% male), participants responded to VBSS, now with 14 items. A confirmatory factor analysis corroborated the two-factor structure: Acts of destruction (α = 0.71) and Disfigurement acts (α = 0.75) [CFI = 0.89 and RMSEA = 0.07 (CI90% = 0.05 - 0.08)]. With evidence attesting to the adequacy of ECVE, we moved on to Article 3, which aimed to assess school vandalism, dark personality traits, human values and academic performance. Specifically, it was intended (1) to understand the relationship between school vandalism, personality traits and human values and (2) to understand the role of dark personality traits, human values and academic performance in explaining vandalism in the school. For this, 400 elementary school students participated II (Mity = 13.7; SD = 1.61; 52.8% male), these answered demographic questions and the following measures: Scale of Vandalism in School (VBSS), Dark Triad Dirty Dozen (DTDD), Questionnaire of Basic Values (QVB) and Self-Assessment Scale of Academic Performance (SSAP). The results indicated that school vandalism was correlated with dark personality and its dimensions; suprapersonal, normative and realization values; academic achievement. It was also found that the variables that best explained vandalism at school are the dark personality traits and academic performance. In view of the findings, it is believed that the central objective was achieved, with the construction of a measure with adequate psychometric evidence, in addition to contributing to the understanding of vandalism at school.
  • AMANDA NUNES DO NASCIMENTO
  • ONLINE SHOPPING ON SOCIAL NETWORKS: AN EXPLANATORY ANALYSIS BASED ON THE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR
  • Fecha: 31-mar-2021
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • This dissertation had as general objective to verify the role of internal and external factors of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TCP) in the intention of online purchase in social networks. For this purpose, four studies were carried out, in Study 1 a systematic review was carried out to integrate the main findings on the theme. From a total of 198 articles, 6 studies were selected, which demonstrated the scarcity of research on online purchasing from the TCP. In Study 2, a descriptive survey was carried out on the beliefs regarding online purchasing in social networks. Open questionnaires were applied with 30 people from the city of João Pessoa - PB, aged between 19 and 37 years (M = 25.1 years, PD = 6.27). The data were transcribed and analyzed at IRAMUTEQ, where a Descending Hierarchical Analysis was conducted. In general lines, it was possible to evidence that beliefs are related to positive and negative aspects (affordable prices, delay in delivery) and were significantly affected by social influences (family, friends) and perceived conditions (ease, fear). In Study 3, the objective was to elaborate, test the factorial structure and verify the internal consistency of the online shopping scale in social networks. 250 people participated in this study, mostly female (70.4%), aged between 18 and 61 years (M = 28.0 years (SD = 8.65). Through confirmatory analysis, the tetra-dimensional model presented the best adjustment rates. Thus, the factorial validity of the scale was corroborated with the TCP assumptions, and the final measurement consisted of 19 items. In addition, the internal consistency of the measurement can be verified, where alpha and omega of 0.93 were obtained. Finally, in Study 4, two explanatory models based on the PCT were tested. A total of 250 people participated in this study, most of them female (67.2%) and aged between 18 and 71 years (M= 25.76; SD= 7.63), who answered the scale of the previous study, as well as other scales (big five, advertising and sociodemographic questionnaire). Through path analysis the models were tested and it was found that the original TCP model had better fit rates than the extended model. The effects of the constructs on the intention to purchase online on social networks were also analyzed, where it was possible to observe that attitude and subjective norm were significant antecedents of the intention to purchase online on social networks and the perceived control was shown as an activator element of the norm in the intention. These results provide important subsidies about online buying behavior in social networks from a theoretical perspective consolidated in social psychology. Finally, it is hoped that the results presented and discussed in this dissertation can contribute to the academic community, specifically within the scope of social psychology and consumer behavior.
  • RAYSSA SOARES PEREIRA
  • THE ORIENTATION FOR SOCIAL COMPARISON AS A MEDIATOR OF PERSONALITY AND NEGATIVE AFFECTIVITY
  • Fecha: 31-mar-2021
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • This dissertation aimed to explain the mediating role of orientation for social comparison in the relationship between personality and negative affectivity. To achieve this goal, this dissertation consists of three articles. Article 1 it is a theoretical review about the personality contributions, orientation for social comparison in the negative affectivity explanation. Evidence suggests that addressed constructs are significant variables to analyze how, together, personality and orientation to social comparison can contribute to the emergence of negative affectivity. Article 2 aimed to adapt the Social Comparison Scale (INCOM) to the Brazilian context. Two studies were carried out: the first exploratory, with 356 participants (Mage = 35,42; SDage = 8,29), 73% women. Which suggested a bifactorial structure (Aptitude and Opinion) and presented an adequate reliability index. The second, with 300 participants (Mage = 21,77; SDage = 2,51), 74.8% women. Confirmatory analysis (AFCs) indicates satisfactory indicators in the bifactorial model: (CFI = 0,85, TLI = 0,88, RMSEA = 0,13) and unifactorial model: (CFI = 0,70, TLI = 0,76, RMSEA = 0, 18) however, the bifactorial model was statistically superior. Subsequently, AFCs were performed for the reduced version of the measurement for the bifactorial models: (CFI = 0,99, TLI = 0,98, RMSEA = 0,06) and unifactorial (CFI = 0,63, TLI = 0,80, RMSEA = 0,26), the bifactorial model was statistically superior. In addition, evidence of convergent validity was gathered, considering the two versions of INCOM (full and short) and Self-esteem (EAR). Pearson correlations showed negative and statistically significant relationship (p <0.000) between self-esteem and the factors of orientation for social comparison. In the full version, it was found: Aptitude (r = - 0,46) and Opinion (r = - 0,20). In the short version: Aptitude (r = - 0,43) and Opinion (r = - 0,22). These results indicate that people with high orientation for social comparison, possibly tend to have low self-esteem. In summary, empirical studies have demonstrated satisfactory evidence of factorial validity and internal consistency, making it possible to verify their suitability for the context considered. Finally, Article 3 proposed to verify the mediating role of the orientation for social comparison in the relationship between personality and negative affectivity. 416 people participated (Mage = 29,33, SD age = 11,60), 66,8% women, who responded to the Big Five Inventory, Scale for Social Comparison Orientation, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale and demographic issues. The results showed that the negative affectivity was explained by the personality trait neuroticism and orientation for social comparison. Consequently, the effects of the personality were tested in negative affectivity, mediated by orientation for social comparison. There were significant indirect effects of orientation for social comparison on the relationship between neuroticism and depression, anxiety and stress. Therefore, it is concluded that neuroticism can induce a greater tendency for social comparison and, together, these factors interfere in the emergence and maintenance of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. The result of this study provides scientific resources that can assist in understanding the social relationships and the development of new research and effective interventions for mental health.
  • MAIANNA COSTA FERNANDES
  • From Social Comparison to Suicidal Ideation: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem and Depressive Symptoms
  • Fecha: 30-mar-2021
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • Suicide is considered a serious public health issue across the world and there have been several studies devoted to identifying the factors contributing to its etiology. In the present study, we propose social comparison (i.e. the tendency people have to evaluate themselves in relation to others) as a factor associated with suicidal ideation, with this association being sequentially mediated by self-esteem and depression. In Study 1 (N = 120), a mediation analysis was carried out for testing whether the association between social comparison and suicidal ideation was mediated sequentially by self-esteem and depression. The results showed that social comparison had a negative impact on self-esteem, with subsequent higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. In Study 2 (N = 270), we manipulated a social comparison setting favorable to participants to investigate its effect on self-esteem and sequentially on depression and suicidal ideation. The results showed a positive effect on self-esteem, subsequently resulting in lower levels of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. In sum, our results showed that social comparison level was associated with higher levels of suicidal ideation, but this phenomenon may be inhibited by an intervention aimed at promoting favorable social comparisons, so to preclude negative comparisons and their impacts on self-esteem that lead to depressive symptomatology. Thus, it is necessary to implement programs aimed at promoting self-esteem as an intervention for suicidal ideation.
  • FERNANDA DA SILVA MIRANDA
  • Interaction of mother and twin children with autistic spectrum disorder :Analysis of communicativev behaviors
  • Asesor : NADIA MARIA RIBEIRO SALOMAO
  • Fecha: 30-mar-2021
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • The present study aimed to analyze mother and twin children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD)interactions in a free play situation. The communicative styles used by the mother when addressing the children were specifically verified, as well as their participation and responses to the maternal statements, in this interactive context. The study included a mother and her 4-year-old twin sons, diagnosed with ASD, both with severe impairment, according to the CARS scale (Childhood Autism Rating Scale) applied to the mother. A semi-structured interview was also carried out, with the purpose of collecting sociodemographic data about the mother and twin children, as well as the TEA diagnostic process, the children's routines / activities and the maternal conceptions about their development and observations were made in family residence, in situations of free play, recorded through filming using a digital video camera. The children were observed with the mother separately, for 20 minutes. Data analysis occurred from the transcription of the maternal interview and the transcription of the observations following the standards of the computer program CHILDES (Child Language Data Exchange System). The results indicated that the verbal maternal communicative styles most presented to the twins in the free play sessions were the directives, followed by the requests. The analyzes concerning the types of directives that predominated in maternal speech revealed that, with both twins, the instructional directives and the attention directives were the most used, indicating that in order to interact with the children, the mother sought to engage them in activities and games, most of the time, through commands and requests to participate in the proposed activities. Regarding the child's communicative behaviors, both twins showed a higher proportion of non-verbal response inadequate to maternal statements, which occurred at times when they showed refusal and disinterest in the proposed, presented or requested activities, as well as distractions in other activities. However, these results were problematic considering that children are within the autistic spectrum. It should also be noted that the fact that the present study was carried out with two twin children with ASD interacting separately with their mother allowed a better assessment of the maternal communicative styles directed to them and how these styles are influenced not only by the context of play in which they are inserted, but also due to the characteristics of each child. Furthermore, it is expected that this study will contribute to a better understanding of maternal communicative styles directed to children with ASD in the contexts of interaction, as well as the participation of children in this interactive process, considering that they have impairments in the communicative and social interaction dimension. Therefore, from the understanding of the peculiar ways in which these children establish their relationships and communicate, it will contribute so that, within the interactive context, mothers can answer them according to their particularities, favoring their development.
  • WILZA KARLA DOS SANTOS LEITE
  • Job rotation based on physical and psychological workloads: a proposal for the footwear industry
  • Fecha: 30-mar-2021
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • This thesis aims to propose a model of job rotation in footwear assembly cells in order to minimize the risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) integrating physical and psychological workloads. To do so, it was developed in five articles. The first article aimed to analyze the factors related to health complaints and the severity of recurrence in footwear industry workers over two years. 9016 cases of complaints from workers from various sectors of the footwear industry were investigated from 2018 to 2019. Physical loads were assessed using Occupational Repetitive Actions and psychological loads, using the summarized version adapted to the Portuguese version of the Job Stress Scale. To analyze factors associated with complaints, a binary logistic regression model was used and for recurrence, a Poisson model. It was found that: (1) most activities are at risk for musculoskeletal disorders and workers, low decision latitude; (2) health complaints covered different physiological and psychological bodily functions; (3) women, production sector and production support and second shift have a higher recurrence estimate; (4) complaints related to the neuromusculoskeletal system and the prescription of muscle relaxants are among the most recurrent; and, (5) a seasonal pattern of illness seems to occur in the last quarter of the year and increase with time and production demands. It was concluded that the complaints may be related to movements performed above the recommended amplitudes, short activity cycles, repetitiveness greater than or equal to 51% of the total journey time and little autonomy. The second article aimed to analyze the main factors related to sickness absence and the indicators of illness in terms of recurrence and work days lost among workers at a footwear company. A total of 9072 cases of absence from work were investigated in shoe production units from 2014 to 2017. A binary logistic regression model was used to estimate the risk of the affected body functions associated with gender, production unit and work sector. A Poisson model was also applied to analyze the time and recurrence of sick leave according to gender, affected body function, production unit and work sector. It was found that (1) most production units and work sectors were related to one or more affected bodily functions; (2) neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related functions and the work sectors of prefabrication; cutting, assembly and finishing; and quality inspection of the final product required a longer recovery time before return to work and had a greater recurrence of leave; and (3) women seemed to be more affected than men in terms of the reappearance of symptoms. It is concluded that musculoskeletal injuries and biomechanical, organizational and psychosocial risks seem to influence the severity of the illness indicators. The third article aimed to investigate the influence of biomechanical, psychosocial, environmental and individual factors on local and multisite work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) symptoms among workers at a footwear manufacturing company. The sample comprised 267 workers. The results showed that: (a) age, sedentary lifestyle, inappropriate posture and perceived effort were associated with symptoms in the shoulders, and the combination of these factors increased the odds four-fold; (b) inappropriate posture, perceived effort and bullying were related to symptoms in the wrists, and the combination of these factors increased the odds seven-fold; (c) inappropriate posture, perceived effort, length of work at the company and low social support were associated with multisite symptoms, and their combination increased the odds up to 30-fold. Therefore, mainly biomechanical and psychosocial factors were associated with WMSD symptoms, and their combinations increased the odds of occurrence. The fourth article aimed to propose a model of job rotation in shoe production cells in order to reduce exposure to risk for WMSD considering physical and psychological workloads. The physical workload was evaluated by the Occupational Repetitive Actions method and the psychological one, by the summarized version adapted to the Portuguese version of the Job Stress Scale. Five rotation solutions were found for the sandal production cells (SPC) and twelve for the tennis production cells (TPC). There was a reduction in the variation of physical and psychological workloads in all solutions of both cells when compared to the condition without rotation. However, for the SPC the reduction in the variation between the physical workloads of the conditions without and with rotations was not significant due to the similarity of the exposure indexes. Finally, the fifth article aimed to adapt the New Job Stress Scale (NJSS), which measures a set of stressors related to work development, to the Portuguese language. A translated and adapted Portuguese version of the NJSS and the summarized and adapted Portuguese version of the JSS were applied, and 674 workers from (industrial and services sector) of five Brazilian cities participated. Considering the adjustment indicators, a model with 20 items proved to be more adequate than the original (χ²/gl = 2.22; CFI = .95; GFI = .96; TLI = .94; ECVI = 1.96; and, RMSEA = .08). It was concluded that the NJSS has a reliable factorial structure to measure occupational stress in Brazil.
  • SAULO BAGATINI SILVA
  • IDEOLOGIA, INSERÇÕES SOCIAIS E PERCEPÇÕES SOBRE A CRISE DURANTE AS ELEIÇÕES DE 2018
  • Asesor : LEONCIO FRANCISCO CAMINO RODRIGUEZ LARRAIN
  • Fecha: 29-mar-2021
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • A presente dissertação foi concebida na segunda metade de 2018, quando o Brasil vivenciava um período de acentuada turbulência social e política, em meio a um cenário amplamente noticiado de crise econômica e política e polarização ideológica. Nesse sentido, este trabalho teve o objetivo de investigar como os conflitos ideológicos estruturais se manifestavam nas visões da população, a partir de variáveis como a tendência política, a visão da estrutura sóciopolítica e as percepções a respeito do contexto da época. Objetivou-se também investigar o papel das inserções sociais dos indivíduos sobre essas percepções e posicionamentos. Foram realizados dois estudos empíricos, que resultaram na elaboração de três artigos. O primeiro artigo propôs-se a realizar uma espécie de mapeamento da forma como os diversos posicionamentos no espaço político e percepções sobre o cenário de crise se apresentavam no momento histórico concreto da realização da pesquisa. Participaram deste estudo 159 estudantes universitários, com média de idade de 21.5 anos (DP = 5.6), distribuídos de forma balanceada quanto ao sexo, que responderam a um questionário com questões fechadas e abertas. Foi realizada uma Classificação Hierárquica Descendente a respeito da natureza da crise, que obteve cinco classes: Estrutural; Valores; Polarização; Representatividade e Administrativa. Foram encontradas três visões sobre a estrutura sócio-política, que relacionaram-se com a tendência política. Foi observada a existência de percepções e sentimentos polarizados acerca do cenário político, que também relacionaram-se com a tendência política. O segundo artigo, realizado com a mesma amostra, objetivou investigar o papel das inserções sociais sobre os posicionamentos político-ideológicos e a crença no mundo justo. As inserções sociais Sexo, Curso, Renda Familiar e Religião relacionaram-se de maneira significativa com a Tendência Política. As inserções Sexo, Curso e Religião relacionaram-se com a confiança nas instituição. As variáveis Curso e Religião associaram-se com a Crença no Mundo Justo. O terceiro artigo teve o objetivo de aprofundar-se sobre quais eram as diferentes percepções existentes acerca de temas e figuras que vinham obtendo destaque midiático no cenário de crise e como as mesmas relacionavam-se com a tendência política. Participaram da pesquisa 51 jovens abordados em shoppings, com idade média de 20 anos (DP = 3.5), sendo 55.1% do sexo feminino e 44.9% do sexo masculino. Os participantes foram abordados individualmente pelos aplicadores nas áreas comuns do shopping, e responderam a uma entrevista estruturada composta por questões abertas e fechadas. Foi realizada a Técnica de Associação Livre de Palavras (TALP) para evocar respostas sobre fotos de Dilma, Lula e Bolsonaro. Os resultados indicaram a existência de representações opostas, que pareciam organizar-se a partir da Tendência Política. A Tendência Política mostrou-se ainda relacionada com a Confiança Institucional, com a preferência por páginas de Facebook de conteúdo político e com o posicionamento frente ao Lulismo e Antilulismo. De uma forma geral, os resultados dos estudos mostram a existência de percepções distintas e polarizadas da realidade brasileira, que organizam-se a partir de variáveis como a tendência política, a confianças nas instituições e as inserções sociais.
  • SAULO BAGATINI SILVA
  • Political and ideological positioning as well as perceptions about the crisis during 2018 elections: a psicosociological study
  • Asesor : LEONCIO FRANCISCO CAMINO RODRIGUEZ LARRAIN
  • Fecha: 29-mar-2021
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • This dissertation was conceived in the second half of 2018, when Brazil was experiencing a period of marked social and political turbulence, amid a widely reported scenario of economic and political crisis and ideological polarization. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate how the structural ideological conflicts were manifested in the views of the population, based on variables such as political positioning, the view of the socio-political structure, confidence in social institutions and perceptions about the context of the time. Two empirical studies were carried out, which resulted in the elaboration of three articles. The first article proposed to outline a mapping of how the different positions in the political space and the perceptions about the crisis scenario were presented in the concrete historical moment of the research. The study included 159 college students, with a mean age of 21.5 years, distributed in a balanced way according to gender, who answered a questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions. We observed the existence of polarized perceptions and feelings about the political scenario, which were related to the political positioning of the respondents. The Left and Right students were found to have radically different views of the social structure. The second article, which used the same sample, aimed to investigate the role of institutional trust and gender on political positioning. It also intended to verify how the trust in institutions was related to group belongings and university insertions. The data showed that the variables Course, Family Income and Religion had different patterns of relationships with the political positioning of the two genders. The political positioning was also associated with the trust in Social Control institutions and Popular Organizations. The results demonstrate that the social group membership and social insertions are related to the political positioning and that these relations vary according to the gender. The third article aimed to delve deeper into what were the different existing perceptions about themes and figures that had been gaining media attention in the crisis scenario and how they were related to the political positioning. The sample was composed of 51 young people who were approached on two malls of João Pessoa city, who had an average age of 20 years. They answered a structured interview with open and closed-ended questions. It was also conducted a free word association test with pictures of Dilma, Lula and Bolsonaro. The results indicated the existence of opposing representations, which seemed to be organized based on the political positioning. Political positioning was also associated with Institutional Trust and the preference for Facebook pages with political content. Overall, the results of the studies show the existence of distinct and polarized perceptions of the Brazilian reality, which are organized based on the political position, and that this position is related to the trust placed in social institutions and the group belongings of individuals.
  • NATÁLIA LEANDRO DE ALMEIDA
  • COLOR VISION IN INSONE PARTICIPANTS
  • Fecha: 29-mar-2021
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • Insomnia is a sleep disorder characterized by difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep, accompanied by a constant feeling of insufficient and little restorative sleep, which can compromise overall health and quality of life, in addition to psychosocial and neurobiological processes. The objective of this study was to investigate the visual processing of color discrimination of insomniac subjects. 31 volunteers participated in this study: 16 in the Control Group (CG; 25.38 ± 4.1 years old) and 15 in the Study Group (EG; 27.6 ± 4.9 years old). Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Athens Insomnia Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Beck's depression and anxiety inventories (BAI and BDI) and the Maturity and Evening Questionnaire were used as instruments. (MEQ). To assess visual function, Rasquin Optotypes “E” were used to verify normal or corrected acuity (20/20), the Ishihara Pseudoisochromatic Plates test and the Lanthony Desaturated Test D-15 hue order test. The study was carried out in two stages, in the first stage a screening of signs for insomnia disorder was carried out by means of an online questionnaire and soon afterwards, subjective behavioral measures of sleep and visual processing of color discrimination were evaluated. For data analysis, statistical software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, v. 25.0) was used. The results showed no significant difference between the age (p = 0.211) and the educational level (p = 0.265) of the groups. The non-parametric data analysis for independent Mann-Whitney groups also did not show significant differences for the Color Confusion Index (CCI) [U = 74.00, p = 0.069, r = 0.32] and S-Index [U = 110.5, p = 0.707, r = 0.067]. This study did not point out significant differences between insomnia and the color discrimination test. However, more research is suggested that use the ordering of hues by means of behavioral and electrophysiological tests in insomniac patients and other sleep disorders.
  • ALEFF SILVA ALEIXO
  • BRAZILIAN DRUG POLICIES AND THEIR ASSISTENTIAL DIMENSION FROM A CRITICAL-DIALETIC VIEW: FROM THE OLD REPUBLIC TO THE PSYCHIATRIC REFORM (1889-2001)
  • Fecha: 29-mar-2021
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • Since 2016, Brazilian drug policies passed through deep changes that can be condensed to the subsumption of their dimension of care to assistance regimes based on abstinence, prohibition and asylum, which goes against the principles contained in the Unified Health System (SUS), the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform (RPb) and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. These changes come in the wake of a neoliberal counter-reformist restructuring of the entire Brazilian state, as well as its economic base. Thus, the present research had as main objective understand how a paradigm of assistance to people with problems resulting from the use of drugs worldwide recognized and supported could be replaced by a dated, proven harmful and ineffective assistance regime that very much resembles the past of our country. For that, we made use of a historical examination, in the light of the historical-dialectical materialism, of the Brazilian laws on drugs from the proclamation of the republic until the year 2001 (the "before" of what we lived before), paying attention to the form how the assistance dimension appears in these devices. Thus, associating such policies with the structural movements of the Brazilian social formation, which is colonial/dependent, and with capitalism as a social totality, we were able to point out that the repression of people who habitually use drugs, especially their poor and black fractions, fulfills a central role to the maintenance of the Brazilian class structure since its dawn, configuring itself, therefore, as an opportune resource for the updating and widening of the social abyss that marks our sociability. With regard to drug policies, especially in their assistance, the relative progress experienced between 2001 and 2016, when put into perspective, is, in fact, an exception that, up to the present moment, confirms the Brazilian rule.
  • LAYS BRUNNYELI SANTOS DE OLIVEIRA
  • Human values ​​and posttraumatic growth: Mediating role of family resilience in people with chronic kidney disease.
  • Fecha: 29-mar-2021
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • This work aimed to test the mediating role of family resilience on the relationship between human values and posttraumatic growth in people with chronic kidney disease. Thus, it was decided to perform four studies articles format. Article 1 is a theoretical review and aimed to perform a theoretical review of the contributions of human values, family resilience and posttraumatic growth in facing with adverse situations. The review indicated that the constructs presented are important variables to analyze how people with chronic kidney disease deal with adversity and provide explanations for better understanding of family relationships that take place in the context of mental health of these people and how family support can contribute to the personal growth and acceptance of the disease. Article 2 aimed to adapt to the Brazilian context the scale Family Resilience Assessment Scale (FRAS) gathering evidence of validity and precision. To this end, two studies were carried out with participants from different Brazilian states. 314 people participated in the first study (Mage = 31.87; SD = 10.58), being 56.4% female, 48.4% from Paraíba and São Paulo (20.4%). In study 1, an exploratory factor analysis was carried out, which suggested a tetrafactorial structure, with an adequate reliability index (CFI = 0.84, TLI = 0.83, RMSEA = 0.06). Study 2 included 336 people with chronic kidney disease (Mage = 41.44; SD = 11.02), the majority (54.1%) were female, São Paulo (33.1%) and Rio de Janeiro (14.5%) and undergoing hemodialysis (46.4%). The confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the structure composed of four factors by means of a reduced version of the scale (CFI = 0.96, TLI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.07). Therefore, the results showed that the reduced version of FRAS can be an alternative to assess family resilience and its correlates in Brazil. Article 3 aimed to verify the influence of sociodemographic variables on family resilience in people with chronic kidney disease. 210 patients with chronic kidney disease participated in the research (Mage = 42.1; SD = 10.80), the majority of whom were from São Paulo (29.5%), women (68.6%), Catholic (44.3%). There were positive and significant relationships between the degree of religiosity and the family resilience factor: family spirituality (r = 0.62; p = 0.01). Furthermore, in order to verify whether the type of religion influences family resilience, a MANOVA was carried out, which indicated that there are significant differences only in relation to the type of religion in the family spirituality factor [Wilks Lambda = 0.668, F (24.618) = 3.164, p = 0.01, η² (effect size) = 0.09]. The results suggest that religiosity can help to overcome traumatic situations because, through religious teachings, people socialize, join groups and participate in social activities that happen regularly in the context of religious communities, contributing as an adaptation strategy to level of structuring family resilience. Finally, article 4, aimed to test the mediating role of family resilience on the relationship between human values and posttraumatic growth in people with chronic kidney disease. There were 342 people with Chronic Kidney Disease (Mage = 41.37; SD = 11.06; range 19 to 72 years), from 24 Brazilian states, most of São Paulo (32.7%), Rio de Janeiro (14.6%) and women (54.7%). Of these 46.2% undergoing hemodialysis and 29.5% kidney transplantation. They were applied to FRAS, PTGI, QVB and demographic issues. Correlations were performed, followed by regressions. Mediation models demonstrated the contribution of social values (interactive and normative subfunctions), seeking to verify the predictive power of posttraumatic growth, mediated by family resilience (use of social and economic resources and family spirituality) in people with chronic kidney disease. Thus, it is concluded that improving family resilience levels can be a way to minimize the symptoms of the disease and promote growth in people with chronic kidney disease.
  • AMANDA WANDERLEY LEITE DE SOUSA
  • Women in politics: political positioning, stereotypy and sexism
  • Fecha: 26-mar-2021
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • This dissertation aimed to investigate the influence of the political positioning of female candidates (e.g. conservative/center/progressive) and ambivalent sexism in the attribution of stereotypes to these candidates for elective positions to the national congress. To achieve this goal, two experimental studies were carried out. The results of Study 1 (N = 112) show that, together, the right-wing candidate received a lower score than the center and left-wing candidates in the three stereotypical dimensions (morality, sociability and competence), with no differences between these two latest candidates. In Study 2 (N = 129) it was analyzed whether the attribution of stereotypes is influenced by the degree of adherence to hostile or benevolent sexism. The results showed that, among people with a low degree of adherence to benevolent sexism, the left-wing candidate was seen as having more moral attributes than the center candidate and the right-wing candidate was seen as having less moral attributes than the other two. People with low adherence to benevolent sexism also showed significant differences in the attribution of stereotypes of sociability and competence among the candidates in all conditions. In this way, the left-wing candidate was seen as having more attributes of sociability and competence than the center candidate and the right-wing candidate was seen as having less sociability and competence attributes than the other two. Among participants with a low degree of adherence to hostile sexism, the left-wing and center candidates were seen to be equally moral, competent and sociable and the right-wing candidate as being less moral, competent and sociable than the other two. It is noteworthy, however, that there were no significant differences between the candidates in the situation of hostile and benevolent high sexism. Taken together, the results of the two studies carried out show the importance of both social belongings and ideologies (e.g. ambivalent sexism) in the attribution of stereotypes.
  • INGRID RAYSSA LUCENA FERREIRA
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  • Fecha: 26-mar-2021
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  • LINNIKER MATHEUS SOARES DE MOURA
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  • Asesor : SILVANA CARNEIRO MACIEL
  • Fecha: 24-mar-2021
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • DÉBORA CRISTINA NASCIMENTO DE LIMA
  • MUSIC AND MISOGYNY: THE SHORT-TERM IMPACTS ON ATTITUDES TOWARDS WOMEN AND AGGRESSION
  • Fecha: 24-mar-2021
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • The music industry, with increasingly sophisticated strategies, has been growing exponentially year after year, passing on the most diverse types of messages in the lyrics of songs. Composed of "symbolic elements", the songs can help to break paradigms or help to maintain violence and inequality. However, we know little about the effects of misogynistic songs on attitudes toward women and aggression. Thus, the present dissertation aimed to overcome this theoretical gap by investigating the effects of misogynistic songs on attitudes toward women and aggression. Thus, the present dissertation aimed to overcome this theoretical gap by investigating the effects of misogynistic songs on attitudes toward women and aggression. To this end, four studies were conducted. Study 1 was a literature review, in order to get an overview of the studies with song lyrics. The results showed that the negative effects of songs are the most studied. Study 2 aimed to adapt and validate the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AFM). Through exploratory (N = 224, M age = 32.46; SD = 10.87) and confirmatory (N = 254, M age = 30.2; SD = 10.99) factor analysis. The results pointed to a single-factor scale with satisfactory internal consistency. Study 3 (N = 261, M age = 29, 14; SD = 10.14), sought to investigate the relationships of attitudes toward women with ambivalent sexism, aggression, and personality. The results revealed negative and significant correlations between AFM and benevolent (r = -0.46), hostile (r = -0.52), and physical aggression (r = -0.10) sexism. Finally, the experiment conducted in Study 4 (N = 147, M age =29.4; SD=9.86) showed effects of misogynistic music on aggression, but not on attitudes toward women. These results partially confirm the hypotheses raised and are in line with another research. Finally, the theoretical hypothesis of the General Model of Aggression that exposure to violent media can influence aggression was corroborated.
  • FERNANDA CRISTINA DE OLIVEIRA RAMALHO DINIZ
  • SUPER HEROINE SCENE: REPRESENTATIVENESS AND SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS OF WOMEN AND SUPERHERO
  • Fecha: 24-mar-2021
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • Since cinema presents itself as a form of language and a source of (de) construction of social representations, this dissertation had as main objective to analyse social representations about: a) women in general; b) superheroines; c) men in general and d) superheroes, taking into account whether elements of the sexual division of roles emerge in these representational contents and whether taking a stand against gender equality is affected. For this, two studies were carried out presented in article format. In the first study, 206 university students participated, 57.3% women, with an average age of 20 years, who answered about the agreement with the current rise of female protagonists in superhero films, their justification for the positioning and the questionnaire sociodemographic. The results showed that there is an agreement of 95.6% of the participants in face of the rise of female protagonists in these films, but the justifications differed based on the anchoring of the participants' gender. They formed two dendrograms of five classes each, the justifications of women being organized in “Representativeness matters”, “Films and reality”, “Potential of representation”, “Visibility, occupation and cinema” and “Participation with meaning”, while those of men organized in “Yes for the superheroines”, “I agree, but with reservations”, “Why not?”, “Female ascension” and “Cinema and feminism”. In general, women bring a possibility of reframing the figure of women in the social imaginary through the characters of superheroines, while men bring more reservations to their participation, as well as their quality. In both groups, the speeches refer to issues such as feminism and representativeness, but under ambivalent perspectives. In the second study, 145 university students participated, 51% men, with an average age of 20 years, who answered the Free Word Association Technique regarding the inducing stimuli “woman”, “superheroine”, “man” and “superhero”. The responses were divided into eight banks according to the respondent's gender and submitted to prototypical analysis made with the aid of the IRAMUTEQ software. The results showed that the social representations of women and men are structured in different ways based on the gender of the participant, while the social representation of the superhero brings a hegemonic image, that is, shared in a similar way by both groups, and it is discussed about the social representation of the superheroine being a non-autonomous representation, that is, encompassed by that of the woman. Thus, it is concluded that the guidelines raised by feminist movements are becoming increasingly present in daily life, but, on the other hand, some more conservative groups will be interested in maintaining an unequal social structure and will feel threatened by the rise of minority groups. In this interface between these groups, we can have cinema as an ally for the construction of more egalitarian social representations, which help to make stereotypes and gender roles more flexible, in deconstructing or reinforcing machismo and sexism
  • LETÍCIA DE MÉLO SOUSA
  • SLUT SHAMING OR ONLINE INTIMATE EXPOSURE: VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND PUBLIC POLICIES
  • Fecha: 24-mar-2021
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • The online intimate exposure (revenge porn; slut shaming) refers to the culture of humiliation of women for their sexual practices, updated through the internet, with the purpose of control and domination, through victim blaming. The aim of this research is to analyze the experience of intimate online exposure experienced by women and the confrontation of this violence by public policies. Three studies were carried out, based on the gender perspective: the first, documentary, by searching 55 official documents, national and international, about public policies focused on combating violence against women; the second study started from an online questionnaire on the experience and understanding of Brazilian women regarding violence, with 1.028 participants; the third study was conducted through six semi-structured interviews with professionals from the public policy of combating violence against women. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (SPSS 20) and qualitative data through thematic-categorical content analysis (MaxQDA). The results show that Brazil has legal mechanisms to guarantee the rights of women victims of online intimate exposure. It was found that 5% had undergone online intimate exposure, however, the search for defense or service policies was low. The interviewed professionals affirmed that the naturalization of psychological violence and the victim blaming in intimate exposure online are the main challenges to their attendance in public policies. We estimate that this research will contribute to construction of scientific knowledge about this form of violence, and thus can base the professional care to victims and actions of confront.
  • SUIANE MAGALHAES TAVARES
  • The effect of belief in the just world, secondary victimization and societal sexism in supporting violence against women
  • Fecha: 23-mar-2021
  • Hora: 15:30
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  • Dating violence against women is defined as a threat or actual use of physical, psychological, verbal / sexual, patrimonial and moral abuse. The way in which we see these situations can impact the lives of the people involved and interpersonal relationships. The Belief in a just word theory and its correlates: secondary victimization has a role in understanding this complex phenomenon. However, no research, as far as we know, has investigated the effect of BJW, secondary victimization and societal sexism in supporting violence against women in dating relationships. We raised the hypothesis that the phenomenon of secondary victimization mediates the relationship between societal sexism and support for violence and, in a second moment, we hypothesized the BJW as moderator of this relationship, and we went a little further, in a third moment, when manipulating the threat of BJW from observers in a heterogeneous sample. In Study 1 (N = 200), we manipulated societal sexism (individual vs. society) and found that people with high levels of sexism secondarily victimized a victim of violence. In Study 2 (N = 204), in addition to the manipulation of societal sexism, we included the manipulation of BJW. We verified the impact of secondary victimization in supporting violence once again, the BJW hypothesis was against the expected results. Finally, to help understand the previous process, we carried out Study 3 (N = 305), manipulating a situation that challenges the BJW, compared to a control situation. The results of this study showed a mediation of secondary victimization, as well as the stronger effect of moderating the victim's avoidance in the threat of BJW. In general, what we found confirms the results of previous findings, as well as extending the contribution to psychological research on the phenomenon in question, especially in the context of gender violence in the approach of the fair belief in a just world theory. In addition to highlighting the role of secondary victimization in legitimizing violence in women who are in a dating relationship.
  • RENAN SILVA DE SOUSA
  • The Identity of the Bolsonarist Right in Narratives of its Militants
  • Fecha: 22-mar-2021
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • In recent years, the Brazilian political scene has undergone major transformations. The global economic crisis, the emergence of the ultra-right in the world and the insurgency of June 2013, played a central role in the appearance of a new right that was consolidated in 2018 with the victory of Jair Messias Bolsonaro for the presidency of the republic. The discourse of this new right has been rhetorically effective in producing subjectivities adjusted to ultra-right thinking in Brazil and in the world. With a plurality of discursive forms, contradictions, facets and doubts, the right, and more precisely, Bolsonarism, constitutes itself as such a complex, powerful and disruptive political force. Indicating the need to think about this extreme political movement in more depth. In this way, the objective of this study is to investigate the narratives of militant Bolsonarists seeking to understand how they build an identity for Bolsonarism and for themselves as militants of Bolsonarism. More specifically, it identifies and analyzes arguments mobilized by Bolsonarist militants to justify joining the Bolsonarist movement, arguments that describe a set of traits that define the identity of this ultra-right movement for its militants; analyzes the impact of identification with Bolsonarism on the life trajectories narrated by these militants; identifies and analyzes the rhetorical resources used to give verisimilitude to their narratives and arguments. For this, we conducted two studies with a qualitative approach using discourse analysis. In the first study, we sought to describe the arguments mobilized by Bolsonarist militants to defend their adherence and their political positioning, paying special attention to the rhetorical processes used by them, thereby identifying a series of contradictions and specificities that provide the basis for this collective identification. In the second study, we look at the identity construction of these militants when they narratively reconstruct their trajectory within the movement, analyzing the changes in the way they define themselves. The theoretical and methodological perspective of data analysis was Discursive Social Psychology, which understands discourse / language as a tool capable of producing, through different actions, the social reality in which we live, its groups, identities, etc. It was concluded that the militants, when speaking of their adherence to bolsonarismo, indicate six categories as fundamental: defense of freedom, transparency and simplicity, fight against crime, change and rupture, nationalism and patriotism and the defense of Christian morality. In addition, the construction of the militants' arguments / thoughtsis subject to a series of opposing themes and ideological dilemmas that are explored during the analysis, showing the multidetermined character in which the identity of these groups are formulated. The militants, when narrating their insertion in Bolsonarism, report a set of factors that contributed to the construction of identity, as well as narrating through the construction of individual identities the consequences of becoming a militant. These and other results help us to understand the subjective formation of these militants by casting a critical eye on an extremist group, which, despite all the contradictions inherent in the discursive formation of thought, tends to seek validity and legitimacy when they speak using rhetorical strategies to make the his factual, rational and distant account of the characteristic passion of a radical group. However, due to the complexity of the movement and its constant transformation, new, more confrontational studies are recommended in order to understand these discursive strategies in other contexts.
  • WASHINGTON ALLYSSON DANTAS SILVA
  • Do Brazilians See the Way Things Are as They Should Be? A New System Justification Scale
  • Fecha: 22-mar-2021
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • System justification theory contends that people are motivated to consider the social, political, and economic arrangements as just, legitimate and necessary. The adequate assessment of individual differences regarding this motivation is a critical issue in this field, especially in a cultural context of profound social inequalities like Brazil. We addressed this issue by developing a new scale to measure system justification (SJS) in extreme social inequality contexts. In Study 1, we explored the content validity of the SJS through expert analysis. In Study 2 (N = 305), we conducted exploratory factor analysis and found a single-factor structure. In Study 3 (N = 307), we confirmed this factorial structure and verified the configural, metric, and scalar invariance by gender. In Study 4 (N = 204), we estimated the convergent-discriminating and incremental validity of the SJS by comparing it with correlated constructs. Finally, in Study 5 (N = 100), we experimentally manipulated a news story about a high (vs. low) threat to the Brazilian system, and observed the predictive validity of the SJS. In general, the results showed that the SJS is a valid and reliable measure. Furthermore, they suggest SJS is a useful tool to measure individual differences in justification of social inequalities in a context of deep social disparities.
  • GLEIDSON DIEGO LOPES LOURETO
  • EVOLUTIONARY ROMANTIC LOVE: THE FAST-SLOW CONTINUUM AND ITS INDIVIDUAL AND PSYCHOSSOCIAL CORRELATES
  • Fecha: 19-mar-2021
  • Hora: 16:00
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  • This thesis aimed to test a taxonomy of romantic love (AR) based on the evolutionary framework of the Life History Theory (LHT) and investigate its relationships with individual, evolutionary and psychosocial variables. Five articles were performed. The Article 1 consisted of theoretical essay that presented the assumptions of LHT and proposed the so-called the Factor-K of RL which implies the slow-love continuum, comprising five proxies of evolutionary RL: restricted sociosexuality, appraisal and flexibility in context of conflicts, future orientation, disposition to parental investment and intimacy attachment style in relationships. In sum, derived from LHT, RL consists of a set of a certain survival strategies in face of evolutionary challenges varying along a fast-slow continuum. The Article 2 aimed to elaborate and investigate preliminary evidence of validity (i.e., content, internal structure and relationships with external variables) and reliability of the K-Love Scale of Romantic Love (KLS). Initially, via the content validity coefficient, the content validity of the five facets of the instrument was supported. An exploratory factor analysis indicated a one-dimensional structure of KLS, with adequate reliability. Regarding the evidence of convergent validation, the measure was positively correlated with measures of family stability in childhood, perceived authoritative parenting style and general life strategy (e.g., risk aversion, propensity for cooperation, etc.). The Article 3 consisted of a psychometric study and sought to investigate evidence of complementary validity and reliability of KLS. In Study 1 (n = 249), the hierarchical bifactor model provided evidence for the best model-data fit in contrast to one-factor and penta-factor structures. It has been demonstrated that KLS represented a combined functioning (i.e., a global fact, the K-Factor) of the five facets that comprises the evolutionary RL. In Study 2 (n = 203), KLS was negatively related to intentions towards infidelity and attitudes towards polyamory and positively to self-esteem; such results extend the evidence of convergent validity of the measure. The Article 4 tested the predictive power of KLS in explaining satisfaction and conflicts in romantic relationships. In Study 1 (n = 205), EFKA presented incremental validity in explaining satisfaction in relationships compared to two classic RL models. In Study 2 (n = 251), KLS predicted constructive responses to the conflict. Additionally, we showed the moderating effect of interactive values and the trait of psychopathy in the KLS-constructive responses link: when medium and high on interactive values, individuals react more constructively to conflict; in turn, when medium and high on psychopathy, individuals employ more destructive responses. Finally, in the Article 5 we performed an experimental study (2x2x2; n = 212) with a mixed design in order to test the effect of romantic traits (fast love vs. slow love) and the endorsement of human values (personal values vs. social values) on the desirability of a romantic target as a long-term partner. As expected, individuals with “slow love” traits and endorsing social values were rated as more desirable as partners in a long-term relationship, as predicted by evolutionary assumptions. In short, it is concluded that the objectives were achieved in view of the proposition of an evolutionary model of theoretically oriented RA. In sum, the current objectives were achieved by proposing an evolutionary model of RL that consists in a theoretically-driven approach. Furthermore, the current thesis contributes to the articulation of intra-individual, evolutionary and psychosocial aspects in the understanding of human romantic interactions, in line with the growing integration between the fields of social psychology and evolutionary sciences.
  • VIVIANE ALVES DOS SANTOS BEZERRA
  • Variables predicting the willingness of young people to help people at risk of suicide
  • Fecha: 19-mar-2021
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • Recent studies have pointed out that young people could play an important role in preventing suicide if they were willing to help people who are at risk for this behavior. Research also indicates that affective variables, such as empathy; sociodemographic variables, such as sex and age; and psychosocial variables, such as exposure and experience with suicide, may be associated with a greater willingness of young people to engage in behaviors that help people at risk of suicide. However, it was found that the studies were not interested in knowing how much a set of different variables would be able to predict the willingness of young people to engage in behaviors that help people at risk of suicide. In view of this gap, the present dissertation had as main objective to verify the predictive power of affective, sociodemographic and psychosocial variables in the disposition of young people to help people at risk of suicide. To meet this objective, the Suicide Helpfulness Scale - SHS (Support Scale for People at Suicide Risk - EARS) was initially adapted and validated through two studies. In Study 1, 206 participants responded to EARS and sociodemographic questions. The results obtained supported the original four-factor model and there was 0.90 Composite Reliability. In Study 2, of confirmatory character, 212 students participated and three models were tested for EARS; the results corroborated the adequacy of the tetrafactorial structure, observing meritorious adjustment indicators. Thus, it is concluded that the EARS presented psychometric characteristics suitable for the Brazilian context, and can be used for research purposes. After the adaptation and validation of the EARS, a third study was conducted that aimed to verify the predictive role of affective, sociodemographic and psychosocial variables in the disposition of young people to help people at risk of suicide. 490 young people participated in this study, mostly female (73.3%), with ages varying from 18 to 29 years old (M = 23.61; SD = 3.30), from different socioeconomic levels, religious groups and residents in their majority in the Northeast region of Brazil (82%). Participants answered a questionnaire referring to sociodemographic and psychosocial variables, the Suicide Risk Support Scale (EARS), to assess their willingness to help people at risk of suicide; the Multidimensional Scale of Interpersonal Reactivity (EMRI), to assess empathy; and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (EDSMC), to assess social desirability. In the data analysis, the Spearman Correlation Test and the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used. The results of these analyzes showed that there were positive and significant associations between empathy, willingness to help and social desirability; significant differences were also observed in the willingness to help people at risk of suicide depending on the level of empathy, sex, age group, exposure to suicide and the degree of proximity to someone who committed suicide. Finally, a Multiple Linear Regression analysis was performed to meet the main objective of this dissertation, verifying that, among the variables investigated, empathy and the degree of proximity were the only significant predictors of the willingness to help. These findings point to the importance of including the promotion of empathy in suicide prevention programs. However, there is a need to investigate other variables that may contribute to the understanding of the factors that influence the willingness to help people at risk of suicide.
  • PATRICIA MENEZES PEREIRA
  • RELATIONSHIP OF WORK AND HEALTH OF ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORT DRIVERS IN A CAPITAL OF NORTHEAST BRAZIL
  • Fecha: 15-mar-2021
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • Alternative informal transportation drivers are self-employed professionals who transport passengers to regions which are peripheral and/or metropolitan to the large centers. They act in parallel to the legal public transportation system. The backdrop for this study is João Pessoa, the capital of the state of Paraíba, in particular the city’s central region, where meeting spots form for drivers in search of passengers travelling to nearby cities or even to outside the state. This study investigates the relationship between work and health for these alternative informal transportation drivers acting in the center of João Pessoa. Professional drivers are vulnerable to risks of illness, due to constant exposure to precarious conditions resulting from work demands and urban mobility policies, and also as a result of the very unpredictability of the traffic environment. Based on the relationship between work and health for drivers who are formally employed, it could be presumed that alternative informal transportation drivers are exposed to the same factors of traffic vulnerability that may interfere with their health. Participants in this study were eight professionals who have performed their activity for at least one year, and have the center of the city of João Pessoa as the starting point for their rides. Four semi-structured interviews were carried out: three individual interviews and one with a group of five participants. Psychodynamics of Work was used as a theoretical framework, with the contributions of Christophe Dejours as a starting point. This is bearing in mind the premises that work rallies subjectivity so as to cope with the reality of the activity and plays a fundamental role in the construction of identity out of the pursuit of self-actualization and acknowledgement. Work is, therefore, a potential source of both suffering and pleasure. In the interviews, the activity was identified as a means of survival which, while eliciting identification in the drivers, represents something temporary due to its uncertainties. It also imposes a burden as a consequence of the hardships present in performing it under a false premise of freedom. The conclusions reached were that these professionals resort to doing hazardous work to deal with their unemployed status, and that they organize to seek acknowledgment of their occupation as a path to preserving their health.
  • AMANDA TRAJANO BATISTA
  • BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES OF KEY POPULATIONS ABOUT PRE-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS TO HIV/AIDS
  • Fecha: 09-mar-2021
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • When proposing a preventive method based on the use of antiretrovirals (ARVs), Pre-Exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has an impact on HIV prevention, raising the concern about how users can change their sexual and preventive behaviors. Based on the Theory of Rational Action and the Vulnerability Model, this thesis assumes that PrEP is a dynamic phenomenon, being more than a biomedical and pharmacological intervention, it incorporates psychological and social aspects that, together, affect the subject's vulnerability to prevention of HIV infection and other STIs, as well as relationship dynamics and sexual practices, so four studies were developed. In study I, a documentary analysis of 100 records of PrEP users was performed, with a slight increase in STIs and a decrease in condom use. Study II aimed at a survey of salient beliefs and modal referents about PrEP, with 31 participants from three key populations in which factors that could positively or negatively influence the adoption of preventive behavior were identified. In Study III, the construction and validation of an instrument of attitudes towards PrEP was carried out based on the beliefs obtained in study II. Finally, Study IV will investigate the behavioral intentions of key populations using PrEP regarding condom use.
  • CAMILA CRISTINA VASCONCELOS DIAS
  • EXPLANATORY MODEL OF DISCRIMINATION AGAINST AUTISTIC PEOPLE BASED ON REPRESENTATIONS, BELIEFS, STEREOTYPES, PERCEPTION OF THREAT, PREJUDICE AND STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
  • Fecha: 01-mar-2021
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • With a story marked by social exclusion and the relationship at first with schizophrenia, autism is currently considered a neurodevelopmental disorder of multiple etiologies under the name of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Although rights for the social inclusion of autistic people have been legislated, they remain target of prejudice and discrimination. This thesis aims to propose an explanatory model of the discrimination against autistic people. The thesis defends that there is discrimination against autistic people and it is based on social representations linked to mental illness, the belief about the difficulty of socialization, the stereotypes of threat and disability, the perception of threat and prejudice, being the discrimination influenced by the stage of development of the autistic person (child vs. adult) and the degree of severity of ASD (mild vs. severe). To achieve the proposed objective, five articles were prepared. Article 1 aimed to conduct a survey of literature data on the contributions of social representations, beliefs and stereotypes related to autism and the autistic person, proposing a theoretical articulation in order to support the understanding of prejudice and discrimination against autistic people. Article 2 aimed to identify the socio-cognitive structure and processes of the social representation of autism developed by university students. 206 students participated in the research who responded to the free- association technique with the stimulus Autism, in addition to questions about the concept and cause of autism. The free-association data were analyzed through prototypical analysis in IRAMUTEQ and the data of the questions through the analysis of thematic-categorical content. The social representation elaborated by the participants was structured around the elements: child, difficulty, isolation, illness; being objectified in the description of Childhood Autism contained in the ICD-10, and anchored in mental illness, recovering the historical association between autism and schizophrenia, since it consists of the prototype of mental illness. Article 3 aimed to know and analyze the social representations of university students and the general population about the autistic person, aiming to identify the stereotypes that compose them and evidence of prejudice through the investigation of the silent zone, a region of difficult access to social representations. 411 individuals participated, 205 individuals from the general population and 206 university students who responded to the free-association technique with the stimulus Autistic Person and a question about how society sees the autistic person. The same data analysis techniques used in the previous article were used. The social representations about the autistic person elaborated by the participants were organized around stereotypes: isolated, intelligent and special; the terms were the same for the two groups of participants, confirming the stability of the central nucleus. However, in the answers to the question mainly negative stereotypes emerged, such as mentally ill, isolated, incapable, abnormal, strange, dangerous and aggressive, and negative attitudes, such as prejudice, confirming access to the silent zone. Article 4 aimed to develop and gather evidence of validity on a scale that measures the belief about the difficulty of socialization of the autistic person through two studies. In study 1, 295 individuals from the general population participated and exploratory factor analyzes indicated the presence of a single factor composed of 8 items (α = 0.76). In study 2, 276 individuals from the general population participated and a confirmatory factor analysis reinforced the scale's unidimensionality through satisfactory adjustment indexes [CFI = 0.93; TLI = 0.90; RMSEA = 0.05 (CI90% = 0.031-0.086) and SRMS = 0.05], remaining with 8 items (α = 0.74). Finally, article 5 aimed to propose an explanatory model of discrimination against autistic people based on the belief about the difficulty of socialization, on the stereotypes of threat and disability, on the perception of threat and prejudice, verifying the effects of the development phase of the autistic person (child vs. adult) and the degree of severity of ASD (mild vs. severe) in discrimination. To this end, a study was carried out with 360 individuals from the general population who responded to a quasi-experimental manipulation and to the instruments for measuring model variables. The results showed a significant main effect of the development stage variable on discrimination; however, for the degree of severity variable there was no significant main effect, as well as there was no interaction between the two independent variables. In addition, the belief in the difficulty of socializing and the stereotypes of threat explained the perception of threat that, with stereotypes of disability, explained the prejudice. Prejudice assumed a mediating role that explained discrimination, which was affected by the variable stage of development, resulting in moderate mediation by the stage of development, which effect of perceived threat on discrimination, mediated by prejudice, occurred when the autistic person was an adult. The results described in the articles of this thesis contribute to understand phenomena such as discrimination and prejudice against autistic people in order to allow reflections on how to act directly in the processes that support them in order to reduce them in favor of the social inclusion of these people, especially autistic adults.
  • LAYANNE VIEIRA LINHARES
  • BLAMING THE VICTIM OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE: AN ANALYSIS OF THE COMBINATION OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VICTIM AND THE OBSERVER
  • Fecha: 26-feb-2021
  • Hora: 08:30
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  • Despite some advances in the fight and awareness about guaranteeing rights and ways of dealing with discrimination and all types of violence against women, the incidence of sexual violence still remains at high levels. The set of studies presented here emerged from the following question: are all women equally blamed for being victims of sexual violence? Thus, the thesis presented here seeks to analyze to what extent the characteristics of women victims of sexual violence, the gender and belief systems (e.g., BJW and ambivalent sexism) of the participants, influence blaming victims for the violence they have suffered. We also seek to analyze how the social representations of university students about women victims of sexual violence are structured. The results of the first article confirmed the proposed hypotheses, indicating that Black women victims of sexual violence tend to be more to blame than White women and that high adherence to BJW contributes to this blaming. Article two analyzed the effect of the combination of the variables, victim characteristics (skin color and normativity), observer's sex, Belief in a Just World, and ambivalent sexism on blaming the victim of sexual violence. The results confirm that the variables that were investigated interact with each other and result in different experiences for the victims. The objective of the third article of this thesis was to investigate what are the social representations of university students about sexual violence against women. The results indicated that most of the social representations shared by students include blaming the victim. Finally, the results of two studies that aimed to validate a revised version of the Belief in a Just World Scale with Popular Sayings, developed by Linhares, Torres and Pereira (2020, in press) are appended. It is perceived that blaming the woman for the violence she suffered is a multi-causal phenomenon and in our line of research we try to analyze the various factors that can help in understanding this. With that, we emphasize the importance of considering the complexity of the vulnerabilities that women are exposed to for the study of this phenomenon.
  • NOEMIA SOARES BARBOSA LEAL
  • VOCATIONAL TRAINING AND LIFE PROJECTS: YOUNG PEOPLE EXPERIENCE WITH TRAJECTORY IN SHELTER INSTITUTIONS
  • Fecha: 25-feb-2021
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • Based on Historical-Cultural Psychology, this Thesis sought to analyze the context of development made available by the reception policy, notably as to the guiding activity of vocational training and its relationship with the construction of life projects for youthful. Therefore, used the methodological triangulation strategy, made use of Field Diary and developed three studies of qualitative design. The Study I was developed in two stages: a) documentary research in individual records of young people with trajectory in shelter institutions and b) interviews with six reception policy professionals. The Study II comprised individual interviews with eight egress young of shelter that were inserted in the vocational training while sheltered. The Study III comprehended a longitudinal research with four young that were sheltered in 2018 and inserted in the vocational training. Part of the documentary research data was analyzed descriptively and another part was subjected to Theme Content Analysis, technique also used in the interviews, with assistance from MAXQDA. The results show that the reception policy is operationalized with the typical limitation of the capitalist system, being the right of young people to vocational training making viable inaccurate and discontinuous mode. The content of formative proposals has an emphasis on behavioral aspects and the educational character is secondary, limiting the way youth live the experience and begin to project the life. It is concluded that the accessed training enables a punctual contribution with elements for the construction of professional life projects, however it doesn't encompass range other spheres of young's life and doesn't offer appropriate conditions for omnilateral development.
  • ANDREZA SILENE SILVA FERREIRA
  • THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MORAL JUDGMENT, RACIAL PREJUDICE AND POLICE VIOLENCE
  • Asesor : ANA RAQUEL ROSAS TORRES
  • Fecha: 24-feb-2021
  • Hora: 08:30
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  • Police violence is used as the main instrument to combat violence and other violations of the law that has been observed and that these actions are influenced by the color of the victims’ skin of the same violence. This inequality suggests that the judgment of these actions is affected by the way in which justice is perceived in relation to certain social groups. Thus, the objective of this work was to verify the role of moral judgment in the relationship between the color of the target of police violence and the perception of the legitimacy of that violence. To achieve this goal, four studies were developed, presented in two articles. In article 1 (N = 105), we observed through lexical analysis that although the speeches tended to disagree with the practice of police violence, the participants' arguments to justify this position differed according to the color of the violence target and showed changes qualitative in their meanings depending on the type of justice reasoning used by the participants. When the suspect was black, police violence was seen as inappropriate and unjustified, without making reference to the illegal nature of these actions. When the suspect was white, the violence was seen as illegal and arbitrary. In article 2, in Study 1 (N = 123), we found that racial prejudice is at the basis of the perceived legitimacy of police violence and this relationship was moderated by moral judgment. In Study 2 (N = 71), we observed that violence against blacks was perceived as more legitimate when compared to white and control conditions. In this sense, the social category was used as a principle for group differentiation, highlighting the aspect of racial prejudice and discrimination in the context of police violence. Finally, in Study 3 (N = 129) we replicated Study 2 and tested the hypothesis that moral judgment moderates the relationship between the target's color and the perceived legitimacy of police violence. The results showed that the perception of legitimacy of police violence varied according to the color of its target, corroborating the results of the Study 2 and this relationship was moderated by moral judgment. In this sense, there is a significant difference in the perceived legitimacy of police violence due to the color of the target of the violence, so this difference increases as the level of conventional morality also increases, and reduces as the level of morality increases post-conventional. In view of this, we can conclude that the perspective of moral judgment in the analysis of prejudice and discrimination helps to reduce inequalities historically constructed in our society
  • LUIZE ANNY GUIMARÃES AMORIM
  • CONTRIBUTIONS OF INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIAL VARIABLES IN SATISFACTION WITH FAMILY LIFE
  • Fecha: 22-feb-2021
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • This thesis aims to test a mediation model, with personality as a predictor of family satisfaction and human values and religious attitudes as mediators of this relationship. Four articles were prepared for its scope. The first is of a theoretical nature, where the constructs under study are presented, as well as their correlates in the literature. The second is divided into two studies which aimed to adapt the Satisfaction With Family Life (SWFL) scale to Brazilian Portuguese, verifying its psychometric parameters of validity and precision. In the first study, there was a sample of 216 people, aged between 18 and 92 years (Mage = 38.43; SD = 15.90), 71.6% of whom responded to the instrument and to sociodemographic questions. The exploratory factor analysis indicated a unifactorial structure with 70% of explained total variance and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.89. In Study 2, the sample was 214 people, aged between 18 and 77 years (Mage = 29.8; SD = 11.65), most of them women (69.6%), who responded to the same instruments as in Study 1 The findings confirmed the unifactorial structure with adequate psychometric parameters. The third article aimed to verify the convergent validity of the Satisfação com a vida familiar Scale (ESVF), validated for portuguese in the previous study, with another measure that evaluates the same construct (Satisfação Familiar scale); in addition to analyzing the moderating power of sex in the relationship between age and family satisfaction. 401 people participated, aged between 18 and 60 years (Mage = 31.57; SD = 11.23), 71.8% women, who answered the instruments: ESVF, Satisfação Familiar scale (ESF) and sociodemographic questions. The results indicated that the convergent validity of the ESVF was satisfactory with a Pearson correlation of 0.77 with the ESF; furthermore, there was no significant moderating effect of sex on the relationship between age and family satisfaction, indicating that it did not affect the direction and / or strength of this association. The fourth article verified the predictive power of personality in explaining family satisfaction, controlling the effect of education and marital status, in addition to testing a mediation model considering personality as an independent variable, family satisfaction as a dependent variable and human and family values. religious attitudes as mediators of this relationship. There was a sample of 336 people from the general population, with an average age of 33.18 years (SD = 11.28; ranging from 18 to 70 years), most of them female (68.5%), married or in a stable union (47.9%), graduate level (36.9%) and Catholic (37.3%) and Protestant (45.4%). The instruments used were the ESVF, the Inventário dos Cinco Grandes Fatores da Personalidade, the Questionário de Valores Básicos and the Escala de Atitude Religiosa (expanded version), in addition to sociodemographic questions. Through multiple linear regressions, stepwise method, it was found that only the personality factor Agreeableness positively predicted family satisfaction, when the effect of marital status and education was controlled. The findings also showed total mediation of the Normative subfunction and the religious attitude of Knowledge in the relationship between Agreeableness and Family Satisfaction. It is hoped that this thesis will contribute to studies in Family Social Psychology, providing a measure with psychometric qualities to be used in research in the area, in addition to reinforcing the influence of social constructs in explaining family satisfaction.
2020
Descripción
  • CAMILA DE ALENCAR PEREIRA
  • SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS IN FRONT OF SEXUAL ABUSE AGAINST CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: blaming the victim and procedural penalties
  • Fecha: 17-dic-2020
  • Hora: 08:30
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  • The implementation of public policies on sexual abuse against children and adolescents has great influence in the legal area, since it is from the application of the law that the State manifests its preventive and reparative reaction to the person attacked and repressed to the aggressor. The present thesis aims to identify the way the victim of sexual abuse is socially represented, considering the age group variable (child and adolescent), and how these representations have repercussions on judicial decision-making, based on the theory of social representations and in blaming the victim. This thesis was developed in the form of articles, one theoretical and four empirical - all independent, however, constructed in an articulated way in the search to answer the following thesis: the social representation about sexual abuse against children and adolescents varies according to the age group of the victim, in which adolescent victims of sexual abuse are blamed for the violence suffered, anchored in the myth of seduction. Article 1 aimed to carry out a theoretical articulation about sexual abuse against children and adolescents, aspects of the victim's blame and social representations about the phenomenon. Article 2 provides a systematic review of the literature on social representation about sexual abuse against children and adolescents. Through the search, and following the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 13 articles were selected for data extraction. In the extraction of data from these 13 manuscripts, it can be seen that, when studying the social representation of sexual abuse against children and adolescents, some representational aspects are frequent: sexual abuse and treatment, the factors of maintenance and promotion of sexual abuse , the victim and its consequences and the aggressor. There are some gaps in the research already developed on the subject to date. Thus, it is suggested the development of comparative research on the social representation of the victim, in order to investigate whether there is a difference in the way these victims are seen and treated socially.Article 3 aimed to identify and compare the structure of social representation on sexual abuse against children and adolescents. The Free Word Association Technique (TALP) was used, with the stimuli "sexual abuse against children" and "sexual abuse against adolescents". 266 undergraduate students from the psychology and law courses of public and private institutions in Paraíba participated in this study. The data were analyzed with the aid of IRAMUTEQ, through prototypical analysis. The results showed that, when the victim is a child, the participants tend to evoke terms focused on the victim, such as: suffering, trauma, innocence and vulnerability. When the stimulus was adolescent, sexual abuse was portrayed mainly by the act, through evocations: rape, trivialization, violence, unreal / sexualization and blame, which brings us to the idea that sexual abuse against adolescents is more trivialized and the victim be seen as seductive and therefore partly to blame for the violence suffered. It is noticed that when the victim is a child, the representation is more focused on the damage suffered and its fragility, which is not seen when he is a teenager.Considering that social representations guide behaviors and therefore can have an impact on decision-making, it was decided to write Article 4, which addressed the social representations of judges about the sexual abuse of children and adolescents. For this, a semi-structured interview was conducted with 12 first and second instance law judges. With the data, an analysis of Bardin's thematic categorical content was carried out. There was a difference in the way the victim of sexual abuse is seen by professionals, verifying, through the participants' speech, that the physical and postural aspects of the victim were often considered as evaluative and validating criteria of violence suffered, thus promoting the socialization of the attacked person. In the face of such a scenario, the need to ascertain whether social representations influenced judicial decision-making, the object of defense of the present thesis, was perceived.Thus, Article 5 sought to make a comparative analysis of legal cases characterizing victims of sexual abuse, aggressors and penalties applied to the defendant. It was carried out through an analysis of 238 second instance judicial decisions (judgments), observing and comparing, in these, the penalties applied in the first and second instances. Such judgments were obtained through an electronic search on the website of the Court of Justice of Paraíba (TJPB), between the years 2016 and 2018, using the terms “sexual abuse” and “rape of the vulnerable”, opting to work with these descriptors, as the first refers to how the phenomenon is known socially and the second is a terminology commonly used in the legal field. It was observed that, in general, the victim is female and suffers this type of violence at around 10 years of age, being sexually abused by a commonly male aggressor. As a rule, the aggressor is sentenced to 9 years in a closed regime in both instances, a little more than the minimum penalty applied to the crime. It was also found that there is an attenuation in the penalty applied to the aggressor, whose victim was an adolescent, possibly the result of the social representations of these professionals, more specifically the collective understanding of early sexualization as behavior that contributes to the practice of crimes by the aggressors. The different forms of research and the different contexts applied throughout the thesis, allow us to understand that victims of sexual abuse have been represented, within the scope of the theory of social representations, according to their age group. It is observed that there is a common representation for sexual abuse, such as trauma and violence, however, considering their age group, child and adolescent victims are now represented as vulnerable or blamed, respectively. In general, the articulation between the studies of this thesis presents contributions to the understanding of social representations about sexual abuse against children and adolescents and their repercussions in judicial decision-making. The implications of these results should be considered as a contribution to understanding how victims of sexual abuse are seen and treated socially, especially teenagers, who end up being blamed for the violence they suffered. Such findings should serve as a support for the formulation of strategies to reduce the attribution of guilt to victims of sexual abuse, as well as the development of more effective public policies to guide professionals, family members and society as a whole.
  • EMELLYNE LIMA DE MEDEIROS DIAS LEMOS
  • Autistic Spectrum Disorder: a study on family conceptions and interactions between siblings
  • Fecha: 16-dic-2020
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a continuum of losses, with different intensities and early manifestation in the socio-communicative domain and through restrictive and repetitive behaviors. Considering these characteristics, the experiences related to them and their influence on development, the role of family contexts and, more specifically, the interactions established between siblings in this process stands out. Substantiating on the bioecological model, it is based on the understanding that multiple factors are related to these contexts, and the coexistence with a family member with ASD can be influenced by a variety of aspects related to the characteristics of people, processes, contexts and time (PPCT). In this direction, this thesis aims to analyze the conceptions about family experiences and the interactions between siblings of families of young people with ASD. Therefore, five studies were performed. The first presents theoretical and methodological aspects of the bioecological model, articulating them with ASD and fraternal experiences. The results demonstrate the relevance of the model's applicability to the studied phenomenon, as it elucidates positive aspects of development, which can act in these experiences and assist families and professionals. The second study aimed to analyze the conceptions of young people with ASD, their mothers and siblings concerning their family experiences. Interviews were conducted with 12 mothers, 17 siblings of individuals with ASD and two young people with ASD, which were transcribed and analyzed using the content analysis technique. According to the results, the respondents used protective factors through their activities, conceptions and support networks, despite the presence of risk factors. The third study aimed to analyze interactions between siblings with typical development and those with ASD, in situations of free play, based on three case studies. The proximal processes were analyzed in terms of interactional episodes and the data triangulation technique was used, due to the different instruments in the research design. The study showed the importance of daily activities for the siblings' development. The inter-influences between the PPCT dimensions were elucidative of the interactions and their duration time was influenced by previous knowledge of activities and objects and by the characteristics of interactions between peers. It stands out that the maternal mediation played a prominent role in this process. The fourth study brings an experience of research feedback through the focus group technique and analyzes the contents that emerged from the speeches of five mothers of young people with ASD. The meeting was recorded and registered in field diaries. The recordings were transcribed, analyzed, discussed and presented in eight categories. The mothers highlighted themes related to ecological transitions such as: the moment of diagnosis, fear of their finitude and preparation of children to this stage, in addition to the need for support, guidance and strategies related to the coexistence with their children. The fifth study deals with the experience of four teenagers, siblings of individuals with ASD, facing research's return from a conversation circle. Data were registered in recordings and field diaries. The recordings were transcribed, analyzed and discussed based on the literature. The young people showed interest on the responses of the peers, as it indicates the importance of exchanging experiences. The statements were characterized by empathy, maturity and naturalness in sharing reports. They also reported feeling represented by the survey results and made suggestions to other families. It was found that the strategies used by families and their support networks can favor emotional support and that interactions in these contexts can promote development. It is expected to contribute to the development of new research and interventions in the area.
  • TÁTILA RAYANE DE SAMPAIO BRITO
  • I am not a Racist, I even have Black Friends: The Self-defensive Role of the Justifications of Racism
  • Fecha: 16-dic-2020
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • Racist attitudes and behaviors have been strongly resisting the anti-racism norm. Theories and research on intergroup relations have shown this occurs because people use justifications to mitigate the discriminatory nature of their behaviors. Considering this matter, the literature has not yet clarified whether the simple act of justifying the racist behavior itself is sufficient to protect both the perpetrator's positive private and social image. The current thesis discusses this issue by proposing that individuals spontaneously elaborate justifications for their discriminatory behaviors against groups protected by the anti-racism norm, thus preserving their self-esteem and social image. We have developed a research program to test this hypothesis, and we organized the results in three articles. In a preliminary paper, we conducted three studies in which we assessed the validity and reliability of a self-esteem scale that we used in subsequent studies. In the second article, we conducted an exploratory study (N = 100) that showed that black people are perceived as more protected by the anti-prejudice norm in the Brazilian context. In this thesis' main article, we carried out five experimental studies to test the core aspects of the proposed hypothesis. In Experiment 1 (N = 203), we show that participants accused of being racist had their implicit self-esteem affected. In Experiment 2 (N = 102), we show that the mere act of justifying racism mitigates the negative impacts on the implicit self-esteem of participants accused of racism. In Experiment 3 (N = 137), we replicated previous results in another cultural context (i.e., Spain). In Experiment 4 (N = 196), we went further by showing that the negative impact of being accused of racism occurs in managing the most egalitarian participants' social image. Experiment 5 (N = 148) analyzed the moderating role of anti-prejudice norms on the impact of being accused of racism on individuals' self-esteem. In general, the results confirm the proposed hypotheses and contribute to studies on processes that legitimize prejudice and discrimination.
  • KARLA SANTOS MATEUS
  • Social Psychology of Violence against Minority Groups: The Legitimizing Role of Justice Perceptions
  • Fecha: 19-oct-2020
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • Black people, women and homosexuals are groups of individuals who severely suffer with intentional violence in the world and are commonly secondarily victimized by both citizens and institutions. The persistence of this type of violence and the social support it encounters is based on a legitimation process. This process often involves different perceptions and a desire for justice. Based on recent literature addressing the social psychology around legitimation processes of social inequalities, this thesis proposes the hypothesis that perceptions of justice, such as secondary victimization, work as a justification for discrimination against social minorities in situations of violence. To test the hypothesis proposed here, we developed a research program in which we carried out three experimental studies and a correlational one, which we present throughout two different articles. In the first piece, we preliminarily tested our hypothesis in two experimental studies on violence against minority groups (black people vs. women vs. homosexuals). In Study 1 (N = 104), the results revealed that participants blamed more women for their own victimization, in addition to holding the aggressor less accountable when the victim was black, and described homophobic violence as a common social issue similar to the general violence that occurs in society. Study 2 (N = 217) took it a step further and demonstrated that these effects occur mainly when participants are asked to respond according to what society thinks. In the second article, we conducted two new studies with the aim of testing whether the secondary victimization of an aggression victim is related to prejudice and the belief in a just world (BJW). In Study 1 (N = 102), we manipulated the hints about the sexual orientation of a man who was a victim of violence and we found that the most prejudiced participants minimized the victim's suffering and blamed them more once they realized this victim was a homosexual. Study 2 (N = 205) replicated the role of prejudice in this secondary victimization and revealed that, in participants with a high BJW, prejudice motivates the minimization of the victim's suffering when they are perceived as a homosexual. We discussed the set of results in the context of the Justified Discrimination Model, highlighting the role of prejudice, BJW and secondary victimization in the process of legitimizing violence against minority groups.
  • KARLA SANTOS MATEUS
  • Social Psychology of Violence against Minority Groups: The Legitimizing Role of Justice Perceptions
  • Fecha: 19-oct-2020
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • Black people, women and homosexuals are groups of individuals who severely suffer with intentional violence in the world and are commonly secondarily victimized by both citizens and institutions. The persistence of this type of violence and the social support it encounters is based on a legitimation process. This process often involves different perceptions and a desire for justice. Based on recent literature addressing the social psychology around legitimation processes of social inequalities, this thesis proposes the hypothesis that perceptions of justice, such as secondary victimization, work as a justification for discrimination against social minorities in situations of violence. To test the hypothesis proposed here, we developed a research program in which we carried out three experimental studies and a correlational one, which we present throughout two different articles. In the first piece, we preliminarily tested our hypothesis in two experimental studies on violence against minority groups (black people vs. women vs. homosexuals). In Study 1 (N = 104), the results revealed that participants blamed more women for their own victimization, in addition to holding the aggressor less accountable when the victim was black, and described homophobic violence as a common social issue similar to the general violence that occurs in society. Study 2 (N = 217) took it a step further and demonstrated that these effects occur mainly when participants are asked to respond according to what society thinks. In the second article, we conducted two new studies with the aim of testing whether the secondary victimization of an aggression victim is related to prejudice and the belief in a just world (BJW). In Study 1 (N = 102), we manipulated the hints about the sexual orientation of a man who was a victim of violence and we found that the most prejudiced participants minimized the victim's suffering and blamed them more once they realized this victim was a homosexual. Study 2 (N = 205) replicated the role of prejudice in this secondary victimization and revealed that, in participants with a high BJW, prejudice motivates the minimization of the victim's suffering when they are perceived as a homosexual. We discussed the set of results in the context of the Justified Discrimination Model, highlighting the role of prejudice, BJW and secondary victimization in the process of legitimizing violence against minority groups.
  • MARIA CECÍLIA VITORINO ALVES FLORENCIO MOURA
  • Conceptions of adoption applicants about the adoption process and child development
  • Fecha: 30-sep-2020
  • Hora: 14:30
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  • ABSTRACT Parental conceptions influence interactions between parents and children, which are important for child development. Therefore, the role of the family in promoting children’s development is emphasized, highlighting the role of adoptive families in this process.This study aims to analyze the conceptions of adoption applicants about the adoption process and child development. For this, fourteen applicants for adoption participated in this study, eight women and six men, whose ages varied between 32 and 50 years (M = 38). Twelve participants were included in the National Adoption System and two were in the process of Qualifying for Adoption. Only one of them requested unilateral adoption, while the others (n = 11) wished to adopt together with their spouse. They answered a socio-demographic questionnaire, a questionnaire about the profile of the desired child and a semi-structured interview. The profile desired by the candidates is up to two children aged five years or less, regardless of sex and race and with the possibility of having a disease that can be treated. The data were analyzed by using Bardin's Content Analysis (2011) and pointed out two axes of results: conceptions about adoption and conceptions about child development. In the first axis, the participants presented meanings, motivations, planning, expectations, difficulties, challenges and conceptions about late adoption. In the second thematic axis, the participants talk about genetic and environmental aspects that they believe to influence the child's development; aspects that they consider important to promote child development and about the support and information network, they mentioned the help of family, friends, professionals, in addition to information obtained in the literature and on the internet. Thus, it was possible to understand the conceptions of applicants for adoption about the adoptive process and child development, and use this information to assist in the development of more effective strategies for the orientation of postulants, parents and professionals.
  • GABRIELA RAMOS DE BARROS
  • Analysis of the work of app drivers: a new working paradigm?
  • Asesor : ANISIO JOSE DA SILVA ARAUJO
  • Fecha: 30-sep-2020
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • Sharing economy is an economic modality that was born with the new technologies, through technological platforms, and it is based on cooperation, exchange and sharing among individuals in a society, assuming that if everyone contributes, everyone benefits. However, it is possible to realize that this cooperative and community vision is not real and that, at the same time, it announces a precarious and uneven future in the professional world and in the society, as a whole. This economic modality will be the basis for this research on the work activity of app drivers. The present study aims to understand the characteristics of this new work activity marked by the use of new technologies and what subjective experiences emerge from these workers at this reality. From the theoretical point of view, two approaches substantiate the present dissertation: Psychodynamics of work and studies from sociology that investigate the so-called “Uberization” of work, a term used to characterize this new type of labor. The research has a qualitative nature, driven by the means of a sociodemographic questionnaire and semi-structured interviews in the city of João Pessoa. The sample of this study consists of 17 intentional participants, and collected from the gathering areas of the drivers. Thematic Content Analysis. As a result, it was possible to perceive that unemployment is the predominant factor in the search for this new activity and that the financial return depends directly on the time invested, which configures a working overload. There was a false freedom feeling passed to the drivers by the application, through the flexibility of hours, as a 'microentrepreneur', that masquerades the reality of informal work, without any legal protection and right guarantees. There was a demand for the creation of a work collective among qualified drivers, in order to avoid unsafety and risks, issues that were not supported by the transport application. The future perspective of these workers consists on returning to the previous jobs, that were abandoned due to the unemployment crisis or to achieve formal jobs, as a belief that it would be only a transitory reality. The research brings data about the precariousness of this new modality of work, which was born in a context of flexibility and technological innovations that transferred all the possible risks of this activity to the workers. The results can serve as a contribution to the regulation policies of this new job, as well as an inspiration to new studies on this field.
  • ALINE CARVALHO DE ALMEIDA
  • (AM) I AM A FRAUD (?): EXPLAINING THE IMPOSTOR SYNDROME
  • Fecha: 22-sep-2020
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • This dissertation aims to evaluate the impostor syndrome, self-esteem, psychological discomfort, and personality traits in undergraduate students. Four papers were presented. The first dealt with a theoretical study, which gathered data from the literature on concepts, correlates and measurement of the imposter syndrome. The second article aimed to build and gather evidence of validity and reliability of the Impostor Syndrome Scale (ISS). Two studies were carried out: the first one involved the participation of 280 subjects (teachers, employees and students) linked to a public higher education institution, with a mean age of 27.4 years (SD = 8.89). They answered the preliminary version of ISS and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The exploratory factor analysis showed a tetrafactorial structure and satisfactory realiability (α = 0.82). Thus, items with a factor load equal to or greater than |0.50| were selected, resulting in a structure with 16 items. In the second study, we tried to confirm the structure found in the previous study. For this, 200 undergraduate students (Mage = 24.2; SD = 9.17) answered the ISS and sociodemographic questions. Confirmatory factor analysis showed good fit indexes [χ² = 178.23; p < 0.001, χ² / df = 1.95. GFI = 0.90. AGFI = 0.85. CFI = 0.90, TLI = 0.87. and RMSEA = 0.066 (CI90% = 0.05-0.08)], after fixing the correlation between errors e1 and e2 (11.9), e9 and e10 (17.3), and e11 e e12 (17.9). Finally, the reliability coefficients were adequated for each component [Self-depreciation (ω = 0.70), fear of evaluation (ω = 0.82), fraud (ω = 0.84), and impression management (ω = 0.62)] and for the total scale (ω = 0.86). With evidence attesting the adequacy of the ISS, we moved on to the third article, which aimed to verify the association between the imposter syndrome, self-esteem and psychological discomfort. Two studies were carried out. The first one with 200 undergraduate students, linked to an educational institution in João Pessoa-PB, with a mean age of 24.5 years (SD = 8.34). They answered demographic questions and the following measures: Impostor Syndrome Scale (ISS), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). In the second study, a replication of Study 1 was carried out. 200 students from higher education courses from the same institution participated, with a mean age of 24.3 (SD = 9.17). The instruments used and data analysis performed were similar to those of Study 1. The results indicated that the variable with the greatest predictive power over the imposter syndrome was self-esteem. Finally, the fourth article sought to understand the association between the imposter syndrome, the Big Five, the dark and bright triad. Therefore, two studies were carried out. Study 1 tested hypotheses of association between these variables. Participants were 200 undergraduate students of an educational institution in João Pessoa-PB, with a mean age of 24.5 years (SD = 8.34). They answered demographic questions and the following measures: Impostor Syndrome Scale (ISS), Big Five Inventory (BFI), Virtuous Personality Inventory (IPV), and Dark Triad Dirty Dozen (DTDD). The second study was a replication of the first one. 200 students from higher education courses in João Pessoa-PB participated (Mage = 24.3, SD = 9.17). The instruments and data analysis were similar to those of Study 1. The results indicated that conscientiousness, neuroticism and narcissism are the best traits predcting the imposter feelings. In conclusion, the main objective was achieved, corresponding to construction of a measure of impostor syndrome with adequate psychometric evidence, in addition to contributing to know the psychological correlates of imposter syndrome.
  • NÁJILA BIANCA CAMPOS FREITAS
  • GREAT ROMANTIC LOVE: PSYCHOMETRIC EVIDENCE AND PSYCHOSOCIAL CONTRIBUTIONS
  • Fecha: 21-sep-2020
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • Great romantic love is about expectations of how a loving relationship should form, develop, function and be maintained, at least ideally. The thesis addresses this issue by proposing the hypothesis that beliefs about great romantic love are anchored in individual and social psychological variables.To verify this hypothesis, the following studies were counted: In Study 1, theoretical in nature, it was sought to introduce the theme of beliefs about great romantic love and, thus, identify the criteria that it is composed of, based on more widespread theoretical models of Social Psychology on loving relationships. In Study 2 (N = 276), of a quantitative nature, it was developed a measure (Great Romantic Love Belief Scale ) that gathered satisfactory psychometric evidence of factorial and convergent validity (dark triad, virtuous personality, human values and well-being), in addition to internal consistency. The Exploratory Factor Analysis resulted in a single factor where KMO = 0.64 and Bartlett sphericity χ² (6) = 296.5; p <0.001), a satisfactory adequacy index (CFI = 0.99) was observed, with a eigenvalue of 2.18, explained variance of 54.0% and internal consistency index of 0.84. ECGAR was correlated to traits of Machiavellianism (r = -0.15), psychopathy (r = -0.23), with the normative (r = 0.35) and interactive (r = 0.17) valuative subfunctions and the variables of well-being and satisfaction with life (r = 0.13), positive affects (r = 0.17), positivity (r = 0.22), vitality (r = 0.22) and negative affects (r = -0.20, p <0.01). Of these, ECGAR was predicted by psychopathy [adjusted R² = 0.05; F (1.263) = 14.88; p = 0.001] normative sub-function [adjusted R² = 0.12; F (1.263) = 35.66; p = 0.001] and positivity [adjusted R² = 0.05; F (1.263) = 13.96; p = 0.001]. In study 3 (N = 391), quantitative in nature, the objective was, in turn, to test the effects of the Triangular Love Scale (intimacy, passion and commitment) on beliefs about great romantic love, mediated by social values. A moderating effect of social values on the ETA_Total relation to ECGAR was then proven (β = 0.20, t = 2.07, p = 0.039), it was also found that the more people are guided by social values, the greater the interaction between ETA and ECGAR. Therefore, it is concluded that the understanding about beliefs on great romantic love favors knowledge of the components that comprise it, as well as the psychosocial variables that interfere in their formation. Given this, it makes it possible to understand how romantic relationships are formed prior to their formation and, accordingly, carry out interferences that prevent or stimulate mechanisms to optimize a healthy and lasting relationship.
  • TAILSON EVANGELISTA MARIANO
  • THE SHORT- AND LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF VIOLENT VIDEOGAMES ON AGGRESSION
  • Fecha: 14-may-2020
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • The study of the effects of video games on aggression was developed in the last 30 years. However, little is known about the effect of violent video games on attitudes towards firearms and the intention to own a firearm. Thus, the present thesis aimed to overcome this gap by analyzing the relationship between playing violent video games and attitudes, and aggressive behavior. To this end, it proposes the hypothesis that exposure to violent video games is positively correlated with these variables. To test this hypothesis, two cross-sectional studies were conducted with young adolescents (N = 479, M age = 15.7) and adults (N = 320, M age = 22.0) and one experimental study (N = 66, M age = 23.6). Taken together, cross-sectional studies showed that a) there is a positive correlation between playing violent video games and physical aggression in youth and adults b) and a positive correlation with favorable attitudes and the intention to own a firearm. It also showed that the participants' sex, how long they have been playing violent video games and hours of play per week act as predictors of the intention to own a firearm (long-term effect). The experimental study showed that playing violent video games for 20 minutes influences aggressive behaviors (short term effect). These results confirm the hypotheses raised and converge with those found in other research, confirming a theoretical hypothesis of the General Aggression Model that exposure in violent media can increase or affect aggressive behavior.
  • PATRICIA FONSECA DE SOUSA
  • ADESÃO AO PARADIGMA PSICOSSOCIAL DA SAÚDE MENTAL: PAPEL DOS ESTEREÓTIPOS, CRENÇAS, PERCEPÇÃO DE AMEAÇA E PRECONCEITO
  • Fecha: 29-abr-2020
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • A Reforma Psiquiátrica, atual política do campo da saúde mental, propõe uma transição de postura, de técnica e de tratamento pautada no estabelecimento do paradigma psicossocial em substituição ao biomédico, porém, observam-se dificuldades a efetivação do paradigma psicossocial.Esta tese tem como objetivo propor um modelo explicativo de adesão/não adesão ao paradigma psicossocial a partir dos estereótipos, das crenças sobre a etiologia da doença mental, da percepção de ameaça e do preconceito.A tese defendida é que a não adesão ao paradigma psicossocial está associada à permanência do preconceito e da percepção de ameaça frente ao doente mental, os quais estão ancorados em crenças acerca da etiologia da doença mental e em estereótipos negativos.Para alcançar o objetivo proposto e confirmar ou refutar a presente tese foram elaborados quatro estudos em formato de artigo. O artigo 1 é uma revisão teórica sobre os construtos teóricos da tese,abarcando as contribuições dos estereótipos, das crenças sobre a etiologia da doença mental, da percepção de ameaça e do preconceito na explicação da adesão/não adesão ao paradigma psicossocial.O resultado da revisão indicou que os construtos analisados nesse estudo são variáveis importantes na determinação das ações intergrupais e, portanto, podem contribuir para a compreensão da adesão/não adesão ao paradigma psicossocial.O artigo 2 teve como objetivo conhecer as representações sociais de profissionais da saúde mental, universitários da área da saúde e estudantes do ensino médio acerca do louco e do doente mental, fazendo um levantamento dos estereótipos relacionando-as aos paradigmas de atenção à saúde mental (biomédico e psicossocial). A amostra dessa pesquisa foi formada por 150 participantes, sendo 50 de cada grupo social. Para a coleta de dados, foi usada a Técnica de Associação Livre de Palavras, com os estímulos louco e doente mental. Os dados foram analisados no programa Tri-Deux-Mots. Os estudantes do ensino médio e os universitários apresentaram representações do louco e do doente mental ancoradas no paradigma biomédico, já os profissionais apresentaram representações ancoradas no paradigma psicossocial. O artigo 3 teve como propósito desenvolver a Escala de Estereótipos sobre o Doente Mental (EEDM), reunindo evidências psicométricas e para tanto foram realizados dois estudos. No Estudo 1, participaram 210 universitários e análises fatoriais exploratórias indicaram a existência de dois componentes (Estereótipos de Ameaça, α = 0,81; Estereótipos de Incapacidade, α = 0,80) com 10 itens no total. No estudo 2, participaram 206 universitários e uma análise fatorial confirmatória indicou que o modelo bifatorial proposto para a escala era adequado: χ²/gl = 2,31, GFI = 0,93, CFI = 0,94 e RMSEA = 0,08 (IC 90% = 0,057 - 0,103). Oartigo 4teve como objetivo propor um modelo explicativo de adesão/não adesão ao paradigma psicossocial da saúde mental a partir dos estereótipos, das crenças sobre a etiologia da doença mental, da percepção de ameaça e do preconceito.Participaram 400 universitários, que responderam aos seguintes instrumentos: Escala de Crenças sobre a Doença Mental, Escala de Estereótipos sobre o Doente Mental, Escala de Percepção de Ameaça frente ao Doente Mental, Escala de Preconceito frente ao Doente Mental, Escala de Atitudes em Saúde Mental. Os resultados demonstraram que quanto maior a percepção de ameaça e a concordância com o estereótipo de incapacidade, menor o apoio ao paradigma psicossocial. Os resultados também indicaram que as crenças acerca da etiologia da doença mental e os estereótipos estão na base da percepção de ameaça e estas variáveis juntas predizem maior preconceito.Os achados apresentam contribuição para a compreensão dos fatores que podem favorecer a efetivação do paradigma psicossocial no cenário da saúde mental e adesão aos preceitos da Reforma psiquiátrica.
  • REBECA KELLY GOMES DA SILVA
  • "ANÔNIMAS GUERREIRAS’’: A INTERFACE ENTRE CONDIÇÃO JUVENIL, QUESTÃO SOCIAL E MOVIMENTO DE MULHERES NEGRAS
  • Asesor : MARIA DE FATIMA PEREIRA ALBERTO
  • Fecha: 22-abr-2020
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • Esta dissertação tem como objetivo geral analisar a ação política da juventude no Movimento de Mulheres Negras em João Pessoa, sendo os objetivos específicos: Apresentar a organização do Movimento de Mulheres Negras; Discutir a atuação e participação política da juventude no Movimento de Mulheres Negras; Refletir sobre as pautas apresentadas pela juventude no Movimento de Mulheres Negras; e Discutir de que forma a atuação política da juventude no Movimento de Mulheres Negras pode colaborar para o projeto de emancipação humana. Os aportes teóricos que fundamentam esta dissertação estão embasados na perspectiva crítica gramsciana sobre movimentos sociais e no pensamento feminista negro sobre interseccionalidade e matriz de dominação. A fim de responder os objetivos elencados, adotou-se como percurso metodológico a pesquisa exploratória de caráter qualitativa. Foram utilizados como técnicas e instrumentos: documentos, diário de campo e grupos de discussão. Seis jovens mulheres negras participaram dos grupos de discussão. Os dados dos documentos e dos grupos de discussão foram submetidos ao software MaxQDA e analisados pela Análise de Conteúdo Temática baseada em Minayo. Os resultados revelaram a diversidade da juventude que compõe o movimento social, as ações individuais e coletivas utilizadas pelo referido grupo social e a relação entre ativismo e o acesso ao ensino superior. Os achados da pesquisa indicaram que as principais pautas e demandas apresentadas pela juventude são: enfrentamento ao racismo, direito à vida, afetividade, segurança, saúde, educação e trabalho. O movimento social foi reconhecido pelas participantes como um espaço organizado de luta, mas também de solidariedade entre as mulheres negras de gerações diferentes. Dessa forma, evidencia-se a dinamicidade das relações e as diversas formas de enfrentamentos às opressões vivenciadas pelas jovens mulheres negras, as quais visam uma sociedade baseada em novos marcos civilizatórios.
  • NAILA LOPES DE ARAUJO BRONZEADO
  • VALUES, HABITUAL CONCERN AND ATTITUDES AS PREDICTORS OF BEHAVIORS TO MITIGATE CLIMATE CHANGE: A FUNCTIONAL APPROACH
  • Asesor : VALDINEY VELOSO GOUVEIA
  • Fecha: 14-abr-2020
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • This is a study with the purpose of knowing the impact of human values, the usual concern and attitudes to explain behaviors to mitigate climate change. Two samples (general population and evangelicals), each composed of 198 participants, who answered measures of human values, habits of consuming meat, attitudes towards climate change, perception of severity of climate change and conducts that mitigate this change. The results showed, according to the literature, that the values can predict behaviors of mitigating climate change, especially through social and instrumental attitudes, and that the habit of meat consumption and the perception of severity of climate change can be two relevant predictors. In conclusion, potential limitations of the study were considered, also presenting recommendations for future studies and on how the findings of this research can be applied.
  • MICHAEL AUGUSTO SOUZA DE LIMA
  • CRENÇAS, ATITUDES E PRECONCEITO DE PROFISSIONAIS DE SAÚDE FRENTE À VULNERABILIDADE EM SAÚDE SEXUAL DE LÉSBICAS
  • Fecha: 03-abr-2020
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • O objetivo geral desta tese foi analisar as crenças, as atitudes e o preconceito de profissionais de saúde frente à saúde sexual lésbicas. Para tanto, parte-se da tese de que existem elementos de cunho individual, como crenças e atitudes de profissionais de saúde; social, como o preconceito e a discriminação; e programático, como a insuficiência e ineficácia das atuais campanhas em saúde, que associados podem refletir no atendimento prestado por profissionais de saúde no cuidado em saúde sexual de lésbicas. Para confirmar esta tese a presente pesquisa foi dividida em quatro capítulos, que correspondem cada, a um estudo. Capítulo I: Tratou-se de um estudo exploratório e descritivo, com design qualitativo, que permitiu identificar e analisar as crenças de médicos(as), enfermeiros(as), técnicos(as) de enfermagem e agentes de saúde que trabalham em Unidades de Saúde da Família acerca das práticas afeito-sexuais de lésbicas. A amostra foi estratificada por conveniência, assim fazem parte do estudo 31 (trinta e um) participantes de ambos os sexos. Para a coleta dos dados utilizou-se de um questionário sociodemográfico e da Técnica de Associação Livre de Palavras (TALP). Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se os softwares SPSS (estatística descritiva) e IRaMuTeQ (análise de similitude e prototípica). A maioria das palavras evocadas pelos participantes apontaram a possibilidade de existência de crenças positivas sobre as mulheres lésbicas. Contudo, também emergiram evocações que apontaram crenças de desaprovação do comportamento homossexual feminino, considerando esta prática como algo errada, incomum e desviante. Alguns participantes atribuíram a vulnerabilidade sexual de lésbicas à perversão, traição e até mesmo como resultado de castigo divino. Capítulo II: Tratou-se de um estudo exploratório e descritivo, com design qualitativo, que permitiu a investigação e análise das atitudes de médicos(as), enfermeiros(as), técnicos(as) de enfermagem e agentes de saúde que trabalham em Unidades de Saúde da Família acerca das práticas afeito-sexuais de lésbicas. A amostra foi estratificada por conveniência, assim fazem parte do estudo 31 (trinta e um) participantes de ambos os sexos. Para a coleta dos dados utilizou-se de dois questionários, um sociodemográfico e um questionário de atitudes composto por cinco questões. Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se os softwares SPSS (estatística descritiva) e a técnica de Análise de Conteúdo Categorial Temática. Os resultados indicaram a existência de uma dicotomia de atitudes, sendo essas favoráveis e desfavoráveis. Foi possível perceber o quanto elementos de ordem individual podem interferir nos atendimentos prestados, visto que, estes elementos fazem parte constituição da percepção que os profissionais possuem acerca da figura da usuária lésbica, e tudo que está associado a ela, como suas demandas, especificidades, formas de prevenção às IST’s e promoção da saúde. Capítulo III: Tratou-se de um estudo exploratório e descritivo, com design qualitativo, que permitiu a investigação e análise das opiniões de médicos(as), enfermeiros(as), técnicos(as) de enfermagem e agentes de saúde que trabalham em Unidades de Saúde da Família sobre a existência de preconceito e de discriminação contra usuárias lésbicas nos serviços de saúde. A amostra foi composta pelos menos participantes do Estudo II. Para a coleta dos dados utilizou-se de dois questionários, um sociodemográfico e um Priming precedido por um questionário composto por cinco questões relacionadas ao enredo apresentado. Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se os softwares SPSS (estatística descritiva) e a técnica de Análise de Conteúdo Categorial Temática. Os resultados indicaram a existência de opiniões que dividiram os posicionamentos em dois grupo opostos: desfavoráveis e favoráveis à conduta do personagem do médico que negou atendimento médico à personagem Sofia. Conclui-se que o preconceito ainda se faz presente entre os profissionais de saúde, no entanto, é recorrente sua manifestação de forma sutil, já que sua forma explícita seria moralmente e juridicamente reprovável, então, demonstrá-lo de forma sutil seria a forma utilizada por parte dos profissionais que possuem crenças e atitudes desfavoráveis em relação as lésbicas. Contudo, isso não o faz menos danoso para a vítima. Capítulo IV: Tratou-se de um estudo exploratório, transversal e documental realizado com materiais de domínio público disponíveis na internet com o intuito realizar a análise documental de materiais oriundos de campanhas realizadas pelo e/ou em parceria com o governo, elaboradas no Brasil, voltadas para profissionais de saúde e/ou usuárias, para a promoção da saúde sexual de lésbicas. Para localização dos sites foram utilizadas palavras-chave relacionadas ao tema. Tomou-se como referência para delimitação dos documentos a faixa temporal que vai do ano de 2004 até 2019. Localizou-se um total de 7 documentos. Os resultados apontaram que parte dos materiais localizados apresentam orientações superficiais e pouco detalhadas, além de informação imprecisas sobre as necessidades específicas das lésbicas. Deficiências na forma como estes materiais são disponibilizados para os profissionais e/ou para população lésbica também foram percebidas.
  • JÉSSICA BRUNA SANTANA SILVA
  • EFFECTS OF NEUROSTIMULATION ON SOCIAL COGNITION AND PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CORREREPORTS IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER
  • Fecha: 03-abr-2020
  • Hora: 13:00
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  • Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a condition of neurological development that is characterized by deficits in communication and social interaction and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (ETCC) has been presented as a promising technique of neural modulation of domains of social cognition. The present study aimed to characterize the therapeutic effects of anodic ETCC on the social cognition of children with mild ASD. A systematic review was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science and SCOPUS, resulting in five articles. Studies suggest beneficial effects of ETCC on the social rehabilitation of individuals with ASD. The second article consists of a protocol that aims to evaluate the safety and therapeutic effects of ETCC in the treatment of social deficits of children with ASD. The protocol describes a placebo-controlled, double-blind and randomized clinical trial. Patients will receive five consecutive sessions of ETCC for 20 minutes, with an anodic current of 1.5 mA over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (F3) and the treatise placed in the right supraorbital region. Patients will undergo three functional evaluations: baseline (T0); following the intervention with ETCC (T2); and 1 month after the intervention (T4). Participants will be randomly divided into 02 groups: Active - participants who will receive active current; and Placebo - participants who will receive simulated current. All participants will receive cognitive intervention, concomitantly with neurostimulation. Instruments that assess social cognition (primary outcome) will be used: the theory of mind subtest - Nepsy II and the emotional face recognition test; and the tests that assess the executive functions (secondary outcome measures): Trail Making Test A and B, Digit Span, WISC-IV subtest and the Seven Error Test. This protocol was used in the execution of subsequent studies. In the third article, the objective was to investigate the efficacy of anodic ETCC in the social cognition of children diagnosed with ASD. The second article consists of a protocol that aims to evaluate the safety and therapeutic effects of ETCC in the treatment of social deficits of children with ASD. The protocol describes a placebo-controlled, double-blind and randomized clinical trial. Patients will receive five consecutive sessions of ETCC for 20 minutes, with an anodic current of 1.5 mA over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (F3) and the cautt placed in the right supraorbital region. Patients will undergo three functional evaluations: baseline (T0); following the intervention with ETCC (T2); and 1 month after the intervention (T4). Participants will be randomly divided into 02 groups: Active - participants who will receive active current; and Placebo - participants who will receive simulated current. All participants will receive cognitive intervention, concomitantly with neurostimulation. Instruments will be used to assess social cognition (primary outcome): the theory of mind subtest - Nepsy II and the emotional face recognition test; and tests assessing executive functions (secondary outcome measures): Trail Making Test A and B, Digit Span, WISC-IV subtest, and seven-error test. This protocol was used in the execution of subsequent studies. In the third article, the objective was to investigate the efficacy of anodic ETCC in the social cognition of children diagnosed with ASD. A total of 18 male children with mild ASD and aged between 9 and 12 years (M= 10.9; SD= 1.72). The results suggest that participants who received active ETCC on the left CPFDL had significantly lower scores (p = 0.05) in the number and duration of fixations in the recognition of emotions joy, anger, fear and neutral. However, there was no significant effect on the number of recognized emotions, as well as on the Theory of Mind subtest - Nepsy-II (p > 0.05). The fourth article aims to investigate the efficacy of anodic ETCC in the executive functioning of children with mild ASD. The results suggest that there was no significant effect of active ETCC on the left CPFDL on eye movement parameters during the Seven Error Test (p = 0.26), presenting significant effect only in the total time to identify errors in elephant stimulus (p = 0.02). The results of eye screening suggest that anodic ETCC on the left CPFDL seems to act selectively improving the psychophysiological processing involved in the recognition of facial expressions, but did not present significant effects on executive functions, central to social cognition. In this sense, the findings should be analyzed with caution, and additional studies on the use of ETCC as a complementary strategy in cognitive and social rehabilitation of ASD are needed.
  • JÉSSICA BRUNA SANTANA SILVA
  • EFEITOS DA NEUROESTIMULAÇÃO NA COGNIÇÃO SOCIAL E CORRELATOS PSICOFISIOLÓGICOS EM CRIANÇAS COM TRANSTORNO DO ESPECTRO AUTISTA
  • Fecha: 03-abr-2020
  • Hora: 13:00
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  • O Transtorno do Espectro Autista (TEA) é uma condição do desenvolvimento neurológico que é caracterizado por déficits na comunicação e interação social e padrões restritos e repetitivos de comportamento. A Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua (ETCC) tem se apresentado como uma técnica promissora de modulação neural de domínios da cognição social. O presente estudo objetivou caracterizar os efeitos terapêuticos da ETCC anódica na cognição social de crianças com TEA leve. Para alcançar esse objetivo, esta tese está organizada em três artigos. O primeiro artigo objetivou sistematizar evidências sobre o uso da ETCC na reabilitação cognitiva social de pacientes com TEA. Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática nas bases eletrônicas PubMed, Web of Science e SCOPUS, resultando em cinco artigos. Os estudos sugerem efeitos benéficos da ETCC na rehabilitação social de indivíduos com TEA. O segundo artigo consiste em um protocolo que objetiva avaliar a segurança e os efeitos terapêuticos da ETCC no tratamento de déficits sociais de crianças com TEA. O protocolo descreve um ensaio clínico placebo-controlado, duplo-cego e randomizado. Os pacientes receberão cinco sessões consecutivas de ETCC durante 20 minutos, com corrente anódica de 1,5 mA sobre o córtex pré-frontal dorsolateral esquerdo (F3) e o cátodo colocado na região supraorbital direita. Os pacientes passarão por três avaliações funcionais: linha de base (T0); semana seguinte a intervenção com ETCC (T2); e 1 mês após a intervenção (T4). Os participantes serão divididos randomicamente em 02 grupos: Ativo – participantes que receberão corrente ativa; e Placebo – participantes que receberão corrente simulada. Todos os participantes receberão intervenção cognitiva, concomitantemente a neuroestimulação. Serão utilizados instrumentos que avaliam a cognição social (desfecho primário): o subteste teoria da mente - Nepsy II e o teste de reconhecimento de faces emocionais; e os testes que avaliam as funções executivas (medidas de desfecho secundário): Trail Making Test A e B, Span de dígitos, subteste WISC-IV e o Teste dos sete erros. Este protocolo foi utilizado na execução dos estudos subsequentes. No terceiro artigo o objetivo foi investigar a eficácia da ETCC anódica na cognição social de crianças diagnosticadas com TEA. Participaram do estudo um total de 18 crianças do sexo masculino, portadoras de TEA leve e com idade entre 09 e 12 anos (M= 10,9; DP= 1,72). Os resultados sugerem que participantes que receberam ETCC ativa sobre o CPFDL esquerdo apresentaram escores significantemente menores (p = 0,05) no número e na duração de fixações no reconhecimento das emoções alegria, raiva, medo e neutra. No entanto, não houve efeito significativo no número de emoções reconhecidas, bem como no subteste Teoria da mente - Nepsy-II (p > 0,05). O quarto artigo objetiva investigar a eficácia da ETCC anódica no funcionamento executivo de crianças com TEA leve. Os resultados sugerem que não houve efeito significativo da ETCC ativa sobre o CPFDL esquerdo nos parâmetros de movimentos oculares durante o Teste dos Sete erros (p = 0,26), apresentando efeito significativo apenas no tempo total para identificação dos erros no estímulo elefante (p = 0,02). Os resultados do rastreamento ocular sugerem que a ETCC anódica sobre o CPFDL esquerdo parece atuar de maneira seletiva melhorando o processamento psicofisiológico envolvido no reconhecimento de expressões faciais, mas não apresentou efeitos significativos nas funções executivas, centrais para a cognição social. Nesse sentido, os achados devem ser analisados com cautela, sendo necessários estudos adicionais sobre o uso da ETCC como estratégia complementar na reabilitação cognitiva e social do TEA.
  • JACQUELINE MATIAS DOS SANTOS
  • A INTERFACE ENTRE A VIOLÊNCIA OBSTÉTRICA E AS DIMENSÕES DE VULNERABILIDADE: UMA ABORDAGEM QUALI-QUANTITATIVA NA PARAÍBA
  • Asesor : ANA ALAYDE WERBA SALDANHA PICHELLI
  • Fecha: 31-mar-2020
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • Introdução: A Violência Obstétrica (VO) pode ser considerada como sendo todos os atos praticados contra a mulher no exercício de sua saúde sexual e reprodutiva, podendo ser cometida por profissionais de saúde, servidores públicos, profissionais técnico-administrativos de instituições públicas e privadas, bem como civis. Entendendo que as vulnerabilidades inseridas na VO vão além da dicotomia entre o individual e o coletivo, mas sim de uma totalidade compreensiva, utiliza-se como aporte teórico o conceito de Vulnerabilidades proposto por Ayres e a categoria teórica de Violência Obstétrica. Objetivo: Partindo da premissa que aspectos socioeconômicos, demográficos e organizacionais estão associados às vulnerabilidades encontradas no contexto de Violência Obstétrica, este estudo tem como objetivo geral analisar e os aspectos das vulnerabilidades à Violência Obstétrica sofrida por mulheres no estado da Paraíba. Método: Estudo 1 - Relatos de violência obstétrica e percepções de vulnerabilidades individual, social e programática. Estudo quanti-qualitativo, exploratório e transversal com amostra composta por 106 mulheres da população geral. Critérios de inclusão: ter mais de 18 anos no momento da coleta de dados e ter notadamente percebido que sofreu violência obstétrica. Foram utilizados 3 instrumentos organizados em formato de questionário autoaplicável: Técnica de Associação Livre de Palavras com um estímulo: “Quando você lembra da Violência Obstétrica no seu parto, quais são as três primeiras palavras que vem à sua cabeça?”; Questionário sociodemográfico; Questionário sobre percepções de vulnerabilidades relativas à VO composto por dez questões e a solicitação do relato da violência. Estudo 2 -Construção e validação do Instrumento de Medida de Percepção de Vulnerabilidades à Violência Obstétrica. Resultados: Estudo 1 - as evocações da vivência foram representadas desde uma perspectiva de suas próprias condições físicas e psicológicas (dor, medo, raiva, vergonha, humilhação, tristeza, impotência, entre outras) até das relações interpessoais entre elas e as pessoas que cometeram a violência (abuso, negligência, irresponsabilidade, “fazer foi bom”, “não grita”, entre outras). Os relatos de violência demonstram a figura central do médico na cena de violência seguido pela do enfermeiro, responsáveis pelas intervenções físicas e verbais. A palavra hora permite o o entendimento de uma necessidade de avaliação temporal do processo de nascimento associadas a dor física. A percepção de vulnerabilidade individual emergiu 4 categorias: conhecimento, escolha da via de parto, interação em cena e denúncia. A percepção de vulnerabilidade social emergiu 3 categorias: conhecimento, hierarquia das relações, denúncia e mobilização social. A percepção de vulnerabilidade programática emergiu 4 categorias: relação hierárquica e autoritária, assistência não baseada em evidências, humanização da assistência, e efetivação dos direitos. Estudo 2- O instrumento inicial foi composto por 114 itens, dos quais permaneceram 65 divididos em três subescalas contemplando cada um dos tipos de vulnerabilidade – individual, social e programática, segundo o modelo proposto por Ayres.
  • GISELLI LUCY SOUZA SILVA
  • Modelo Explicativo da Exclusão Social do Doente Mental baseado nas Crenças, Preconceito, Percepção de Ameaça, Curabilidade e Responsabilização
  • Asesor : SILVANA CARNEIRO MACIEL
  • Fecha: 31-mar-2020
  • Hora: 08:00
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  • Ainda são poucos os estudos que propõe um modelo explicativo da exclusão social dos doentes mentais. Diante disto, esta tese tem como objetivo principal propôr um modelo explicativo da exclusão social do doente mental baseado nas crenças causais da doença mental, no preconceito, na percepção de ameaça na curabilidade e responsabililzação. Para atingir o objetivo geral, esta tese apresenta uma sequência de estudos multimétodos, estruturada em um artigo teórico e três empíricos. O primeiro artigo compreende uma revisão da literatura articulando os diversos arcabouços teóricos que dão sustentáculo a tese. O segundo artigo, de abordagem mista, buscou identificar o nível de preconceito frente aos doentes mentais e analisar as justificativas apresentadas para aceitação/rejeição as situações de contato. Participaram 171 universitários, que responderam a Escala de Preconceito frente ao Doente Mental e justificaram suas respostas aos itens do instrumento. Foram realizadas estatísticas descritivas com o auxílio do SPSS e Análise de Conteúdo Temática proposta por Bardin. Os resultados demonstraram que persiste o preconceito contra o doente mental, revelado pelo distanciamento das relações sociais justificada pela percepção de ameaça. O terceiro artigo, correlacional, analisa as relações entre as crenças causais sobre a doença mental, a percepção de ameaça e o preconceito. Universitários (N = 323) responderam a Escala de Crenças Sobre a Doença Mental, Escala de Preconceito, Escala de Percepção de ameaça frente ao Doente Mental e um questionário biossociodemográfico. Os dados apontaram correlação significativa entre todos os construtos. A percepção de ameaça, no fator periculosidade, foi predita pelo preconceito e pelas crenças religiosas. O fator imprevisibilidade foi explicado pelo preconceito e pelas crenças causais: drogas, religiosas e contingenciais. Os resultados são consonantes com as justificativas apresentadas pelos participantes no segundo artigo. O quarto artigo , está dividido em duas análises: A Análise 1, experimental (N = 413), analisou a influência das crenças causais da doença mental, preconceito, percepção de ameaça, curabilidade e responsabilização no processo de exclusão social. O estudo apresenta uma vinheta que relata o adoecimento mental de um homem. Na história apresentada foram manipulados o tipo de crença causal (biológica, psicológica, religiosa, uso de drogas e grupo controle) e a curabilidade (curável x incurável). Os participantes também responderam a uma medida de atribuição responsabilização do doente mental. Os resultados mostraram efeito significativo das crenças sobre a exclusão (crença religiosa gera maior exclusão), percepção de ameaça e responsabilização (crença no uso de drogas gera maior responsabilização). A crença na incurabilidade da doença mental mostrou efeito significativo para exclusão e percepção de ameaça. A Análise 2 (N = 413) buscou dimensionar o efeito dos construtos propondo um modelo de mediação moderadora estatisticamente significativo. Análises de regressão demonstraram que para que o preconceito produza exclusão é necessária a mediação da percepção de ameaça . Os resultados também indicam que o preconceito é moderado pelas crenças causais e moderado pela curabilidade e responsabilização, oferecendo então suporte ao processo de exclusão social. Desarte, as implicações desses resultados devem ser considerados como uma contribuição para compreender o preconceito destinado ao doente mental, bem como servir de suporte para formulação de estratégias para reduzir o preconceito e a exclusão social.
  • JOCERLANDIO APOLINARIO ALVES
  • TÉCNICAS DE SOCIALIZAÇÃO NA FAMÍLIA E JULGAMENTO MORAL EM CRIANÇAS E ADOLESCENTES
  • Fecha: 30-mar-2020
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • Este estudo verificou o efeito de técnicas de controle materno no processo de socialização de crianças na família e a formação sociomoral, especificadamente o julgamento moral e a empatia dos filhos. A amostra deste estudo foi composta por 94 díades de mães e avós que eram primeiras cuidadoras das crianças e jovens adolescentes. Três grupos de idade foram formados a partir da idade dos filhos(as)/netos(as): G1: 34 crianças de 6 a 7 anos com idade média de 7 anos (DP = ,485) e 34 cuidadoras em idade média de 38 anos (DP = 12,252); G2: 27 jovens adolescentes de 8 a 9 anos com idade média de 8 anos (DP = ,501) e 27 cuidadoras com 35 anos em média (DP =6,01); G3: 33 adolescentes de 10 a 11 anos com idade média de 10 anos (DP = ,502) e 33 cuidadoras com 38 anos de idade em média (DP = 6,693), estudantes do primeiro ao quinto ano do ensino fundamental da rede pública municipal. Os instrumentos utilizados um questionário Sócio demográfico, uma escala de Técnicas de Controle – ETC e uma escala de Intenções composta por duas estórias estimulo comparando comportamentos morais: Estória 1: Antônio (Agressão sem intenção explicita) e Mario (Altruísmo) e Estória 2: Tereza (Agressão com intenção) e Lourdes (Agressão sem intenção). Os procedimentos de coleta de dados variaram para o grupo de mães e de crianças e jovens adolescentes. As mães responderam os instrumentos com papel e lápis em grupos. As crianças e jovens adolescentes foram entrevistados verbalmente e individualmente. Os resultados foram satisfatórios para a escala ETC com dois fatores: Controle Externo e Controle Interno, a técnica de controle interno favoreceu significativamente o julgamento moral e a empatia das crianças com relação a compreensão da Estória 2 que testava agressões cometidas com e sem intenção a partir dos personagens das estórias. Os participantes reconheceram as emoções apropriadas a cada personagem. Não ocorreram mudanças por idade ou sexo.
  • JOCERLANDIO APOLINARIO ALVES
  • TÉCNICAS DE SOCIALIZAÇÃO NA FAMÍLIA E JULGAMENTO MORAL EM CRIANÇAS E ADOLESCENTES
  • Fecha: 30-mar-2020
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • Este estudo verificou o efeito de técnicas de controle materno no processo de socialização de crianças na família e a formação sociomoral, especificadamente o julgamento moral e a empatia dos filhos. A amostra deste estudo foi composta por 94 díades de mães e avós que eram primeiras cuidadoras das crianças e jovens adolescentes. Três grupos de idade foram formados a partir da idade dos filhos(as)/netos(as): G1: 34 crianças de 6 a 7 anos com idade média de 7 anos (DP = ,485) e 34 cuidadoras em idade média de 38 anos (DP = 12,252); G2: 27 jovens adolescentes de 8 a 9 anos com idade média de 8 anos (DP = ,501) e 27 cuidadoras com 35 anos em média (DP =6,01); G3: 33 adolescentes de 10 a 11 anos com idade média de 10 anos (DP = ,502) e 33 cuidadoras com 38 anos de idade em média (DP = 6,693), estudantes do primeiro ao quinto ano do ensino fundamental da rede pública municipal. Os instrumentos utilizados um questionário Sócio demográfico, uma escala de Técnicas de Controle – ETC e uma escala de Intenções composta por duas estórias estimulo comparando comportamentos morais: Estória 1: Antônio (Agressão sem intenção explicita) e Mario (Altruísmo) e Estória 2: Tereza (Agressão com intenção) e Lourdes (Agressão sem intenção). Os procedimentos de coleta de dados variaram para o grupo de mães e de crianças e jovens adolescentes. As mães responderam os instrumentos com papel e lápis em grupos. As crianças e jovens adolescentes foram entrevistados verbalmente e individualmente. Os resultados foram satisfatórios para a escala ETC com dois fatores: Controle Externo e Controle Interno, a técnica de controle interno favoreceu significativamente o julgamento moral e a empatia das crianças com relação a compreensão da Estória 2 que testava agressões cometidas com e sem intenção a partir dos personagens das estórias. Os participantes reconheceram as emoções apropriadas a cada personagem. Não ocorreram mudanças por idade ou sexo.
  • LEILANE CRISTINA OLIVEIRA PEREIRA
  • Institutional welcoming from the production and discourses of psychologists
  • Fecha: 30-mar-2020
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • The present thesis aims to analyze hosting institutions based on scientific production and the discourse of psychology professionals who work in hosting institutions. Institutional care is a type of protective measure that can be taken in situations of abuse against children and adolescents. Psychology is practiced within child and adolescent care institutions equipped with a technical team that must produce quarterly reports on cases in order to contribute to the judicial analysis of the cases, in addition to daily cooperation with the shelters. It is assumed that: the scientific production of hosting psychology is mainly made and directed to academics, it is driven by new legislation; the performance of psychology in the hosting institutions is modeled by the historical construction of the profession, the models of childcare, and the discourses that are formulated and support these models of psychology and care; that psychology works by supporting the value of foster care institutions and blaming poor families of institutionally sheltered children and adolescents. Based on the assumptions presented, the thesis is defended that psychology, in its scientific production and performance in hosting institutions, is fixed to the maternal discourse, acting to guarantee rights and updating discourses of subjection of poor children. To this end, it was chosen as theoretical categories, built on the basis of Foucault's theory, discourse, and truth. Study 1 was a bibliographic search of the scientometrics type in order to fulfill the first objective. The term “shelter” was used as a search descriptor in the databases, for publications between 2005 and 2010, and the term “institutional shelter”, for publications between 2010 and 2017, in the SciELO and CAPES/MEC Journal Portal databases. Descriptive statistics were performed as data analysis. Study 2, with a view to fulfilling the other specific objectives, was carried out through the critical analysis of the discourse of interviews with 6 psychology professionals who work in hosting institutions. According to the characteristics established in the method for study 1, 54 publications were identified, 18 articles with the term "shelter" and 36 articles with the term "Institutional shelter". It was observed that, in the majority, the articles were published by women with training in psychology, linked to federal education institutions in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil and had public funding. Most of the publications involved interviews with sheltered children and adolescents and were driven by changes in legislation. The results of study 2 show that: the performance of psychology in hosting institutions is impacted by the process of feminization of work; psychology works to guarantee rights; the performance of psychology in the hosting institutions collaborates in updating the forms of subjection of poor children; and psychologists who work in hosting institutions consider that the training they received prepared them for clinical practice. From the results, it is concluded that the thesis was corroborated by psychology, in its scientific production and performance in the hosting institutions; it is fixed to the maternal discourse, acting to guarantee rights and updating discourses of subjection of poor children. In the hosting institutions, psychology is fixed to the maternal discourse in addition to suffering impacts from the feminization process of the profession.
  • ALBERT SILAS FREITAS DE MORAES
  • A Normatividade do Perdão Interpessoal em Ambientes de Trabalho
  • Asesor : JULIO RIQUE NETO
  • Fecha: 30-mar-2020
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • Estudos realizados por Aguiar (2018) revelaram que o perdão das injustiças que ocorrem nas relações familiares e de amizade é uma atitude que possui valor social. Portanto, o perdão é afetado pelo contexto no qual as mágoas ocorrem. Considerando isto, esta dissertação teve como objetivo investigar se o perdão das injustiças que ocorrem em ambientes de trabalho é uma atitude que também possui valor social. Para alcançar este objetivo esta dissertação foi organizada em dois artigos que adotaram como referencial teórico e metodológico a abordagem sociocognitiva de estudo das normas sociais (Dubois, 2003; Gilibert & Cambon, 2003). O primeiro artigo investigou a valorização social do perdão em ambientes de trabalho através da desejabilidade e da utilidade social. Neste artigo foram realizados dois estudos experimentais. No Estudo 1 (N = 80), os participantes foram instruídos a responderem uma adaptação da escala de Resolução de Problemas Interpessoais (ERPI) para transmitirem uma imagem pessoal positiva ou negativa deles mesmos. Os resultados revelaram que os participantes se descreveram como pessoas que possuíam uma capacidade elevada de perdoar ao transmitirem uma imagem pessoal positiva e, portanto, desejável aos olhos das demais pessoas. No Estudo 2 (N = 183), foi solicitado que os participantes avaliassem três entrevistas de supostos candidatos a uma vaga de emprego que expressavam diferentes graus de concordância com o perdão: pouco vs moderadamente vs muito. Dois instrumentos foram utilizados para medir a avaliação dos participantes: uma lista de adjetivos (α = 0,81) e um índice avaliativo global (α = 0,95). Os resultados revelaram que candidatos que concordavam com o perdão em graus mais elevados foram mais positivamente avaliados pelos participantes. Em conjunto, os resultados dos dois estudos sugerem que o perdão é uma atitude valorizada (i.e., desejável e útil) em ambientes de trabalho. Além disso, revelam que as pessoas manipulam o seu grau de concordância com o perdão para transmitirem uma imagem pessoal socialmente positiva, o que é uma estratégia eficaz sobre o julgamento das demais pessoas. O segundo artigo investigou a utilização da virtude do perdão em estratégias de diferenciações interpessoais e de autopromoção e a influência do grau de proximidade com o agente da injustiça sobre o grau de perdão em ambientes de trabalho. Neste artigo foram realizados dois estudos experimentais. No Estudo 1 (N = 182), foi utilizado um desenho fatorial 2 (referente: expressar a própria opinião vs responder de acordo com a opinião de um colega) x 2 (alvo: colegas de tralho vs chefes). Os resultados indicaram que os participantes se descreveram como pessoas que perdoam mais do que seus pares as injustiças cometidas por colegas de trabalho. No Estudo 2 (N = 215), também foi utilizado um desenho fatorial 2 (imagem: positiva vs negativa) x 2 (alvo: colegas de trabalho vs chefes). Os resultados revelaram que os participantes se descreveram como pessoas perdoam em graus elevados para, assim, transmitirem uma imagem pessoal positiva e desejável, o que corrobora os resultados do Estudo 1 do primeiro artigo. Além disto, estes resultados reforçam os achados do Estudo 1 deste segundo artigo, que indicam que se perdoa os pares (i.e., colegas de trabalho) em maior grau que perdoam os superiores (i.e., chefes). Em conclusão, os resultados revelam que perdoar é uma virtude socialmente desejável e útil (artigo 1) para aqueles com os quais se têm um maior grau de proximidade (artigo 2). No conjunto, os estudos indicam, de maneira consistente, que o perdão das injustiças que ocorrem em ambientes de trabalho é uma atitude valorizada.
  • VALÉRIA NICOLAU DE SOUSA
  • The Work activity of undergraduate coordinator courses at a public university in the Brazil's Northeast
  • Fecha: 30-mar-2020
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • This research proposed to analyze the work activity of undergraduate coordinators, who works at a higher education public institution. The theories used were the Psychodynamics of Work and activity-centered ergonomics, which study work and its implications for mental and physical health. The specific goals were: Investigating the existence of training for the exercise of the function; Identifying the prescriptions for the function. Confronting the prescriptions with the work that is actually performed; Ascertain what are the characteristics of work conditions and organization; Identifying the sources of work’s suffering and pleasure; Surveying the variability in work and their facing strategies; Examining the issue of work’s recognition; Verifying the way that subjective relationships are presented; The theoretical approaches used were the Psychodynamics of work and the Ergonomics of Activity. This research is qualitative and exploratory. A semi-structured interviews was used as a method of data collection. The participants were nine coordinators, most of them are women, married, with children, and linked to four teaching areas. It was chosen as a thematic content analysis through categories. The main results showed that, in the working conditions, the psychological risks from the high demand of work stood out, in addition to the physical and ergonomic risks associated with the physical structure of the work. Pleasure and recognition at work were associated with the resolution of demands and public recognition, especially by students. Leave from work is avoided as much as possible, which denotes zeal for work, which, however, can compromise health. It is noteworthy be noted that the main motivation of a coordinator is to be able to contribute to the professional training of students. Interpersonal relationships appear as an important source of suffering. It is concluded that the psychodynamics of work and activity-centered ergonomics were useful to understand aspects of a coordinator's work that are related to mental health. Some aspects of work organization need to be reviewed for an improvement in worker activity. It is hoped that this study can be used both to support institutional actions in favor of improving health in the coordinator's work and to justify the establishment of a financial gratification proportional to the service provided by this public server to the university.
  • ANDREZZA MANGUEIRA ESTANISLAU
  • WHEN THE DESIRE TO BUY BECOMES UNCONTROLLABLE: A STUDY BASED ON PERSONALITY AND HUMAN VALUES
  • Fecha: 27-mar-2020
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • The objective this dissertation is to test a mediation model, considering Human Values as a mediator of the relationship between Personality and Compulsive Buying (CB). For this, three studies were carried out: Study 1 aimed to adapt the Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale (RCBS) for the Northeast region of Brazil. Three hundred (300) university students participated, the majority from a private university (67%), female (71%), with an average age of 23.5 years (SD = 6.7). They answered the RCBS and a sociodemographic questionnaire. An Exploratory Factor Analysis was performed and the results suggested the unidimensional of the instrument, explaining 51.85% of the total variance and a favorable internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.86). The purpose of Study 2 was to test the structure found in Study 1. There was the participation of 279 university students, the majority from public university (54.1%), male (51.3%), with average age 23.1 years (SD = 4.74). The participants responded to the same instruments as in Study 1. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis was carried out and the results showed good quality indexes for RCBS adjustments, confirming its yours unifactorial structure. Study 3 intended to understand the relationship between Personality Traits, Valuation Subfunctions and Compulsive Buying (CB); to verify the predictive power of Personality Traits and Human Values in compulsive buying; and, finally, to test the mediation model. Three hundred and twenty-nine (329) university students participated, the majority from a private university (54.1%), male (51.7%), with an average age of 24.67 years (SD = 6.34), who responded to the same instruments of the Study 2, in addition to The Big Five Inventory and the Basic Values Questionnaire. The result of the correlations, followed by regressions and the mediation model, demonstrated the contribution of the Extroversion, Neuroticism traits and the Realization subfunction in explaining the Compulsive Buying Behavior. It is believed that this dissertation contributes to the Compulsive Buying literature and Social Psychology, especially in explaining Compulsive Buying Behavior from a psychological perspective, because most studies on this construct are constituted in the administration area, more specifically in marketing. Furthermore, by knowing the factors that can influence the purchase compulsive, can help both consumers and professionals who deal with this kind of issue.
  • PIERRE GONÇALVES DE OLIVEIRA FILHO
  • Challenges and limits to psychologist task in the basic attendance: perceptions of psychologists who work at NASF about their professional identity.
  • Fecha: 27-mar-2020
  • Hora: 13:30
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  • The NASF (Family Health Support Center) emerged from the Ministry of Health Ordinance n° 154, of January 24, 2008 and consolidated itself as a new field of work for psychologists in public health policies, especially in Primary Care. Thus, the identity of the psychologist in this field has been the subject of many debates and discussions. At this context, this study started from the following thesis: The psychologist's performance in the Family Health Support Centers (NASF) enabled the construction of a “new” professional identity. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the construction of the identity of the psychologists who work in NASF in a city in the State of Paraíba - PB. This being a qualitative, descriptive study, where we use: a socio-labor questionnaire and in-depth interviews. The first empirical study was in the form of a systematic literature review article, where we searched for references from the last 5 years, in the following databases: academic Google, Pepsic, Scielo and Capes plataforms. And in the second article, 5 semi-structured interviews were conducted with the psychologists who were working on the NASF teams in a city in the state of Paraíba. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using the Thematic Categorical Analysis method, according to Minayo (2014). In the first article, the literature review indicated that there is a strong conflict in the construction of the psychologist's identity in this field, because the influence of the traditional clinic is still a reality, while the demands indicate the need to develop more collective and multiprofessional actions. As result of the analysis, four Thematic Categories were identified. First: the perception of their role and their professional performance; Second: Actions, knowledge and techniques developed at NASF; Third: Challenges, desires and difficulties of the psychologist's work in the NASF team; Fourth: Identity and training of psychology professionals and care for users in the NASF territory. Thus, from the analysis of the themes, we identified several contradictory speeches that demonstrate the experience of a constant search for the construction of the psychologist's professional identity in this field. In the analysis of the interviews, we identified speeches instituted in the construction of practices that are already hegemonic in this scenario, and instituting speeches that signal the need for changes in the training and performance of psychology professionals in NASF teams. Our initial thesis was that the psychologist's work in the Family Health Support Centers (NASF) enabled the construction of a “new” professional identity. Among the main contributions of this research, we can understand that the construction of professional identity is organized based on some assumptions, such as, for example, the organization of a set of knowledge and practices necessary for intervention in this field. Thus, professional identity is linked not only to the professional's locus of action, as we had put it as one of the assumptions that guided this research, but also to the social and historical context, thus marking an analysis of identity from this social context.
  • FRANCICLÉIA LOPES SILVA
  • NEGATIVE ATTITUDES TOWARDS RAPE VICTIMS: CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE ATTRIBUTION OF CAUSE AND GUILTY IN RAPE
  • Fecha: 27-mar-2020
  • Hora: 10:00
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  • This dissertation aimed to verify which aspects minimize the aggressor's perception of guilt in rape, admitting the orientation to social dominance and human values as predictors. In this sense, two articles were made. Article 1 aimed to gather psychometric evidence of the adaptation of the Rape Cause Perception Scale. This article was divided into two studies, the first counting the participation of 220 university students from the city of João Pessoa - PB, of both sexes (64.5% female), with an average age of 23.48 years (SD = 7, 56; range from 18 to 63 years). These answered, in addition to sociodemographic questions, the Brazilian version of the measure of perception of the cause of rape, in the second study, the sample consisted of 203 university students of both sexes (54.2% female), with an average age of 21 , 45 years old (SD = 5.17; range from 18 to 51 years old), who answered the Brazilian version of the instrument and the measure of Attitudes towards Rape Victims (EAVE). The analyzes corroborated the factorial structure of 5 components as suggested by the original version of the instrument, these components are organized in individual order styles: Blaming the Victim (α = 0.86), Male Sexuality (α = 0.84) and Male Hostility (α = 0.70); and social styles: Male Domination (α = 0.92) and Society / Socialization (α = 0.86). Finally, the confirmatory analysis of the second study corroborates the instrument's pentafactorial structure (eg, χ2 / gl = 2.00, GFI = 0.81, AGFI = 0.78, CFI = 0.88, RMSEA = 0.07 (CI90% = 0.062-0.078), ECVI = 3.47 and CAIC = 969.427) and its convergent validity with the EAVE scale. Article 2 is a study of a quasi-experimental character, 2x2 and aimed to analyze the influence of normative human values and the orientation to social dominance in the perception of the cause of rape in negative attitudes towards victims. 369 university students from a public institution in João Pessoa - PB participated in this study. These had a mean age of 21, 32 years (SD = 4.53; range of 18 to 49 years), the majority being male (52.9%), who answered sociodemographic questions and the measures: Scale of Perception of Rape Cause (EPCE), Attitude Scale Against Rape Victims (EAVE), Basic Values Questionnaire (QVB), SDO Social Dominance Orientation Scale, and in addition to the aforementioned instruments, an experimental scenario was used where the the victim's ethnicity and the context in which the victim took the situation that the violence occurred. The results corroborate those found in the existing literature, men continue to be those who show greater negative attitudes towards victims of rape; people who identify with the feminist movement tend to endorse less support for negative attitudes towards victims of rape, it can also be seen that black victims are more to blame for the violence they suffer; being able to verify that the orientation to social dominance as well as the normative values are predictors of the attitudes towards victims of rape, being the perception of cause of social rape a mediator in the reduction of blame for the rape victim (eg, coefficient = 0, 0294, SE = 0.0091, CI90% = 0.0130 to 0.0492). Thus, it is estimated that the proposed objectives have been achieved.
  • MARÍLIA PEREIRA DUTRA
  • AVALIAÇÃO DE ESTRATÉGIAS PARA A REDUÇÃO DE COMPORTAMENTOS AGRESSIVOS EM CRIANÇAS DE 9 A 12 ANOS
  • Fecha: 27-mar-2020
  • Hora: 10:00
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  • Diante dos elevados índices de agressão no âmbito educacional e da necessidade de encontrar estratégias de intervenção cujos efeitos na redução de comportamentos agressivos na infância fossem confiáveis, comparou-se o efeito de duas estratégias na redução desses comportamentos, a técnica afetiva-discursiva e a informativa-discursiva. Participaram da pesquisa-intervenção 43 alunos/as do 4º ano do ensino fundamental de uma escola pública da Paraíba, com idade de 9 a 12 anos (M= 9,84; DP= 0,84) que foram distribuídas em 3 grupos (afetivo-discursivo, informativo-discursivo e controle). Para a verificação dos efeitos das intervenções, os participantes foram avaliados no pré-teste, no pós-teste e no follow-up, por meio dos seus escores à Escala de Empatia para Crianças e Adolescentes, ao Questionário de Agressão de Buss e Perry e por suas verbalizações em um Grupo Focal, feito após o término das intervenções. Além disso, os participantes foram avaliados por uma docente, através dos escores atribuídos por ela a um Questionário de Avaliação do Comportamento Agressivo do Discente, antes e depois das intervenções. Os dados quantitativos obtidos com a escala e os questionários foram analisados com testes paramétricos (Teste t e Análises de Variância). Em relação aos dados do grupo focal, utilizou-se a Análise de Conteúdo Temática. Os resultados dos dados quantitativos indicaram um aumento significativo da média de empatia apenas no grupo afetivo-discursivo e uma diminuição significativa da média de agressividade nos grupos afetivo-discursivo e informativo-discursivo, do pré-teste para o pós-teste. As análises dos dados qualitativos do grupo focal confirmaram esses resultados. Nota-se que, no grupo de controle, houve um aumento significativo da média de agressividade, do pré-teste para o pós-teste. Já os resultados do pós-teste para o follow-up indicaram que houve uma diminuição significativa da empatia no grupo afetivo-discursivo e uma manutenção do nível de empatia nos outros grupos. Quanto ao escore médio de agressão verificou-se que ele se manteve constante no grupo afetivo-discursivo, aumentou significativamente no grupo informativo-discursivo e diminuiu significativamente no grupo de controle. Esses resultados mostram, de um modo geral, que as duas estratégias utilizadas na intervenção foram eficazes para a redução da agressão, porém, em um prazo mais longo, a estratégia afetiva-discursiva mostrou-se mais efetiva do que a informativa-discursiva.
  • ANA ROGELIA DUARTE DO NASCIMENTO
  • ATUAÇÃO DO PSICÓLOGO ESCOLAR JUNTO A PROFESSORES DA EDUCAÇÃO BÁSICA: CONCEPÇÕES E PRÁTICAS
  • Fecha: 27-mar-2020
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • A presente pesquisa analisou as concepções e práticas de psicólogas(os) escolares e docentes sobre a atuação da(o) psicóloga(o) escolar junto a professoras(es), no acompanhamento ao processo de ensino e aprendizagem. Estudos do campo da psicologia escolar de base crítica assinalam a importância do trabalho de psicólogas(os) com professores mediando a relação professor-aluno, para promover e potencializar os processos de aprendizado e desenvolvimento, relevância abordada inclusive em documentos técnicos para nortear o trabalho de psicólogas(os) na Educação Básica. O marco teórico que fundamenta essa pesquisa é a teoria histórico-cultural de Vigotski que elaborou um conjunto de argumentos para explicar as relações entre aprendizagem e desenvolvimento humano, e como os processos de ensino e aprendizagem colaboram para a formação de conceitos científicos dos quais os sujeitos se apropriam a partir de sua inserção na escola. Também fundamentadas nessa teoria, foram explicitadas formulações e propostas de intervenção de pesquisadores brasileiros do campo da psicologia escolar, entendidas como marcos para a discussão e análise do objeto da presente pesquisa. Neste sentido, realizou-se uma pesquisa de campo do tipo qualitativa, com dezessete psicólogas(os) escolares, dezesseis professores do Ensino Fundamental I e dezesseis professores do Ensino Fundamental II, de escolas públicas da rede municipal da cidade de João Pessoa-PB. Para analisar as concepções e práticas dos participantes foram utilizados dois roteiros de entrevista semiestruturada e dois questionários sociodemográficos, direcionados a cada grupo. As entrevistas foram gravadas em áudio e transcritas na íntegra para análise, conforme as diretrizes do método de categorização de conteúdo apresentadas por Bardin (2000). Os resultados permitiram perceber, de maneira geral, que as ações das(os) psicólogas(os) tinham um caráter coletivo, com intervenções mais voltadas ao corpo docente e demais profissionais da instituição, do que ações pontuais com alunos e suas famílias. No que se refere ao acompanhamento do professor ao processo de ensino e aprendizagem, não foi explicitado pelas(os) psicólogas(os) como essas ações ocorriam e como contribuíam no processo de ensino e aprendizagem e na prática pedagógica. Parte das(os) psicólogas(os) afirmou efetivar ações formativas com o corpo docente, bem como realizar um trabalho preventivo. Para a maioria dos dois grupos de professores o seu papel no processo de ensino e aprendizagem é de mediador e este processo ocorre pela utilização de diversas estratégias pedagógicas. No que concerne aos profissionais que auxiliam a prática docente, os professores mencionaram com maior frequência as(os) psicólogas(os), os gestores e demais funcionários. Verificou-se que os professores de ambos os seguimentos compreendem, em sua maioria, a atuação da(o) psicóloga(o) ainda associada a questões emergenciais e a atendimentos individuais com alunos e suas famílias. Ainda para os docentes, ações como atividades formativas, de orientação e reflexão sobre a prática pedagógica também constituem possibilidades de intervenção de psicólogas(os). Os resultados também demonstraram que na visão de psicólogas(os), as situações que os professores consideram interferir no processo de ensino e aprendizagem foram os problemas/dificuldades dos alunos. Já para os professores do primeiro seguimento foi a ausência do acompanhamento familiar na vida escolar dos estudantes, e para os professores do segundo seguimento foi o déficit na estrutura escolar e de recursos. As análises desses resultados permitem defender a plausibilidade do trabalho de psicólogas(os) junto a docentes no sentido de estabelecer parceria com essa(e) profissional, bem como foi um importante indicador para a proposição de intervenções junto ao corpo docente, pautadas em uma perspectiva preventiva, psicossocial e institucional. Adverte-se ainda para a importância de psicólogas(os) no contexto da educação se apropriarem continuamente de pressupostos teóricos e metodológicos para atuarem de forma crítica, consciente e transformadora, para assim mobilizarem concepções e práticas dos demais atores escolares sobre sua importância na educação e no desenvolvimento humano.
  • HELOISA BÁRBARA CUNHA MOIZÉIS
  • Donjuanism syndrome: concepts, measures and correlates
  • Fecha: 27-mar-2020
  • Hora: 08:00
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  • The present dissertation aimed to elaborate and test a measure to evaluate the dimensions that make up the Donjuanism syndrome, relating them to dark personality traits, sexual compulsiveness and human values. To this end, three articles were elaborated. In Article 1, of a theoretical nature, it was proposed to introduce the theme of this syndrome, which is characterized by a compulsion to conquer partners, and may be present in single and married people. Its characteristics, psychosocial consequences and correlates were also presented. Article 2 dealt with the elaboration of the Donjuanism Syndrome Scale (ESDJ), gathering evidence of its psychometric properties. To this end, two studies were conducted with samples of university students. The present study aimed to develop the Donjuanism Syndrome Scale (DSTS). In study 1 (N = 215; M age = 22.6; 55.8% women), the participants answered the Donjuanism Syndrome Scale and sociodemographic questions. An exploratory factor analysis indicated a pentafartorial structure, composed of 30 items, with adequate reliability. In Study 2 (N = 246; M age = 23.09; 54.9% female), the participants additionally answered the Tetrangular Love Scale. A confirmatory factor analysis corroborated the five-factor structure of the ESDJ: betrayal (α= 0.81), disguised romanticism (α= 0.77), seduction (α= 0.72), affective instability (α= 0.70) and conquest strategy (α= 0.70), which correlated as expected with the factors of ETA (romantic passion, erotic passion, commitment and intimacy). Article 3 aimed, in turn, to know the correlations and predictive power of dark personality, sexual compulsiveness and human values in relation to donjuansimo syndrome. A total of 402 subjects participated in the study, who responded to the measures of dark personality, sexual compulsivity, human values, and the Donjuanism syndrome scale. The results suggested that the general factor of Donjuanism was explained by the factors that make up dark personality (e.g., narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism), sexual compulsivity, and experimentation values (R = 0.63; p < 0.001). Therefore, the effects of dark personality traits on Donjuanism syndrome, mediated by human values and sexual compulsivity, were tested. Subsequently, direct and indirect effects of the traits in relation to Donjuanism were observed. Therefore, it is concluded that Donjuanism can be predicted by the dark traits, when mediated by the values of experimentation and sexual compulsivity. Thus, it is concluded that the ESDJ corresponds to an adequate tool for assessing the dimensions of the Donjuanism syndrome, and its factors are related to dark traits, sexual compulsiveness and evaluative correlates.
  • GIULLIANY GONÇALVES FEITOSA
  • Concepções e expectativas parentais sobre o filho com Transtorno do Espectro Autista
  • Fecha: 26-mar-2020
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • O Transtorno do Espectro Autista (TEA) é um transtorno do desenvolvimento que envolve comprometimentos nas áreas de socialização, comunicação e comportamento. As concepções dos pais sobre o autismo influenciam as práticas de cuidado e as interações com a criança, de modo a refletir no desenvolvimento infantil. Este estudo tem como objetivo investigar as concepções e expectativas parentais sobre a criança com TEA. Os participantes deste estudo são 30 mães e pais de crianças, com até cinco anos de idade, diagnosticadas com TEA. Os instrumentos utilizados para a coleta de dados são uma ficha de dados da criança e do genitor e uma entrevista semiestruturada. A coleta de dados foi realizada em duas instituições: em um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Infantil e em um Centro Médico, ambos localizados na cidade de Campina Grande, na Paraíba. A análise dos dados ocorreu à luz da análise do conteúdo proposta por Bardin, e indica que as concepções parentais sobre o autismo se centram, especialmente, em não saber definir o TEA e em defini o TEA a partir das características e comportamentos apresentados pela criança. Já as expectativas parentais versam sobre o desejo de que o filho obtenha maior desenvolvimento nas áreas comprometidas pelo TEA, especialmente na socialização e linguagem. Além disso, os pais também nutrem expectativas de que o filho venha a ser independente e possa, futuramente, suprir suas próprias necessidades. Os resultados indicam que as concepções e expectativas parentais sobre o TEA são construções complexas que se relacionam com os fatores socioeconômicos e psicossociais da família, com as características da criança e do transtorno, com as informações recebidas, com o entendimento dos pais sobre o papel parental e com suas estratégias de ação. Os resultados deste estudo fornecem subsídios para elaboração de possíveis materiais instrucionais para as famílias, além de servir como base para elaboração de estratégias de ação e orientação junto a profissionais da saúde e a famílias de crianças com TEA.
  • CAMILLA VIEIRA DE FIGUEIREDO
  • The Effect of Gender and Male Distinctiveness Threat on Prejudice Against Homosexuals
  • Fecha: 26-mar-2020
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • Positive distinctiveness threat is central for understanding ingroup bias, but its role in gender differences in the expression of sexual prejudice is not yet satisfactorily elucidated. We analyzed this issue by proposing that sexual prejudice is a defensive strategy to ensure intergroup distinctiveness and that consequently, heterosexual men are more prejudiced against homosexuals because they strive more for positive distinctiveness. In Study 1 (N = 232), we manipulated the target of prejudice (gay man vs. lesbian) and found that men exhibited more prejudice against gay men, while women did not significantly differentiate their prejudice against these target groups. In Study 2, we manipulated the target group of prejudice (gay men vs. lesbians) in a sample of men (N = 79) and confirmed that they made greater efforts to differentiate heterosexual men from gay than heterosexual women from lesbians. In Study 3 (N = 178), we indirectly manipulated the threat to the distinctiveness between homosexual and heterosexual and demonstrated that the need for positive distinctiveness mediates the relationship between gender and prejudice in men but not in women. Finally, in Study 4 (N = 75), we directly manipulated the perception of distinctiveness for men and women and measured sexual prejudice by means of an implicit measure (IAT). The results showed more implicit prejudice in men than in women when intergroup distinctiveness was threatened. Our results have important implications for understanding sexual prejudice by shedding light on the role played by the distinctiveness threat of gender difference in expressing homophobia.
  • NATALIA DE LOURDES FERREIRA DOS SANTOS
  • A ORGANIZAÇÃO DOS ESPAÇOS EM INSTITUIÇÕES DE EDUCAÇÃO INFANTIL: CONCEPÇÕES E PRÁTICAS DE EDUCADORES E PSICÓLOGOS
  • Fecha: 26-mar-2020
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • Atualmente as crianças são inseridas no contexto da educação infantil desde os primeiros meses de vida e em tempo integral. Com isso a sociedade vem requerendo uma maior qualidade dos espaços de educação infantil em seus aspectos estruturais e pedagógicos. No presente estudo será discutido o papel dos arranjos espaciais e seu impacto no processo de aprendizagem e desenvolvimento, nas interações estabelecidas entre educadores e crianças e suas propostas pedagógicas na educação infantil. Defende-se que uma educação infantil de qualidade está fortemente atrelada às concepções e práticas dos profissionais de educação, tais como professores e psicólogas(os) escolares, por seu papel mediador de processos de aprendizado e desenvolvimento no citado contexto. Essa questão foi discutida a partir da teoria Histórico-Cultural do desenvolvimento de Vygotsky (1996/2004), marcadamente sua concepção acerca do desenvolvimento humano e o papel do adulto como mediador de processos de aprendizado infantil. Neste sentido, o objetivo geral desta pesquisa foi analisar as concepções e práticas de educadores e psicólogos sobre a organização dos espaços em instituições de educação infantil, discutindo seus impactos nas interações educadores-crianças e nas práticas pedagógicas em curso. A pesquisa é do tipo qualitativo e descritivo e foi realizada em seis instituições públicas de Educação Infantil do Município de João Pessoa (PB), que atendem crianças de 4 a 5 anos e 11 meses de idade. Como parte da pesquisa, foram realizadas a descrição e análise da organização e estrutura física das instituições de educação infantil pesquisadas, visando mapear os tipos de arranjos espaciais de turmas de pré-escolares. Foi ainda realizada uma análise dos documentos oficiais que regem cada instituição de ensino, tais como o Projeto Político Pedagógico (PPP) e o regimento interno da instituição, por meio do qual foi possível apreender informações que remetam à organização espacial, ao modo como ela vem sendo abordada em tais documentos, bem como verificar que não consta nos documentos institucionais direcionamentos ou orientações acerca dos arranjos espaciais e sua importância para o desenvolvimento infantil. Para conhecer as concepções e práticas das profissionais acerca dos arranjos espaciais e seu papel nas práticas pedagógicas e nas interações estabelecidas, foram entrevistadas seis professoras e cinco monitoras, todas do sexo feminino, com idade média de 33,9 anos, cuja participação foi condicionada a assinatura do Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. As entrevistas, registradas por meio de um gravador de voz, ocorreram em local reservado, na presença apenas da pesquisadora e da profissional que participou da pesquisa. As entrevistas foram transcritas literalmente, sendo organizadas em eixos de análise, categorizadas de acordo com a similaridade semântica e os conteúdos que emergiram por meio das perguntas do roteiro. Esse material foi discutido com base em pesquisas relativas ao tema proposto e no marco teórico vigotskiniano. Os resultados das entrevistas permitiram identificar que as concepções e práticas das profissionais entrevistas ainda estão desvinculadas do que preconizam os documentos oficiais e as pesquisas sobre a organização dos espaços e seu papel no aprendizado infantil. Também foi verificada, pelos relatos, a importância que atribuem ao planejamento intencional de atividades e à exploração de aspectos e materiais adequados à faixa etária das crianças. Destaca-se que, para a efetivação de práticas pedagógicas que englobem a organização do espaço, é necessária a qualificação continuada de profissionais e a conscientização, por parte do educador, de que a organização dos espaços é um facilitador do processo de aprendizado, sendo necessário planejar em um mesmo espaço, diferentes arranjos espaciais e suas variadas funções, visando promover interações nos diferentes contextos. Evidencia-se a relevância dessa pesquisa, pois o espaço de educação infantil deverá estar organizado para promover o psiquismo infantil e, portanto, ser um ambiente potencial para o desenvolvimento. Os resultados da pesquisa permitiram ainda a proposição de um protocolo de intervenções de psicólogos relacionadas a modalidades de arranjos espaciais que potencializem as interações entre crianças e educadores e reflexões sobre o impacto da pesquisa para a prática de psicólogas(os) na educação infantil.
  • ANA KAROLYNE FLORENCIO AMORIM
  • Legitimizing Role of the Content of Stereotypes in the Gender Pay Gap
  • Fecha: 25-mar-2020
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • Discrimination against women is widespread in contemporary societies, and unequal pay for the performance of the same functions suggests that this bias is socially accepted. We addressed the proposed problem that people spontaneously use gender stereotypes in a way that reinforces their motivation to reaffirm gender pay gaps. In Study 1 (N = 96), we showed that the simple act of justifying hiring favors the gender pay gap. In Study 2 (N = 298), we showed that this difference is mediated by the greater evocation of competence traits to justify hiring a male candidate. Study 3 (N = 382) revealed that the gender pay gap is moderated by a position in which the female candidate receives a higher salary when applying for a stereotypically masculine position. Study 4 (N = 303) confirmed this finding after the manipulation of stereotypic content associated with male and female candidates. In the discussion, we addressed the central role of the content of gender stereotypes as a justification for the gender pay gap and as a possible source for reversing the direction of this gap.
  • MARIA HELENA VENÂNCIO DE VASCONCELOS
  • Efeitos de mídia de música em pensamentos e sentimentos agressivos
  • Fecha: 24-mar-2020
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • A presente dissertação teve como objetivo verificar os efeitos de capas de álbuns violentas em pensamentos e sentimentos agressivos, além de validar e reunir evidências de adequação psicométrica para a Escala de Estado de Hostilidade e Tarefa de Completar Palavras. Para tanto, foram realizados três estudos com graduandos. No Estudo 1, realizou-se uma Análise Fatorial Exploratória (AFE). A partir da análise dos componentes principais, verificaram-se boas cargas fatoriais numa estrutura unifatorial, com alfa de 0,83. No Estudo 2, realizou-se uma validade convergente entre a Escala de Estado de Hostilidade e a Tarefa de Completar Palavras, que mede Cognições Agressivas (r = 0,26), p < 0,01. Por outro lado, encontraram-se relações sutis com a desejabilidade social, sugerindo a validade discriminante. A medida tem validade fatorial, convergente e discriminante, além de ser precisa, podendo ser utilizada em estudos futuros. No estudo 3, por sua vez, realizou-se uma análise de variância múltipla (MANOVA), verificaram-se efeitos marginalmente significativos das capas nos pensamentos agressivos, F (2, 147) = 2,694, poder = 0,53, eta parcial2 = 0,035, p = 0,07. As comparações por pares (comparações múltiplas), por sua vez, apresentaram que a diferença se encontra entre a capa do grupo controle e do grupo experimental 2 (Legacy of Kain), p = 0,035, como esperado.
  • JUAN ALVES APOLINARIO
  • THE CONCEPTION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PROFESSIONALS IN A CAPITAL FROM BRAZILIAN NORTHEAST ON SKILLS CERTIFICATION
  • Asesor : ANISIO JOSE DA SILVA ARAUJO
  • Fecha: 24-mar-2020
  • Hora: 10:00
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  • Information Technology Certifications (CTI) occupy a considerable space in discussions in the area. As a certification modality focused on skills, it becomes a relevant object of study for the field of social work psychology by encompassing concepts common to the field.The present study sought to explore the theme of the conception of CTIs through qualitative research, using semi-structured interviews with Information Technology professionals from a capital in northeastern Brazil and, for data analysis, thematic content analysis was used. , .As theoretical contributions, regarding the topic of competence, we resort to Philippe Zarifian, and regarding the debate on Recognition, Validation and Certification of Competences (RVCC) we use Umbelino, 2006; Marques, 2007; Cartaxo 2009; Nico, 2009; Lima, 2012 and Cavaco, 2016.The results showed that professionals consider this type of certification to be relevant, but highlighted some limitations in relation to the criteria used to assess competencies.At the end, some notes were made as proposals for improvements based on the results obtained.
  • RUTH PEREIRA GOMES
  • Análise da atividade dos operadores industriais na fabricação de descartáveis
  • Fecha: 23-mar-2020
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • A presente dissertação tem como objetivo geral analisar a atividade dos operadores de máquina na fabricação de bandejas e copos descartáveis. Para tanto utilizou-se da ergonomia da atividade e da psicodinâmica do trabalho como aportes teóricos para discutir as questões que emergiram na pesquisa. Participaram dela 20 trabalhadores de dois polos fabris do setor industrial de um estado do Nordeste brasileiro. Os operadores de máquina responderam a um questionário sociodemográfico e a uma entrevista semiestruturada. Para análise dos dados do questionário foi feita uma análise descritiva básica e para tratamento dos materiais das entrevistas recorremos a análise de conteúdo temática. Os resultados serão apresentados em três artigos. O primeiro artigo, finalizado, evidenciou a discrepância entre o trabalho prescrito e o real da atividade, e mostrou que as variabilidades mais perceptíveis são: os imprevistos na atividade, as dificuldades de operacionalização das ferramentas e maquinário, prazos curtos, e a complexidade na programação da produção. Confirma-se que tais variabilidades demandam dos operadores conhecimentos, habilidades e atitudes para administrar a diversidade de contextos que eles se inserem. O segundo artigo apresentou os riscos presentes na atividade e os seus modos de enfrentamento. Nele foi apresentado a caracterização dos participantes, as questões sobre inserção e formação profissional, as formas de enfrentamento dos riscos presentes no cotidiano e as medidas de segurança adotadas na perspectiva de minimizar os riscos. Os resultados indicaram que a maioria dos trabalhadores tem visão parcial dos riscos inerentes a sua atividade, desconhecendo especialmente os riscos químicos e biológicos; os Equipamentos de Proteção Individual (EPI) não são utilizados por todos, conforme exigem as normas de segurança, a empresa fornece os EPIs de acordo com o posto de trabalho, porém com restrições de quantidade. O terceiro artigo versa sobre a intersubjetividade da relação entre o homem e o trabalho, no que diz respeito as fontes de prazer e sofrimento, foi possível concluir que os trabalhadores operários foram definidos como um grupo de risco, com inclinação a produzir comportamentos patológicos prejudiciais as relações interpessoais, as competências institucionais e, sobretudo a saúde. Por fim, espera-se que esse estudo possa contribuir com as discussões que viabilizem transformações no trabalho, principalmente o que foi apontado como nocivo pelos entrevistados e que reforce as ações que promovam a saúde física e psicológica dos operadores de máquina.
  • FLAVIANE MICHELLY TENORIO DE SOUZA
  • Mediating Role of Prejudice in the Relationship Between Conservatism and Support for Sexual Reorientation
  • Fecha: 23-mar-2020
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • People's political support for therapeutic practice of sexual reorientation may be motivated by the homophobic prejudice driven by conservative groups. In this article, we analyze the problem of political support for sexual reorientation (SSR) by proposing the hypothesis that this support is motivated by conservatism and that this relationship is mediated by prejudice against gay individuals. We also propose that the role of prejudice in the relationship between conservatism and PSSR is moderated by beliefs about the nature of homosexuality. We tested these hypotheses in three studies. In Study 1 (N = 249), we found that conservative values predict PSSR, and this effect is partly mediated by prejudice. In Study 2 (N = 247), we replicated this mediation and found that it was moderated by ethical-religious beliefs and psychological beliefs about the nature of homosexuality. Study 3 (N = 210) went further by experimentally showing the political consequences of PSSR. Through sequential mediation, we showed that more conservative individuals tend to absolve psychologists who practice sexual reorientation. Taken together, the results of this research have important implications for understanding the political significance of PSSR and the psychosocial process that motivates social support for its implementation.
  • AMANDA DIAS DOURADO
  • A AVALIAÇÃO E A SUA RELAÇÃO COM A SAÚDE DAS PESSOAS AFASTADAS DO TRABALHO
  • Fecha: 23-mar-2020
  • Hora: 08:30
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  • Esta dissertação corresponde a um estudo de natureza qualitativa que buscou como objetivo geral investigar relação da operacionalização de violentos métodos avaliativos no contexto laboral com a saúde do trabalhador, e como objetivos específicos: analisar o que acontecia com esses trabalhadores durante a tentativa de alcançar os resultados exigidos no processo avaliativo do trabalho quando ainda ativos no emprego; compreender as vivências de sofrimento oriundo do processo de avaliação que se tornou fonte de sofrimento patógeno e investigar como esses trabalhadores estão vivenciando a experiência de rompimento com o trabalho. A pesquisa foi realizada no Centro de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador - CEREST, de uma capital do Nordeste Brasileiro. Para tanto, foi utilizado como instrumento um questionário sociodemográfico e uma entrevista semiestruturada norteada pelos objetivos do estudo junto a nove trabalhadores. A análise dos dados aconteceu por meio da análise de conteúdo temática com o auxílio teórico da Psicodinâmica do Trabalho. Os resultados encontrados para os objetivos propostos foram: a tentativa para corresponder às altas cobranças por resultados, muitas vezes inatingíveis, se depara com a fragilização dos coletivos de trabalho e o presenteísmo. Percebeu-se que os sofrimentos decorrentes do processo avaliativo envolvem sentimento de injustiça, ausência de reconhecimento, metas inalcançáveis, pressão psicológica e humilhação na exposição dos resultados. Na condição de afastados, os trabalhadores revelaram o incomodo pela própria patologia somado à sensação de inutilidade e a vergonha de estar doente.
  • HYALLE ABREU VIANA
  • Discrimination against egalitarian men in the labor market
  • Fecha: 20-mar-2020
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • The objective of this thesis is to investigate how we react to men who defend gender equality, who in this thesis were called egalitarian men. To achieve this objective, this thesis is organized in two articles. In the first article, two studies were developed. Study 1 (N = 250) investigated the attribution of stereotypes to egalitarian men through an open question, and study 2 (N = 221) analyzed the stereotypical attribution to egalitarian men and women in a work context considered to be male. Taken together, the results of this article show that the egalitarian man is perceived as fragile and possibly homosexual. But on the other hand, he is perceived as more competent than traditional men. The second article, through two studies, investigated discrimination against equal men in the labor market. Thus, Study 1 (N = 235) tested the hypothesis that a man's egalitarian or traditional positioning in relation to the division of gender roles influences the agreement of his hiring / failing for a leadership position. The role of sexism in the relationship between the type of positioning of men (traditional X egalitarian) and the decision made by the recruiter in a selective process (hiring or not) in the perception of the legitimacy of this decision was also analyzed. Study 2 (N = 278), in turn, analyzed what types of justifications people use to agree or disagree with hiring / failing egalitarian or traditional candidates. The results of these two studies showed that the more one adheres to hostile sexism, the greater the perceived legitimacy in hiring the traditional candidate. Regarding the justifications, we found that the hiring of the traditional candidate is justified by his dedication to the job and his rejction by the fact of being dependent on his wife. The hiring of the egalitarian candidate is justified because he seems to be a good professional and his rejection for his priority given to the family. Together, the results presented in this thesis show the diverse faces that sexism can take on Brazilian society.
  • MAYARA DE OLIVEIRA SILVA MACHADO
  • ENGAJAMENTO PARENTAL E VALORES HUMANOS: O PODER MEDIADOR DA SATISFAÇÃO PARENTAL
  • Fecha: 20-mar-2020
  • Hora: 09:30
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  • A presente dissertação objetivou testar um modelo de mediação, considerando a satisfação parental como mediadora da relação entre valores humanos e engajamento parental. Para isso, foram realizados dois estudos. No Estudo 1 objetivou-se reunir evidências de validade e precisão da Escala de Engajamento Parental (EEP) e da Escala de Satisfação Parental (ESP). Participaram 226 indivíduos (pais e mães) residentes de vários estados brasileiros, sendo a maioria da Paraíba (66,8%), mulheres (57,5%), casados ou em união estável (86,3%), com idade média de 37,47 anos (DP = 7,92, amplitude 19 a 60 anos), e com pelo menos um filho entre 5 a 12 anos de idade (M = 8,89; DP = 7,65), que responderam a EEP, a ESP e um questionário sociodemográfico. Os resultados da análise fatorial exploratória, por meio dos critérios HULL e MAP, sugeriram a unidimensionalidade das medidas, apresentando evidências de validade e precisão favoráveis para a EEP (α de Cronbach e ômega de McDonald = 0,87) e para a ESP (α de Cronbach e ômega de McDonald = 0,82). O Estudo 2 teve como objetivos averiguar a estrutura da EEP e da ESP encontradas no Estudo 1, verificar a contribuição das variáveis sociodemográficas na explicação do engajamento parental e da satisfação parental, identificar a relação entre as subfunções valorativas a satisfação parental e o engajamento parental, e, por fim, testar um modelo de mediação do engajamento parental. Contou-se com 204 indivíduos (pais e mães) do estado da Paraíba, sendo a maioria mulheres (88,6%), casados ou em união estável (77,3%), com idade média de 35,10 anos (DP = 7,00, amplitude 23 a 58 anos) e com pelo menos um filho entre 5 a 12 anos de idade (M = 8,99; DP = 5,40). Apresentaram uma média de 3,54 (DP = 0,68) na avaliação da relação conjugal e de 3,81 (DP = 0,46) na autoavaliação como pai/mãe. Os participantes responderam os mesmos instrumentos do Estudo 1, com o acréscimo do Questionário dos Valores Básicos. Os resultados da análise fatorial confirmatória revelaram parâmetros psicométricos aceitáveis que corroboraram com a estrutura unifatorial da EEP [χ²/ gl = 1,91, GFI = 0,91, CFI= 0,91 RMSEA = 0,07 (IC90% = 0,05 - 0,08), com alfa de Cronbach de 0,82 e confiabilidade composta (CC) de 0,83, e da ESP [χ²/gl = 3,58, GFI = 0,97, CFI = 0,94, RMSEA = 0,07 (IC90% = 0,05 – 0,08), com alfa de Cronbach de 0,75 e confiabilidade composta (CC) de 0,77. Posteriormente, foi possível verificar através de correlações de Pearson, seguidas de regressões lineares, que a avaliação conjugal e a autovaliação como pai/mãe apresentaram-se como melhores preditores do engajamento parental e da satisfação parental, e a quantidade de filhos como preditor do engajamento parental, embora, na direção negativa. Pode-se ainda, identificar relações positivas e estatisticamente significativas (p < 0,05) entre a satisfação parental e o engajamento parental, além das subfunções valorativas (interativa, normativa, suprapessoal, existência e realização), com ambas variáveis supracitadas. Em seguida, através de regressões lineares (simples e múltiplas) pode-se identificar como variáveis preditoras do engajamento parental, a satisfação parental (β = 0,66; p < 0,001) e as subfunções valorativas (normativa, β = 0,20; p < 0,05; e realização, β = 0,20; p < 0,05), e como preditor da satisfação parental a subfunção normativa (β = 0,26; p < 0,001). Observa-se então, que a subfunção realização não apresentou poder preditivo na satisfação parental, por esse fato, opta-se por excluí-la do modelo. A partir disso, foi testado um modelo de mediação considerando o engajamento parental como variável critério, a subfunção normativa como variável independente e a satisfação parental como mediadora, cujos os resultados apresentaram uma mediação total, visto que, na presença da satisfação parental os efeitos diretos entre a subfunção normativa e o engajamento parental deixaram de ser significativos (λ = 0,09; p = 0,07; IC 90% = 0,01/0,18). Dessa forma, tem-se que pessoas que priorizam a subfunção normativa são mais engajadas em suas funções parentais porque apresentam maiores níveis de satisfação parental. Assim, acredita-se que os valores humanos e a satisfação parental configuram-se como importantes variáveis na promoção do engajamento parental. Desse modo, o estudo contribui com a Psicologia Social, sobretudo no que se refere às relações familiares, uma vez que busca explicar o engajamento parental. A presente dissertação, colabora assim, com o avanço científico do tema, fornecendo dados empíricos que instigam a reflexão acerca de possibilidades de intervenções nas relações parentais a fim de se obter experiências positivas na vida de pais e filhos.
  • IARA MARIBONDO ALBUQUERQUE
  • Psychosocial processes of discrimination against women
  • Fecha: 19-mar-2020
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • This thesis aims to investigate which psychosocial processes underlie the persistence of discrimination against women in two contexts: labor and sexual violence. To achieve this, this work brought together three investigations that adopt as theoretical reference the assumptions of the theory of intergroup relations (Tajfel, 1982). The first investigation analyzed the effect of the candidate's gender (male vs. female) and parental leave status (enjoy vs. dislike) on discrimination against women at work; as well as evaluating the attribution of stereotypic traits to such candidates in terms of dimensions of competence, sociability and morality. The applicant's gender and parental leave status interact and together influence discrimination (Study 1, N = 315). In turn, the woman on maternity leave was evaluated more positively in the three stereotypical dimensions when compared to the woman who had waived the license and worse in the competence dimension when compared to the man who enjoyed the same right (Study 2, N = 312). The second investigation examined the influence of group membership (ingroup vs. exogroup) and adherence to moral values and Fair World Belief in the accountability of women victims of sexual violence. The in-group victim was more responsible (Study 1, N = 250); and this relationship was moderated by the binding values (Study 2, N = 117) and by CMJ (Study 3, N = 258). Taken together, the results suggest that the responsibility of the victim of sexual violence is higher when she belongs to the in-group; and that this relationship is predicted by high adherence to binding values and low adherence to Belief in a Fair World (CMJ).Finally, the third investigation of this paper took a look at the testimonies of victims of violence in police investigations conducted between 2015 and 2017, with the purpose of investigating the configurations that violence against women can assume.
  • ITALO DE OLIVEIRA GUEDES
  • THE OBJECTIVE CONDITIONS OF LIFE OF YOUTH MURDER VICTIM IN THE CITY OF JOÃO PESSOA
  • Fecha: 19-feb-2020
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • Youth is the main victim of homicides. Thus, this dissertation aims to analyze the objective conditions of life of the youth victim of homicide in João Pessoa, with specific objectives of making a biosociodemographic characterization of this youth, characterizing the social context of homicides, knowing the social elements common to murdered youth, identifying criminalization processes of this population. The study was developed in two stages, based on documentary research with police homicide investigations by the Civil Police. Using the SPSS software, a descriptive analysis of the biosociodemographic data of 136 surveys was performed, defined from sample calculation; in the second, nine cases were selected to perform thematic content analysis, using the MAXQDA software. It was observed that, of the victims, 58.1% were in the young-young age group, 99.2% were black people, 52.2% of the crimes occurred in only 10 neighborhoods of the city, 58.8% were murdered in the neighborhoods that lived, 60% were illiterate, 21.43% were considered "unoccupied" and 91.2% of homicides used firearms. Content analysis revealed two major codes: Criminalization for justice, composed of the categories Drug use, Absence of work activity, History of violence and Friendships; and Social Criminalization, with the categories Inefficiency of the State, Territory and Early Work.
2019
Descripción
  • YANA THAMIRES MENDES FELIX
  • Cooperation in the activity of mobile emergency care service (SAMU) teams
  • Fecha: 13-dic-2019
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • The Mobile Emergency Care Service (SAMU) has a social function of extreme importance, as well as being one of the entry points for the Unified Health System (SUS). This service deals with situations where social violence is very evident and requires intense mobilization by professionals in each service. Therefore, in a first study performed with nursing technicians, cooperation emerged significantly in the discourse of these workers, which motivated the realization of the present study, in which cooperation is the central focus. As a theoretical basis was used the Psychodynamics of Work. The research is characterized as qualitative and the composition of the sample investigated was of ten SAMU teams, six composed of one Nurse and one Conductor that manages the Basic Health Units and four teams composed by a Physician, a) Nurse and a Driver, crew of the Advanced Health Units. The interviewees were selected for convenience. For data collection, we used semistructured interviews with each team. For the treatment of the data, we used the Thematic Content Analysis. The work was organized and structured in an article format, being a theoretical and the other fruits of the interviews. Regarding the results, it was pointed out that cooperation is determinant for the operation of SAMU, especially among the professionals that compose the street teams, who take the ambulances/motolances to the rescue of users in public and private roads. The ability to work together, in a coordinated way, with fluency and making the relevant choices, allows the best results in terms of efficiency and effectiveness in the services. Thus, the cooperation goes through several moments of service: at the entrance of a new colleague and his familiarization with the activity; during street actions; in the moments of waiting for the occurrences and in situations of informality. Professionals create links that go beyond the workplace, considering their peers as a second family. They are concerned about providing mutual coverage when necessary and value the role of each for the success of the service in general. In addition, in the attendances, although there is a hierarchy, this tends to alleviate its rigid demarcations in the face of some situations, especially those of greater gravity and that demand more agility. Cooperation has also emerged in informality, in moments of rest, where professionals exchange knowledge and confidence, make choices and take actions regarding collective well-being. It is evident, therefore, that cooperation permeates SAMU in its entirety and that it is in fact the basis of service. With the results found, it is hoped to contribute to the production of knowledge about cooperation, its role in the mental health of workers, the benefits to work and to the SAMU.
  • KHALIL DA COSTA SILVA
  • TOLERÂNCIA À VIOLÊNCIA POLICIAL COMO EXPRESSÃO DA DISCRIMINAÇÃO
  • Fecha: 26-nov-2019
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • A presente tese tem como objetivo analisar os fatores psicossociais capazes de favorecer e legitimar a relação entre a pertença grupal do contraventor e a tolerância à violência policial. Foram realizados estudos experimentais no Brasil e na Espanha que contribuíram de modo integrado para a consecução do objetivo geral. Todos os estudos desenvolvidos basearam-se nos pressupostos teóricos da perspectiva das relações intergrupais (Tajfel, 1981) e articulam os níveis de análise intergrupal e ideológico (Doise, 2002), uma vez pressupõem os seguintes aspectos: a) a tolerância à violência policial é influenciada pela estrutura das relações existentes entre grupos dominantes e minoritários, b) as relações estabelecidas entre os grupos está associadas a crenças sobre a ordem social vigente, as quais legitimam comportamentos discriminatórios. A tese está organizada em três artigos. O primeiro artigo consiste na pesquisa realizada no Brasil. No contexto brasileiro, a discriminação contra pessoas negras foi analisada com base na tolerância à violência policial, no apoio à redução da maioridade penal e no apoio ao pagamento de indenização pela polícia ao adolescente contraventor. Três estudos foram conduzidos, todos com estudantes universitários e do ensino médio. No Estudo 1 (N = 118), analisou-se a influência do tipo de crime (assalto versus tráfico de drogas) e o alvo do crime (identificável versus não identificável) sobre as variáveis aqui estudadas. O Estudo 2 (N = 343) avaliou o efeito da relação entre tipo de crime (assalto versus tráfico de drogas), o alvo do crime (identificável versus não identificável) e o grupo racial do adolescente contraventor (branco versus negro) sobre a discriminação. O Estudo 3 (N = 316) replicou o Estudo 2, adicionando a crença no mundo justo (CMJ) como moderadora da discriminação. Em conjunto, os resultados indicaram a discriminação racial por meio da maior tolerância à violência policial e apoio à redução da maioridade penal para os crimes cometidos por adolescentes negros. Além disso, verificou-se maior apoio ao pagamento de indenização pela policial ao adolescente transgressor quando o crime foi cometido por adolescentes brancos. Níveis elevados de adesão à CMJ acentuaram a discriminação racial. O segundo artigo, apresenta dois estudos experimentais realizados na Espanha. Nesse contexto, investigou-se a discriminação contra suspeitos de terrorismo islâmico com base na tolerância à utilização da tortura contra esse grupo. No Estudo 1 (N= 282), analisou-se a influência da nacionalidade das vítimas de crimes de terrorismo (espanhóis versus outra nacionalidade) e da nacionalidade dos torturadores (polícia espanhola versus polícia estrangeira) sobre à tolerância à utilização de tortura contra suspeitos de terrorismo islâmico. O Estudo 2 (N= 165) analisou a interação entre Percepção de Ameaça (Real e Simbólica) e Autoritarismo de Direita (RWA) como moderadores da relação entre nacionalidade das vítimas de crimes de terrorismo (espanhóis versus outra nacionalidade) e a discriminação. Em conjunto, o Estudo 1 indicou que a tolerância à utilização de tortura era maior quando as vítimas de ações terroristas pertenciam ao endogrupo (espanhóis). Ademais, o Estudo 2 indicou que a relação entre nacionalidade das vítimas de ações terroristas e tolerância à tortura foi simultaneamente moderada nas interações entre percepção de ameaça real e RWA e percepção de ameaça simbólica e RWA, as quais elevam a tolerância à tortura, independentemente da nacionalidade das vítimas de terrorismo. O terceiro artigo é composto por dois estudos experimentais também realizados no cenário espanhol. Nesta investigação, analisou-se o papel mediador da desumanização na relação entre percepção de ameaça terrorista e tolerância ao uso de violência policial contra suspeitos de terrorismo islâmico, sendo a tolerância à violência mensurada dentro de um continuum de procedimento de justiça, que varia do aspecto retributivo (punição) ao restaurativo (reabilitação). O Estudo 1 (N =215) demonstrou que a percepção de ameaça terrorista contra o endogrupo (espanhóis) eleva o processo de desumanização do suspeito de terrorismo islâmico (exogrupo) que, por sua vez, resulta numa maior à tolerância à utilização de violência contra o mesmo. O Estudo 2 (N=304) analisou como o RWA modera a relação identificada no estudo anterior, sendo revelado que a maior adesão ao RWA favorece à desumanização do membro do exogrupo, independentemente da ameaça terrorista ser direcionada ao endogrupo. Em síntese, identificou-se que a desumanização é o mecanismo subjacente ao apoio a diferentes mecanismos de justiça e que a adesão ao RWA favorece a expressão desse fenômeno.
  • RICARDO NEVES COUTO
  • FORÇAS DE CARÁTER E SUA RELAÇÃO COM VARIÁVEIS INDIVIDUAIS E SOCIAIS
  • Fecha: 11-nov-2019
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • Esta tese tem como objetivo geral verificar o padrão de relação linear das forças de caráter com os traços de personalidade, valores humanos e crescimento pós-traumático em situações de luto no Nordeste brasileiro. Para alcançar esse objetivo, esta tese é composta por quatro artigos. O primeiro objetiva verificar a prevalência das forças de caráter nos nordestinos, especificamente, reunir novas evidências psicométricas da Escala de Forças de Caráter (EFC). Contou-se com uma amostra de 383 pessoas (Midade = 27,81; DP = 10,83) oriunda em sua maioria da Paraíba (24,3%), do sexo feminino (65,4%) e solteira (73,1%), que responderam a EFC e questões demográficas. Uma Análise Fatorial Exploratória indicou a unidimensionalidade da escala, as 24 forças saturando no fator com valor próprio igual a 9,69, explicando 43% da variância e cargas fatoriais de 0,41 (perdão) até 0,72 (vitalidade). O alfa de Cronbach = 0,94 e ômega de McDonald = 0,95 indicam precisão satisfatória. Ademais, estatísticas descritivas foram realizadas identificando as forças mais prevalentes no Nordeste, respectivamente: gratidão, bondade, curiosidade, imparcialidade, amor ao aprendizado e esperança. O segundo artigo, busca verificar em que medida os traços de personalidade explicam as forças de caráter, controlando o efeito da idade e do sexo. Participaram 251 pessoas residentes no Nordeste brasileiro (Midade = 18,51, DP = 9,03), 66,9% mulheres, respondendo um livreto contendo a EFC, Inventário dos Cinco Grandes Fatores (ICGF) e questões demográficas. A partir de correlações, seguidas de regressões múltiplas hierárquicas, verificou-se que idade e sexo foram importantes para explicar algumas forças. Controlando o efeito dessas variáveis demográficas, observou-se que os traços de personalidade amabilidade, conscienciosidade, extroversão e abertura à experiencia explicaram diretamente as forças, ao contrário do traço neuroticismo, que o fez de maneira inversa. O terceiro artigo objetiva-se de maneira geral testar um modelo explicativo do CPT em situação de luto, com a contribuição dos traços de personalidade, valores humanos e forças de caráter, especificamente identificar o padrão de relação linear entre as subfunções valorativas e as forças de caráter, além do papel mediador dos valores humanos na relação entre personalidade e forças. Contou-se com duas amostras, a 01 com 243 pessoas (Midade = 27,88, DP = 9,74), 63,4% mulheres responderam a EFC, ICGF, QVB e questões demográficas, a 02 respondeu também o PTGI, a qual totalizou 207 pessoas que passaram por luto Midade = 27,56, DP = 12,24), 74,8% mulheres. Correlações, seguidas de regressões e modelos de mediação demonstraram a contribuição dos traços extroversão, amabilidade, subfunção normativa e das forças na explicação do crescimento pós-traumático. Dessa forma, discute-se a importância de contar com variáveis de cunho social na promoção de vivências positivas e superação de adversidades e de maneira geral com um quadro de pontos fortes para proporcionar mecanismos de uma vida satisfatória.
  • RICARDO NEVES COUTO
  • FORÇAS DE CARÁTER E SUA RELAÇÃO COM VARIÁVEIS INDIVIDUAIS E SOCIAIS
  • Fecha: 11-nov-2019
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • Esta tese tem como objetivo geral verificar o padrão de relação linear das forças de caráter com os traços de personalidade, valores humanos e crescimento pós-traumático em situações de luto no Nordeste brasileiro. Para alcançar esse objetivo, esta tese é composta por quatro artigos. O primeiro objetiva verificar a prevalência das forças de caráter nos nordestinos, especificamente, reunir novas evidências psicométricas da Escala de Forças de Caráter (EFC). Contou-se com uma amostra de 383 pessoas (Midade = 27,81; DP = 10,83) oriunda em sua maioria da Paraíba (24,3%), do sexo feminino (65,4%) e solteira (73,1%), que responderam a EFC e questões demográficas. Uma Análise Fatorial Exploratória indicou a unidimensionalidade da escala, as 24 forças saturando no fator com valor próprio igual a 9,69, explicando 43% da variância e cargas fatoriais de 0,41 (perdão) até 0,72 (vitalidade). O alfa de Cronbach = 0,94 e ômega de McDonald = 0,95 indicam precisão satisfatória. Ademais, estatísticas descritivas foram realizadas identificando as forças mais prevalentes no Nordeste, respectivamente: gratidão, bondade, curiosidade, imparcialidade, amor ao aprendizado e esperança. O segundo artigo, busca verificar em que medida os traços de personalidade explicam as forças de caráter, controlando o efeito da idade e do sexo. Participaram 251 pessoas residentes no Nordeste brasileiro (Midade = 18,51, DP = 9,03), 66,9% mulheres, respondendo um livreto contendo a EFC, Inventário dos Cinco Grandes Fatores (ICGF) e questões demográficas. A partir de correlações, seguidas de regressões múltiplas hierárquicas, verificou-se que idade e sexo foram importantes para explicar algumas forças. Controlando o efeito dessas variáveis demográficas, observou-se que os traços de personalidade amabilidade, conscienciosidade, extroversão e abertura à experiencia explicaram diretamente as forças, ao contrário do traço neuroticismo, que o fez de maneira inversa. O terceiro artigo objetiva-se de maneira geral testar um modelo explicativo do CPT em situação de luto, com a contribuição dos traços de personalidade, valores humanos e forças de caráter, especificamente identificar o padrão de relação linear entre as subfunções valorativas e as forças de caráter, além do papel mediador dos valores humanos na relação entre personalidade e forças. Contou-se com duas amostras, a 01 com 243 pessoas (Midade = 27,88, DP = 9,74), 63,4% mulheres responderam a EFC, ICGF, QVB e questões demográficas, a 02 respondeu também o PTGI, a qual totalizou 207 pessoas que passaram por luto Midade = 27,56, DP = 12,24), 74,8% mulheres. Correlações, seguidas de regressões e modelos de mediação demonstraram a contribuição dos traços extroversão, amabilidade, subfunção normativa e das forças na explicação do crescimento pós-traumático. Dessa forma, discute-se a importância de contar com variáveis de cunho social na promoção de vivências positivas e superação de adversidades e de maneira geral com um quadro de pontos fortes para proporcionar mecanismos de uma vida satisfatória.
  • GABRIELA MARCOLINO ALVES MACHADO
  • Conceptions about the child's first year of life: support net and parenthal information source
  • Fecha: 31-oct-2019
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • Parental conceptions about child development influence the parent-infant interaction and are related, among other factors, to the information that parents seek or receive since pregnancy and in the first years of the baby's life. Starting from the perspective that human development is a cultural process, therefore, it must be understood from the practices, environments and cultural circumstances of a given social group, which constantly change (Bronfenbrenner, 1996; Harkness & Super, 1996; Rogoff, 2005). This study has as a general objective to analyze the maternal and paternal conceptions about the development in the first year of life of the baby, highlighting the support networks and the sources of parental information. Through a cross-sectional design, 150 primary iparous fathers and mothers with children aged 3, 6, 9 or 12 months, of instructional level between incomplete high school and graduate education, residents of the city of João Pessoa (PB) and metropolitan region, participated in this research. The age of the mothers ranged from 18 to 39 years, with a mean of 27 years (SD=5.26), the age of the fathers varied between 19 and 41 years, with a mean of 28 years (SD=4.86). A sociodemographic questionnaire and two semi-structured interviews were used: the first about child development and support networks and the second on parental information sources. For data analysis, the content analysis technique was used. The results will be presented in two thematic axes: Parental conceptions about child development in the first year of life and Sources of parental information. Regarding the first axis, when talking about their children, the participants evidenced aspects: affective, routine, temperament, pregnancy and childbirth, children's abilities, difficulties faced and, in relation to primiparity. Regarding the social support network, in general, in the group of parents who had higher education, one had a higher number of referrals in relation to the support network than in the group of high school parents. Also regarding the support network, the participants mentioned their mothers, their husbands and their mothers-in-law. Men cite their mother-in-law, their wives and their mothers. About the care of the babies, the participants revealed their difficulties, doubts and concerns, the most reported were about the health of the baby, about the acquisition of skills and about the difficulties around the routine such as tiredness and renunciation and for not being able to reconcile their activities with the needs of the children. The most gratifying for them was the baby's smile and the possibility of following the child's development. Social interaction is about the factors that influence child development; emotional aspects and the family environment. Regarding the second axis, the sources of information most used by the participants were: health professionals, family members and websites. The most sought-after types of information are about: baby health, food, child skills acquisitions, and baby care and routines. As positive points, such information helps in the acquisition of knowledge, in the ease of seeking or comparing information; autonomy and decision-making on daily practices. And as negative points stood out: the excess of information and lack of confidence and the standardization of information. At the end of this study, it was possible to understand the conceptions of primiparous parents about child development in the first year of life, their greatest difficulties and doubts, as well as the new configurations of the sources of information that help the beginning of parenthood. Deve-se considerar que estes dados são importantes para elaboração de programas de orientação de pais, mães e profissionais.
  • LIDIANNY BRAGA DE SOUZA
  • PELO DIREITO À SAÚDE: VULNERABILIDADES, PERCEPÇÕES E PRÁTICAS DE CUIDADO NA ATENÇÃO BÁSICA À SAÚDE NO CONTEXTO RURAL
  • Fecha: 30-sep-2019
  • Hora: 08:00
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  • A garantia do direito a saude no Brasil foi assegurado na Constituicao Federal de 1988 e operacionalizado com a Lei 8080/90 que implantou o Sistema Unico de Saude (SUS), exigindo compromisso do Estado para com o bem-estar social. Desde entao, muitos sao os desafios enfrentados para a sua consolidacao, tornando-se importante conhecer e discutir o “SUS vivo”, aquele que acontece nas relacoes estabelecidas dentro dos servicos, onde ocorre o processo de producao do cuidado em saude. Com o aporte teorico do quadro conceitual da Vulnerabilidade e Direitos Humanos (V&DH) e da Percepcao Social, este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as vulnerabilidades e as praticas de cuidado em saude no ambito da atencao basica que repercutem na garantia do direito a saude e na efetivacao desta enquanto tal no contexto rural paraibano. Para tanto, propos-se dois estudos interdependentes, o primeiro partindo das percepcoes dos usuarios e o segundo dos profissionais de saude. Metodo: Estudo 1: A amostra, por conveniencia, foi composta por 689 usuarios da atencao basica de 37 municipios rurais da Paraiba, sendo maioria do sexo feminino (75,2%), com idades variando entre 21 e 85 anos (M=43,5; DP=14,7), de baixa escolaridade (59,9%), sendo a agricultura a atividade mais referida (24,2%). Foi utilizado um questionario com 47 questoes, incluindo dados sociodemograficos, analisados atraves de estatistica descritiva e inferencial; e questoes abertas, as quais foram categorizadas. Estudo 2: A amostra, por conveniencia, foi composta por 122 profissionais pertencentes a equipe de saude de 36 servicos de 17 municipios selecionados a partir do Estudo I, representativos das regioes de saude do Estado. A maioria do sexo feminino (81%), com idades variando entre 20 e 72 anos (M=37,1; DP=10,2), com curso superior (56,6%), da area de enfermagem (52,4%), com pouco tempo de trabalho no atual servico (46,2%) e na atencao basica (39,3%). Foi utilizado um questionario estruturado com 57 questoes, incluindo aspectos socio demograficos e laborais, analisados atraves de estatistica descritiva e inferencial; e a Tecnica de Associacao Livre de Palavras a partir dos estimulos “SUS” e “saude”, categorizadas a posteriori. Alem disso, foram realizadas e analisadas por categorizacao tematica 45 entrevistas semiestruturadas. Resultados: Estudo 1: As percepcoes de saude dos usuarios ressaltaram mais os aspectos individuais das vulnerabilidades em saude. A procura pela UBS aconteceu na maioria como pronto atendimento, tendo como principal dificuldade de acesso conseguir atendimento, devido ao numero de fichas. No geral, a situacao de saude local e da UBS foi avaliada positivamente, havendo queixa mais quanto a falta de medico diariamente, este aparecendo como uma figura central na percepcao dos usuarios. Estudo 2: Os profissionais de saude apresentaram percepcoes sobre saude e SUS mais voltada aos aspectos programaticos e bem menos individuais e sociais. Ao avaliar a saude local, a UBS e o proprio trabalho em si, estes ressaltaram aspectos subjetivos e simbolicos que permeiam as relacoes de cuidado em saude, como o relacionamento em equipe, a humanizacao e o comprometimento profissional. Tambem apresentaram alto nivel de satisfacao com o trabalho, apesar das nuances que envolvem o trabalho no contexto rural. Assim, confirmou-se a tese que as vulnerabilidades e necessidades de saude do contexto rural sao produtoras de percepcoes estereotipadas sobre o cuidado, gerando praticas de cuidado que interferem na efetivacao do direito a saude e desvirtuam a saude enquanto direito, produzindo, por sua vez, novas vulnerabilidades.
  • CIBELE SHIRLEY AGRIPINO RAMOS
  • INCLUSÃO ESCOLAR DE CRIANÇAS COM TRANSTORNO DO ESPECTRO AUTISTA: UM ESTUDO LONGITUDINAL
  • Fecha: 19-sep-2019
  • Hora: 14:30
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  • Adotando como referencial teorico a perspectiva historico-cultural, aponta-se para a relevancia dos espacos de educacao infantil como promotores do desenvolvimento das criancas com Transtorno do Espectro Autista (TEA). Assim, esta pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar, ao longo de um ano letivo, as interacoes sociais entre criancas com TEA e com desenvolvimento tipico (DT), considerando a mediacao das educadoras, bem como as concepcoes destas, de pais e de pares acerca da inclusao escolar de criancas com TEA, sendo realizada em dois Centros de Referencia em Educacao Infantil (CREI) da cidade de Joao Pessoa-PB. Participaram do estudo tres criancas com TEA, na faixa etaria de 4-5 anos, nove educadoras, 42 criancas com DT, os pais das criancas com TEA e 20 pais das criancas com DT. Foi aplicada a escala CARS de avaliacao, por meio da qual se verificou que uma das criancas com TEA apresentava um nivel grave do transtorno e as outras duas um nivel de leve a moderado. Tambem foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com as educadoras, com os pais e com as criancas com DT, no inicio e no final do ano letivo, as quais foram analisadas a partir da tecnica de analise de conteudo de Bardin, alem de observacoes das interacoes sociais em sala de aula, em cinco momentos ao longo do ano. Quanto aos resultados, as educadoras descreveram as criancas com TEA principalmente a partir das suas dificuldades de socializacao e alteracoes comportamentais, caracterizando como insuficiente o apoio que recebiam do CREI para trabalharem com elas e mencionando a internet como principal fonte de informacao. Contudo, ao final do ano letivo, as educadoras de ambos os CREI afirmaram perceber mudancas positivas nos comportamentos das criancas com TEA, o que tambem foi referido pelos pais dessas criancas, embora estes tenham revelado preocupacoes quanto ao ingresso do seu filho em uma escola de ensino fundamental. Em relacao as concepcoes das criancas com DT, foram utilizados termos como “especial” ou “bebe” para caracterizar seus colegas com TEA, o que pareceu estar relacionado ao modo como as educadoras se referiam as criancas com o transtorno. Alem disso, as criancas com TEA foram mencionadas por seus pares dentre os colegas preferidos e, com o tempo, passaram a ser vistas por eles a partir das suas capacidades e interesses. Destacou-se o fato de que, como colegas com quem as criancas com DT nao brincavam, foram citadas outras criancas com DT que apresentavam comportamentos agressivos, indicando rejeicao maior a essas ultimas criancas do que aos seus pares com TEA. Os pais das criancas com DT, por sua vez, afirmaram ser favoraveis a inclusao escolar de criancas com TEA, entretanto, demonstraram desconhecimento em relacao ao transtorno. No que diz respeito a analise das observacoes, realizada a partir da identificacao de episodios interacionais, verificou-se que as criancas com nivel de leve a moderado estiveram envolvidas em interacoes sociais mais duradouras do que a crianca com nivel grave do transtorno, alem disso, enquanto no CREI 1 as interacoes entre a crianca com TEA e os seus pares foram se tornando mais frequentes no decorrer do ano, no CREI 2 as interacoes tiveram mais participacao das educadoras. Dentre os aspectos contextuais considerados favorecedores das interacoes entre as criancas com TEA e com DT, destacou-se, alem do incentivo das educadoras para a participacao das criancas com TEA, o uso de objetos que eram do interesse das criancas com o transtorno. Enfatiza-se a relevancia dos resultados obtidos por oferecerem indicios acerca das interacoes sociais envolvendo criancas com TEA e de como promove-las nas situacoes vivenciadas na educacao infantil, evidenciando as possibilidades interativas das criancas com TEA, mas tambem a necessidade do estabelecimento de estrategias que favorecam tanto as concepcoes quanto as interacoes no contexto da educacao infantil.
  • ANDERSON MESQUITA DO NASCIMENTO
  • Medindo Valores Humanos por meio de Processamento de Linguagem Natural
  • Fecha: 19-sep-2019
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • O estudo dos valores humanos ocupa um lugar central dentro da Psicologia Social. Os valores humanos sao definidos como caracteristicas abstratas que servem como principio-guia na vida dos individuos. Desde a segunda metade do seculo passado, foram propostos alguns modelos teoricos que buscaram identificar de que maneira os valores humanos estao organizados. Dentre estes, a Teoria Funcionalista dos Valores Humanos emergiu, partindo do pressuposto de que a estrutura dos valores humanos e definida por duas funcoes principais: guiar o comportamento e expressar cognitivamente as necessidades dos individuos. No tocante a estrategia metodologica para a mensuracao dos valores humanos, esta tem se pautado quase que exclusivamente em medidas de autorrelato. No entanto, avancos tecnologicos recentes tem permitido o desenvolvimento de estrategias de analise que possibilitam extrair caracteristicas psicologicas relevantes de dados quantitativos oriundos de bases textuais, campo conhecido como processamento de linguagem natural. A presente tese tem como objetivo geral testar a hipotese de que o uso do processamento de linguagem natural e adequado para mensurar os valores humanos a partir de indicadores lexicos (palavras). Esta tese encontra-se dividida em tres artigos. O primeiro trata-se de um artigo teorico que buscou identificar quais os aspectos principais da natureza dos valores humanos que influenciam em sua mensuracao. No segundo artigo foi utilizada a estrategia de vocabulario fechado para analisar 33.941 discursos de deputados federais na Camara Legislativa Brasileira entre os anos de 2011 e 2014. Nesta, os valores humanos foram mensurados a partir de um vocabulario de palavras pre-definido, selecionadas a partir de um processo de analise de juizes. Para o desenvolvimento deste vocabulario, partiu-se de um conjunto inicial de 100.886 palavras para chegar uma lista final de 24 indicadores lexicos, quatro para cada subfuncao. Os resultados do segundo artigo mostraram que os indicadores lexicos de cada subfuncao apresentaram maior indice de co-ocorrencia com indicadores da mesma subfuncao valorativa do que com outras, t (17) = 4,12, p = 0,001. Ademais, a media da correlacao teste-resteste das subfuncoes valorativas ao longo dos intervalos entre 2011 e 2014 foi de 0,70 dando indicios da estabilidade temporal do vocabulario proposto. Por fim, analises de regressao multinivel demonstraram haver efeito do genero e de ideologia partidaria na prevalencia dos indicadores lexicos de valores nos discursos dos deputados. O objetivo do terceiro estudo foi investigar quais caracteres de linguagem tem maior relacao com diferentes tipos de valores basicos, usando como base a teoria funcionalista dos valores. Para tal, foram utilizadas tanto abordagens de vocabulario fechado (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count) e vocabulario aberto (Differential Language Analysis) para analisar 1.110.080 tweets de 1.883 participantes (80,4% do sexo feminino), os quais responderam aos 18 itens do questionario de valores basicos. Os resultados mostraram que cada uma das subfuncoes valorativas apresentou associacoes positivas com caracteres de linguagem que dao suporte a sua validade de face e que apontam para relacoes com o comportamento previamente encontradas na literatura. No padrao das relacoes negativas, houve uma predominancia de linguagem sugestiva de afetos negativos, instabilidade emocional e angustia pessoal para quase todas as subfuncoes valorativas. Os achados sugerem que a linguagem do Twitter pode ser utilizada para caracterizar os valores dos individuos. Espera-se que a presente tese contribua para a mensuracao dos valores humanos atraves de dados textuais, de modo a complementar aqueles provenientes de medidas de autorrelato e permitindo a analise de bases de dados de linguagem natural disponiveis aos pesquisadores em grande volume (e.g. mensagens de redes sociais).
  • JULIANA RODRIGUES DE ALBUQUERQUE LINS
  • Gender violence; Legitimizing beliefs by adolescents
  • Fecha: 30-ago-2019
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • This thesis aims to analyze the beliefs underlying the legitimacy of Genero's Violence by adolescents. To achieve this objective, this work was organized in four articles, which adopt as theological references the Societal Crencas, Rape Culture and the sociological currents of Patriarchal Dominacao and Dominacao Masculina. The first article aimed to survey beliefs that legitimize the categories of violence against women as it covers the Maria da Penha Law. Participants were 201 adolescents from the Medio Teaching of public and private schools in the city of Joao Pessoa, with a mean of 16 years of age. We used a Technique of Free Association of Words (TALP), containing five inducing stimulus and three questions about the stimulus, where each stimulus corresponded to a ficticia history about a type of violence. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed. On the evokes, they were analyzed using the computer program IRAMUTEQ. The results pointed to the perception of machismo by the majority of adolescents, in patrimonial violence, to the phenomeno of responsibility of the victim in sexual violence, to the justification of physical violence, to the guilt of the woman in moral violence and to the "romantizacao of jealousy" in psychological violence. The second article analyzed the beliefs of gender sexual violence. The sample consisted of 201 students from medio teaching from public and private schools in the city of Joao Pessoa, with a mean age of 16 years. A Rape Myths Acceptance Scale (IRMA) was applied. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed. In the factor "Female accountability", adolescents significantly legitimized sexual violence and, through a t-test, it was found that, in some items, boys and public school students legitimized more. On the factor "Minimization of gravity", the larger media involved the belief that the rape victim needs to prove that she fought violence. The "Female sorry" factor pointed to crencas related to male aggression as something socially expected. And the "Male Instinct" factor demonstrated the presenca of crencas about rape as the cause of an uncontrollable male sexual desire. Article 3 aimed to gather evidence of construct validity of the Legitimizing Creeds Scale of Genero's Violence for adolescents. 513 students of the Medio Teaching of public and private schools in the city of Joao Pessoa participated. They were a mean of 16 years of age. The Legitimizing Believes Scale of the gender violencia was applied, including all categories of violence. Descriptive statistics and factoranalysis were used, through the technique of Main Components, as well as cronbach's Alpha technique. The results showed that the instrument has satisfactory statistical parameters.
  • JAQUELINE GOMES CAVALCANTI SA
  • ABUSO DIGITAL NOS RELACIONAMENTOS AMOROSOS: UMA PERSPECTIVA DAS REPRESENTAÇÕES SOCIAIS E DO MODELO GERAL DE AGRESSÃO
  • Fecha: 29-ago-2019
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • A presente tese buscou conhecer os fatores de risco associados ao abuso digital nos relacionamentos amorosos (ADRA), tomando por base a Teoria das Representacoes Sociais e do Modelo Geral da Agressao. Para alcancar tal objetivo, foram delineados 5 estudos. O Estudo 1 objetivou fazer um levantamento de pesquisas empiricas relacionadas ao abuso digital nos relacionamentos amorosos, conhecendo suas prevalencias, instrumentos de avaliacao e fatores de risco associados. Foram encontrados e analisados 39 artigos referentes aos ultimos 10 anos (2008-2018). Os resultados apontaram que esse fenomeno emerge como um fenomeno psicossocial, podendo ser ocasionado por fatores de risco de diversas ordens, tais como: sociodemograficos; relativos ao relacionamento; familiares, psicologicos, relacionados as percepcoes, normas e crencas. O Estudo 2 teve como objetivo conhecer evidencias de validade fatorial e consistencia interna do Questionario de Abuso Digital nos Relacionamentos Amorosos (QADRA), por meio de analises fatoriais exploratorias. Para isso, contou-se com uma amostra de 215 participantes, com uma idade media de 28,27 (DP= 6,05; amplitude de 18 a 54). O Estudo 3 buscou reunir evidencias adicionais de validade (fatorial e convergente) e precisao do QADRA em uma nova amostra, a partir da analise fatorial confirmatoria (AFC). Contou-se com uma amostra de 248 participantes, com uma idade media de 27,80 (DP= 6,42; amplitude de 18 a 56). Os resultados apontaram para a estrutura bifatorial como a mais pertinente, sendo observados bons indices de consistencia interna. Alem disso, o QADRA demonstrou validade convergente atraves de associacoes significativas com a Escala Taticas de Confliros (violencia presencial) e a satisfacao global nos relacionamentos. O Estudo 4 buscou apreender as representacoes sociais (RS) de universitarios brasileiros acerca do abuso digital nos relacionamentos amorosos. Participaram da pesquisa 447 participantes os quais responderam a Tecnica de Associacao Livre de Palavras e ao QADRA. Os resultados indicaram que o ADRA se ancorou na incerteza relacional contemporanea, na concepcao de dominancia dentro dos relacionamentos intimos e na violacao dos direitos a privacidade. Alem disso, os dados revelaram que o "ciume" se apresenta como elemento central e organizador das RS desse fenomeno, motivando acoes virtuais abusivas.O Estudo 5 objetivou conhecer os efeitos diretos e indiretos da personalidade e violencia tradicional entre parceiros intimos no abuso digital nos relacionamentos amorosos, tomando por base o Modelo Geral da Agressao. Delineou-se dois modelos: um para perpetracao e outro para vitimizacao. Para isso, contou-se com uma amostra de 356 participantes, com uma idade media de 27,05 (DP= 6,99). No que tange ao modelo de vitimizacao, nao foram encontrados efeitos indiretos, de modo que os dados nao foram confirmados. Quanto ao modelo de perpetracao, os resultados apontaram que tracos neuroticos em conjunto com o envolvimento em perpetracao em violencia tradicional entre parceiros intimos (fisica e psicologica) aumentam o ciume romantico influenciando, por sua vez, no aumento de comportamentos de controle e monitoramento entre parceiros. Os achados dessa tese apresentam importantes implicacoes empiricas, teoricas e praticas para entender o ADRA, fenomeno ainda pouco explorado.
  • KARLA COSTA SILVA
  • VIOLÊNCIA NO NAMORO ENTRE ADOLESCENTES: UM ESTUDO PSICOSSOCIOLÓGICO
  • Fecha: 14-ago-2019
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • Esta dissertacao teve como objetivo compreender as representacoes sociais (RS) da violencia no namoro (VN) entre adolescentes escolares. Para isso contou-se com quatro estudos: um teorico e tres empiricos. O primeiro objetivou realizar uma revisao bibliometrica na literatura sobre a VN entre adolescentes nos ultimos dez anos (2007-2017). Os resultados apontaram para 70 artigos empiricos, os quais contemplaram: i) intervencao/prevencao; ii) fatores de risco para a VN; iii) consequencias da VN; iv) psicometricos; v) prevalencia; vi) significados da VN. Apontaram ainda para uma insuficiencia de estudos qualitativos, o que indica a necessidade do desenvolvimento de pesquisas nessa perspectiva, que possibilitem captar aspectos da dinamica psicossocial. O segundo estudo teve como objetivo analisar as representacoes sociais de adolescentes acerca do namoro e da VN. Participaram 215 adolescentes do ensino fundamental e medio em escolas publicas da cidade de Joao Pessoa-PB, com idades entre 14 e 18 anos (M=16,00; SD= 1,25), prevalentemente do sexo feminino (60%). Os instrumentos foram: a Tecnica de Associacao Livre de Palavras (TALP), o Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationship Inventory (CADRI) e um questionario sociodemografico. Os dados do CADRI e sociodemograficos foram submetidos a analises descritivas com o auxilio do software IBM SPSS (versao 21.0), enquanto os da TALP foram processados pelo software Tri-Deux-Mots (versao 5.1), gerando-se uma Analise Fatorial de Correspondencia. Os resultados ancoraram os objetos sociais nas esferas afetiva, psicoafetiva, interpessoal, moral e dos valores humanos. O namoro foi objetivado como cumplicidade, fidelidade, respeito, amor, compromisso, decepcao, traicao, beijo e briga. Enquanto a VN foi objetivada como ciumes, desrespeito, tristeza, briga, covardia, estupro, errado, odio, morte e verbal. O terceiro estudo objetivou apreender as Representacoes Sociais de adolescentes acerca da VN. Participaram 30 adolescentes, com idades entre 14 e 18 anos (M=15,66; DP=1,29), predominantemente do sexo masculino (53,3%). Para coleta de dados utilizou-se um questionario sociodemografico e entrevistas semiestruturadas, tendo suas respostas submetidas a Analise Hierarquica Descendente (CDH) e de Similitude (AS), desempenhadas com o software IRAMUTEQ. Os resultados apontaram para uma compreensao multifacetada da VN, percebendo-se a tentativa de transformar o saber reificado acerca da violencia em teorias do senso comum. O quarto estudo objetivou conhecer a relacao da violencia no namoro com a aceitacao de violencia no namoro, auto estima e satisfacao com a vida de adolescentes. Para isso, contou com 200 adolescentes de escolas publicas da cidade de Joao Pessoa-Paraiba, com idades entre 14 e 18 anos (M=16,00; SD= 1,25), prevalentemente do sexo feminino (60%). Os participantes responderam o Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationship Inventory; Escala de Aceitacao de Violencia de Casais; Escala de Autoestima de Rosemberg; Escala Global de Satisfacao com a vida para adolescentes, e; um questionario sociodemografico. As respostas foram submetidas a analises estatisticas descritivas e inferenciais por meio do software IBM SPSS (versao 21.0). Os principais resultados indicaram que a aceitacao de violencia no namoro explica significativamente a perpetracao de violencia sexual, bem como, a vitimizacao da violencia verbal/ emocional; relacional; sexual e fisica. De modo geral, verifica-se que VN se apresenta como um problema de saude publica complexo e multifatorial, com consequencias negativas ao bem-estar fisico, social, emocional e mental dos envolvidos, de modo que, a Psicologia Social pode contribuir de forma relevante para a compreensao desse fenomeno e avanco cientifico. Espera-se que com os resultados advindos dessa pesquisa seja possivel um maior aprofundamento teorico-conceitual acerca da VN entre adolescentes, bem como, auxiliar no planejamento de praticas para intervencoes direcionadas a essa populacao.
  • THIAGO MEDEIROS CAVALCANTI
  • ESTABILIDADE E MUDANÇA DOS VALORES HUMANOS: A DUALIDADE DOS PRINCÍPIOS DE VIDA
  • Fecha: 30-jul-2019
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • A presente tese objetivou contribuir para o entendimento das modificacoes que ocorrem com os valores humanos em nivel teorico e empirico. A estabilidade e mudanca e uma tematica a muito investigada. Entretanto, apenas recentemente uma atencao maior vem sendo despendida para os fatores que proporcionam as alteracoes e em quais condicoes ocorre. Neste sentido, de maneira geral, entende-se os valores humanos como principios-guia do comportamento e que representa cognitivamente as necessidades humanas, assim possui influencia sobre o individuo de forma transituacional. Esquematicamente a tese e formada por tres artigos. O primeiro trata dos 100 anos de pesquisa da variavel, e uma revisao historica mostrando a evolucao conceitual e empirica, discutindo sobre o seu passado, presente e futuro. O segundo artigo possui natureza meta-analitica, visa avaliar os estudos longitudinais de valores humanos nos ultimos 10 anos. Para tanto, inicialmente realizou uma revisao sistematica considerando a base de dados PsychINFO, chegando a um numero final de 4 artigos e 7 estudos com 1952 participantes de 6 paises diferentes. Na etapa seguinte processou a meta-analise por meio do software Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. Os resultados indicam elevada heterogeneidade para os dez tipos motivacionais, constatado pelo grafico de funil, o valor Q (p < 0,001) e o indice I². Os efeitos apontam para alta estabilidade dos valores, com valor medio do r da meta-analise de 0,64. O terceiro e um estudo empirico de carater longitudinal realizado ao longo de vinte e sete meses. Participaram 214 estudantes universitarios (63,4% do sexo feminino), com media de idade de 20,26 anos (DP = 4,67), de todos os cursos diurnos do campus I da Universidade Federal da Paraiba. Uma hipotese foi testada: plasticidade, isto e, os valores humanos mudam ao longo do tempo, mas sua estrutura permanece inalterada. O coeficiente de estabilidade permitiu entender que essa caracteristica e a mais saliente nos valores. Todavia, testando modelos lineares e curvilineos na Latent Growth Curve Model verificou mudancas nas subuncoes normativa (slope = -0,05; p < 0,05), experimentacao (slope = 0,10; p < 0,001) e realizacao (slope = -0,07; p < 0,001), compreendendo que o construto possui algum grau de alteracao. Em seguida examinou a estrutura nos tempos de mensuracao pelo Escalonamento Muldimensional, e depois comparando seus indices na Analise Procrustes Generalizada, os resultados permitiram concluir que sua composicao permanece inalterada com o tempo. Confia assim que a hipotese de estudo foi corroborada. Estima-se que a tese represente um arcabouco da tematica, mostrando evidencias empiricas e teoricas que permitem entender as modificacoes que ocorrem com o construto ao longo do ciclo vital.
  • ELDO LIMA LEITE
  • O papel das representações socias na relação entre a percepção de eficácia do Movimento Negro e o preconceito racial
  • Fecha: 27-jun-2019
  • Hora: 08:00
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  • Esta tese objetivou testar a hipotese de que a relacao entre a Percepcao de Eficacia do Movimento Negro e o preconceito racial e explicada pelas representacoes sociais deste Movimento. Para alcancar este objetivo esta tese foi composta por dois artigos. O primeiro artigo buscou verificar quais as representacoes sociais que os brasileiros tem do Movimento Negro e verificar se nestas representacoes ha conteudos que possibilitem afirmar se este Movimento tem sido percebido de forma eficaz. Participaram deste estudo 173 estudantes universitarios do estado da Paraiba, com idades media de 22.16; DP= 5.4; sendo 32,9% do sexo masculino e 67,1% do sexo feminino. Referente a cor 40% eram da cor branca e 60% da cor parda. Os dados foram analisados por meio da tecnica da analise de conteudo e analise lexica. Os resultados demonstraram que o Movimento Negro e representado por ideias referentes a natureza dos conflitos vivenciados pela populacao negra, a evocacoes referentes a escravidao; assim como por uma visao ativa de enfrentamento de tais problemas sociais. A analise lexica da justificativa da eficacia do Movimento demonstrou que o Movimento Negro e percebido a partir de diferentes visoes sociais: Desamparo social, Indiferenca Social; Visao Positiva e Visao Negativa do Movimento. Por fim, os resultados relativos as conquistas demonstraram que a luta contra a discriminacao, as politicas de cotas, a abolicao da escravatura, a valorizacao da identidade negra sao as principais conquistas ja alcancadas pelo Movimento. Ja o Artigo 2 buscou testar a hipotese de que a relacao entre a Percepcao de Eficacia do Movimento Negro e o preconceito racial e explicada pelas representacoes sociais deste Movimento. Estas representacoes foram derivadas do Artigo 1 desta tese. Primeiramente foi realizado um estudo piloto com 164 estudantes universitarios do Estado da Paraiba, com idades media de 22,20; DP= 5,46, sendo 31,1% do sexo masculino e 68,9% do sexo feminino. Referente a cor, 41,1% era da cor branca, 47,9% da cor parda e 11% da cor preta. Foi verificado que a Percepcao de Eficacia do Movimento, operacionalizada em termos de conquistas, apresentou correlacoes significativas com variaveis de participacao politica, como previsto pela literatura. Em seguida foi realizado um segundo estudo para testar a hipotese desta tese. Participaram deste estudo 171 individuos da populacao geral, com idades media de 31,48; DP= 9,52, sendo 35,1% do sexo masculino e 64,9% do sexo feminino. Referente a cor 42,7% era da cor branca, 42,1% da cor parda e 15,2% da cor preta. Os resultados demonstraram que a Percepcao de Eficacia do Movimento esta relacionada de forma significativa com o preconceito racial. Em todos os modelos a relacao entre a Percepcao de Eficacia do Movimento e o preconceito racial foi mediada pelas representacoes sociais do Movimento, confirmando a hipotese principal desta tese. Por fim, foi realizado um terceiro estudo para testar a hipotese de que o efeito mediador das representacoes sociais no modelo e independente do efeito da variavel percepcao de ameaca real e simbolica. A amostra foi composta por 193 estudantes universitarios, com idades media de 20,93; DP = 4,24, sendo 45,6% do sexo masculino e 54,4% do sexo feminino. Referente a cor, 40,4% era da cor branca, 51,3% da cor parda e 8,3 da cor preta. Os resultados demonstraram que as representacoes do Movimento tem efeito independente das percepcoes de ameaca, mesmo estas tambem funcionando como variaveis mediadoras. Estes resultados sugerem que as representacoes sociais do Movimento Negro sao um dos principais fatores que devem ser utilizados como instrumento politico na luta do Movimento Negro contra o preconceito racial.
  • HÉVILLA RODRIGUES DE FREITAS
  • PRECONCEITO RACIAL E PROGRAMA BOLSA FAMÍLIA: O PAPEL MEDIADOR DO PRECONCEITO RACIAL NA RELAÇÃO ENTRE A COR DA PELE DA FAMÍLIA BENEFICIÁRIA E O NÍVEL DE APOIO A ESSE PROGRAMA
  • Fecha: 26-jun-2019
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • Esta dissertacao objetiva analisar o papel mediador do preconceito racial na relacao entre a cor da pele da familia beneficiaria do Programa Bolsa Familia e o nivel de apoio a esse programa. Para alcancar esse objetivo, foram realizados tres estudos. Os dois primeiros objetivaram adaptar e apresentar evidencias psicometricas de um instrumento para mensurar o preconceito racial no Brasil. O terceiro estudo buscou analisar especificamente o papel mediador do preconceito racial na relacao entre a cor da pele da familia beneficiaria do Programa Bolsa Familia e o nivel de apoio a esse programa. Os resultados indicaram a existencia de nove itens que se estruturam em tres fatores e explicam conjuntamente 71,55% da variancia total. Eles foram nomeados como, a) Negacao da Discriminacao (α = 0,79); b) Acentuacao das Diferencas Intergrupais (α = 0,78) e c) Negacao de emocoes positivas frente ao movimento negro (α = 0,84). O segundo estudo objetivou efetuar a analise fatorial confirmatoria da escala construida no Estudo 1 e analisar sua validade convergente. Os resultados dos dois estudos revelaram um bom ajuste ao modelo de tres fatores e correlacoes satisfatorias entre escalas que medem o mesmo construto. Finalmente, os resultados do Estudo 3 apontaram que tanto a cor da familia como o preconceito racial sutil predizem de forma significativa o apoio ao PBF. No entanto, o preconceito tem como papel mediar a relacao entre a cor da familia e o apoio ao PBF. Neste sentido, na condicao familia negra, ha uma discordancia com o PBF, enquanto na condicao familia branca ha uma concordancia com o PBF, corroborando com a hipotese de pesquisa.
  • HANA DE CASTRO DOURADO ALMEIDA
  • INTERFACE BETWEEN EARLY WORK AND THE PRACTICE OF INFRACTIONS: A GENDER ANALYSIS
  • Fecha: 30-abr-2019
  • Hora: 08:00
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  • The general objective of this dissertation is to analyze the relationship between early insertion in the work and the involvement in infractions from the analysis of gender. Specific objectives: To identify boys and girls who comply with socio-educational measures in deprivation of liberty and who have worked in childhood; Identify the ages at which boys and girls started working in childhood; To characterize the types of child labor that performed in childhood and if there is differentiation between the genders; To characterize the context of involvement with the infraction of boys and girls; e To analyze the implications of the work performed by boys and girls for the deviante socialization. To achieve the objectives, diagnostic questions were applied to identify workers and early workers and the ages at which they started working. This stage involved 23 boys and 13 girls complying with a socio-educational measure of deprivation of liberty in two socio-educational units in the city of Joao Pessoa. Identified workers and early workers, two discussion groups were conducted, one with four male adolescents and the other with seven female adolescents. The topics discussed were related to child labor, gender and infractional acts. A question was also applied to verify access to public health, education and social care policies. The acceptance to participate in the research was registered by signing the free and informed consent form. Data analysis was performed using the Theme Content Analysis technique proposed by Minayo (2014) for the discussion groups and a descriptive analysis of data for the questions. The data collected show that there is a relationship between having worked early and the infractional acts, a relationship that does not happen in an equitable way between the genders. It is expected that this dissertation can contribute to expand the discussions about the relationship between child labor, infractional acts and the issues of gender that permeates it.
  • IVO JÚNIOR CELESTINO FERREIRA
  • O NOVO MUNDO DO TRABALHO NO CINEMA: A PRECARIZAÇÃO DA VIDA
  • Fecha: 29-abr-2019
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • No ultimo terco do seculo XX, em decorrencia do processo de crise estrutural do capital, o mundo do trabalho passou por significativas transformacoes e a tendencia central desse movimento tem sido a precarizacao do trabalho em ambito global. Tendo por base teorica o marxismo e a psicologia social do trabalho, o presente trabalho objetiva apreender os impactos da precarizacao estrutural do trabalho na vida dos individuos da classe trabalhadora a partir da analise de algumas obras cinematograficas, procurando identificar a forma como estas obras tem conseguido captar as determinacoes do novo mundo do trabalho, em especial, o fenomeno da precarizacao da vida. Para isso, partimos das ideias acerca da arte como uma forma de conhecimento da realidade, desenvolvidas pelo filosofo hungaro Georg Lukacs. As obras selecionadas para a analise foram: Segunda-feira ao Sol (2002), de Fernando Leon de Aranoa; Dois dias, uma noite (2014), dos irmaos Dardenne e Eu, Daniel Blake (2016), de Ken Loach. Para a analise, recorremos ao metodo critico de Antonio Candido, sendo cada obra analisada individualmente e posteriormente procuramos apontar as convergencias e divergencias entre elas. As conclusoes a que chegamos indicam que o novo cinema do trabalho tem se mostrado fecundo em apreender, por meios esteticos, as determinacoes do novo mundo do trabalho e da precarizacao da vida, trazendo, dessa forma, importantes contribuicoes para que possamos compreender as principais contradicoes e desafios de nosso tempo historico.
  • ROMULO LUSTOSA PIMENTEIRA DE MELO
  • SOCIALIZAÇÃO INFANTIL PARA O PERDÃO: O LUGAR DA EMPATIA MATERNA NESSE PROCESSO
  • Fecha: 29-mar-2019
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • O objetivo desta tese foi verificar se a empatia materna pode explicar os estilos parentais maternos, a empatia do filho e as crencas das maes e filhos sobre o perdao, e foi desenvolvida em quatro capitulos teoricos e dois artigos empiricos. Possui tres referenciais teoricos principais, o de Maccoby e Martin que descreve como se da o processo de socializacao dos filhos pelos pais; o de Martin L. Hoffman que conceitua e mostra como pode ocorrer o desenvolvimento da empatia, e por fim, o referencial do perdao interpessoal, sob a perspectiva de Enright e Human Development Study Group. Considerando o atributo do perdao interpessoal em majorar as relacoes interpessoais e melhorar a saude mental, este trabalho possui como questao principal verificar se as maes poderiam socializar seus filhos para que apresentassem melhores atitudes para o perdao interpessoal. Ou seja, existe uma socializacao infantil para o perdao? Defenderemos que a resposta e positiva e que passa pela empatia materna, que e importante para os estilos parentais de aceitacao e implicacao e promovem a empatia dos filhos, por consequencia, favorecendo maior orientacao dos filhos para o perdao. Assim, a tese defendida e que a empatia materna, por meio da socializacao materna, e um elemento de estimulo aos posicionamentos dos filhos para o perdao. As analises dos dois artigos empiricos foram realizadas principalmente por meio da modelagem de equacoes estruturais. No primeiro, propos-se a buscar evidencias de validade fatorial e consistencia interna de duas medidas de perdao, sendo uma de concordancia com o perdao como forma de resolucao de problemas interpessoais e outra de atitudes com o perdao para resolucao desses conflitos. Realizou-se tres estudos, o primeiro e o segundo com amostra independentes de 200 estudantes universitarios e o terceiro com amostra de 400 mulheres e seus filhos. Evidenciou-se melhor ajuste de uma estrutura bi-fator, de dois conjuntos de quatro fatores opostos, sendo quatro relativos aos eventos de injusticas e quatro relativos aos personagens envolvidos na magoa. Os resultados mostram que o raciocinio do perdao e explicado por dois conjuntos de variaveis latentes distintas, o tipo de injustica e a pessoa perpetradora. O segundo artigo apresenta os resultados que respondem diretamente o objetivo da tese. Apos a confirmacao da medida de perdao, deu-se prosseguimento ao segundo estudo. Nele foi empregado a amostra de 400 maes e seus filhos (as), todos cursando o ensino medio em escolas no interior da Paraiba - Brasil. Utilizou-se as respostas das maes as escalas de perdao, de empatia (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) e um questionario demografico. Os filhos (as) responderam a escala de socializacao parental na adolescencia (ESPA 29), a de empatia (Interpersonal Reactivity Index), a de perdao e um questionario sociodemografico. Os resultados confirmaram a implicacao da empatia materna em todo o processo de socializacao dos filhos para o perdao. Alem disso, tambem se verificou que a empatia do filho media a relacao entre a dimensao aceitacao/implicacao da socializacao e crenca do filho sobre o perdao. Outro resultado a ser mencionado foi a conservacao da congruencia de orientacao sobre o perdao entre maes e filhos. Por fim, considera-se que os resultados corroboraram a tese defendida e que contribuem para ampliacao dos modelos de socializacao voltados para o desenvolvimento moral.
  • THAMIRES PEREIRA ALVES
  • COPING ATRAVÉS DO USO DE MÍDIAS E SUA RELAÇÃO COM A PERSONALIDADE E O BEM-ESTAR SUBJETIVO
  • Fecha: 29-mar-2019
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • A presente dissertacao teve como objetivo adaptar e reunir evidencias de validade e precisao de tres escalas de coping atraves do uso de midias, a Escala de Coping atraves da Leitura de Livros, a Escala de Coping atraves de Assistir Filmes e Series, e a Escala de Coping atraves do Uso da Internet. Alem disso, buscou-se investigar suas relacoes com os tracos da personalidade e o bem-estar subjetivo. Para tal, foram realizados tres estudos empiricos com estudantes do Ensino Medio e do Ensino Superior do Estado da Paraiba, Brasil. No Estudo 1, a Analise Fatorial Exploratoria (AFE) recomendou a solucao trifatorial, conforme descrito na literatura especializada, apresentando as variaveis latentes coping focado na emocao, coping focado no problema e coping evitacao. Os percentuais de variancia explicada variaram entre 71,65% e 76,8% (α≥0,89; λ-2≥0,89), indicando estrutura fatorial apropriada e confiavel, visto os bons indices de consistencia interna nos tres instrumentos. No Estudo 2, a Analise Fatorial Confirmatoria (AFC) ratificou as validades das estruturas fatoriais com tres dimensoes nas escalas propostas. A partir da testagem dos modelos alternativos, os modelos trifatoriais (original e reduzido) exibiram melhores indices de ajuste, sendo considerados equivalentes. Portanto, optou-se pelo modelo trifatorial original, uma vez que o mesmo mostrou adequacao satisfatoria aos dados e, alem dos criterios estatisticos, ponderou-se o significado teorico pertinente a extracao destes fatores. Subsequentemente, o Estudo 3 revelou que ouvir musicas e o comportamento de coping mais utilizado pela amostra em questao, enquanto a leitura de livros apresentou media consideravelmente inferior, sendo esta a estrategia menos usada. O fator coping focado na emocao foi o mais empregado, principalmente pelas mulheres, apresentando correlacoes com agradabilidade, conscienciosidade, satisfacao com a vida e afetos positivos. O coping focado no problema exibiu relacionamento positivo com a abertura a experiencia e os afetos positivos, no entanto o coping evitacao correlacionou-se com neuroticismo e afetos negativos, sendo o estilo menos empregado. Tambem foi verificada a presenca de relacoes significativas entre os tracos de personalidade e as dimensoes do bem-estar subjetivo. Os padroes de relacionamento verificados determinaram que o coping focado na emocao prediz a satisfacao com a vida, os afetos positivos e os afetos negativos, ja o coping focado no problema predisse os afetos positivos e negativos, enquanto o coping evitacao os afetos negativos. Observou-se tambem o aumento da variancia predita com a entrada da variavel agradabilidade nas relacoes do coping focado na emocao e do coping focado no problema com os afetos positivos, sugerindo que os individuos com fortes tracos de agradabilidade tendem a recorrer as estrategias emocionais e de resolucao de problemas a fim de otimizarem seus afetos positivos. As estimativas de correlacao e predicao mostraram-se em concordancia com o aporte teorico e empirico, indicando que as caracteristicas positivas da personalidade e do BES implicam nas estrategias focadas na emocao e no problema, enquanto as caracteristicas negativas sao arroladas ao estilo evitacao. Isto posto, espera-se que as medidas validadas e suas implicacoes sejam uteis para pesquisas futuras voltadas a tematica do coping e midias.
  • ALINE RODRIGUES GOMES
  • DOCUMENTOS OFICIAIS QUE ORIENTAM A PRÁTICA DE PSICÓLOGAS/OS EM CONTEXTOS ESCOLARES: DISCUTINDO FORMAÇÃO E ATUAÇÃO PROFISSIONAL.
  • Asesor : FABIOLA DE SOUSA BRAZ AQUINO
  • Fecha: 29-mar-2019
  • Hora: 08:00
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  • O presente estudo e derivado de pesquisas realizadas em contexto local, sobre a formacao e atuacao do psicologo que atua em instituicoes publicas regulares de ensino basico. Diferente da maioria do panorama nacional, na cidade de Joao Pessoa (PB) o psicologo escolar compoe o quadro de profissionais efetivos da rede municipal devido a lei n°8682/98, cenario que possibilita um maior aprofundamento sobre concepcoes e praticas desse profissional em contextos escolares, e impulsiona a proposicao de pesquisas que demarquem o papel desse profissional enquanto mediador de processos de desenvolvimento humano e aprendizado. Para fundamentar as questoes propostas nessa pesquisa foram resgatados estudos de pesquisadores do campo da psicologia escolar educacional contemporanea que defendem uma psicologia escolar critica, ampliada e preventiva bem como referencias e textos tecnicos elaborados pelo Conselho Federal de Psicologia. Neste sentido objetiva-se conhecer e analisar os documentos oficiais que orientam a pratica da(o) psicologos(as) nos contextos de educacao local. Visando responder a esse objetivo foi realizada uma pesquisa documental que teve como base o “Plano de trabalho escolar”, documento que e utilizado pelas psicologas da rede de ensino municipal para orientar a sua atuacao. As informacoes obtidas a partir deste documento foram sistematizadas e analisadas considerando as acoes realizadas pela (o) psicologa(o) escolar em conjunto com a equipe de especialistas; as acoes realizadas especificamente pela(o) psicologa(o) escolar, e as acoes consideradas como funcao do psicologo escolar nao referidas no documento da escola. Os resultados da analise documental relevaram que os documentos analisados descrevem apenas o conjunto de acoes que sao realizadas pela(o) psicologa(o) escolar em conjunto com a equipe de especialistas da escola, mas nao disponibiliza informacoes sobre como se configura a participacao deste profissional, as especificacoes da funcao da(o) psicologa(o) escolar na instituicao ou ate mesmo junto a equipe de especialistas. Depreende-se do exposto a relevancia da construcao de um documento inspirado na realidade de educacao local que resgate as especificidades do trabalho do psicologo escolar, o que pode contribuir para auxiliar as psicologas a desenvolver uma atuacao critica que reafirme o seu papel de agente mediador das relacoes interpessoais na escola e dos processos de ensino-aprendizagem e desenvolvimento humano. Reafirma-se que a criacao e utilizacao de um documento que oriente a pratica de psicologos em contextos escolares e educacionais podem colaborar para impulsionar praticas que favorecam processos de ensino e aprendizado, e mobilizar acoes que fortalecam o compromisso etico e politico de psicologas (os) escolares na direcao de praticas que acompanhem e promovam o desenvolvimento humano. Para isso e necessaria a realizacao de pesquisas junto as psicologas(os) que atuam na rede de ensino municipal, visando obter um panorama mais aproximado sobre a realidade escolar e as acoes desenvolvidas por estas profissionais neste contexto. Do exposto, argumenta-se como fundamental ampliar e aprofundar a discussao sobre a formacao em psicologia escolar; a construcao da identidade profissional e das competencias especificas do psicologo escolar por meio de formacao continuada em servico do psicologo escolar visando promover praticas exitosas destas profissionais nos contextos educacionais.
  • EVELINE SILVA HOLANDA LIMA
  • EVALUATION OF VISUAL COLOR PERCEPTION IN ADULTS WITH DISORDER MAJOR DEPRESSIVE AND FIRST-DEGREE RELATIVES
  • Fecha: 28-mar-2019
  • Hora: 13:00
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  • The present dissertation investigated whether color perception is affected in adults with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and first-degree relatives when compared with non-affected individuals. The discrimination thresholds for the Protan, Deutan and Tritan axes of confusion (Trivector) were used as parameters; the area of the MacAdam ellipse and its ellipticity (Ellipse), which correspond to the Cambridge Coulor Test; and measurements of the Lanthony Desaturat Test D-15 that were the Coulor Confusion Index (ICC). The sample consisted of 21 volunteers, 8 with MDD (Study Group 1), 5 first-degree relatives of those individuals with MDD (Study Group 2) and 8 healthy individuals, free of any identifiable pathologies (Control Group). All participants were submitted to the Beck II Depression and Anxiety Inventory, as well as to sociodemographic questionnaires and to the informed consent form. The results showed significant differences with p < .05 between the three groups in the Lanthony D15 color discrimination tests, CCT Trivector protocol and Ellipses. There were no significant differences between GE1 and GE2 at p > .05. This may have been due to the reduced number of the sample and also because the participants of the GE1 did not present serious levels of MDD. Therefore, the research hypothesis was consistent with the assumption that the impairment for color perception could present changes in patients with major depressive disorder and relatives of individuals with MDD, when compared with healthy controls, where this was confirmed. It is suggested that new studies be performed with a larger sample number and with the majority of the participants of the GE1 with severe MDD.
  • THIAGO FRANCISCO DE ANDRADE
  • Estilos de socialização parental, orientação para o perdão e suas relações com o ajustamento psicossocial na juventude e vida adulta
  • Asesor : JULIO RIQUE NETO
  • Fecha: 28-mar-2019
  • Hora: 11:00
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  • Estudos em diferentes culturas tem apontado para o papel central dos estilos de controle exercidos pelos pais no desenvolvimento psicossocial dos filhos. Considerado o prototipo da parentalidade, o estilo Autoritativo, caracterizado por elevados niveis de controle e consideracao dos sentimentos e opinioes dos filhos tem sido associado a variaveis de ajustamento psicossocial e academico dos filhos. Entretanto, evidencias vem sendo recolhidas apontando melhores indicadores de ajustamento entre os filhos de pais Indulgentes (baixo controle e elevada consideracao), sobretudo em contextos latinoamericanos. Neste sentido, o presente estudo buscou identificar as relacoes entre os estilos de socializacao empregados pelos pais e o ajustamento psicossocial positivo dos filhos, avaliado em termos de satisfacao com a vida, felicidade subjetiva e sentido de vida. Ademais, buscou-se identificar em que medida os estilos parentais se relacionam com a transmissao de valores, especificamente a orientacao para o perdao de ofensas interpessoais. Para tanto, foram realizados dois estudos empiricos independentes e integrativos. No Estudo 1, que contou com a participacao de 80 estudantes universitarios, predominantemente mulheres (91,3%) e com media de idade de 28 anos (DP = 9,78), buscou-se testar a validade ecologica do modelo quadripartido dos estilos de socializacao (indulgente, negligente, autoritario e autoritativo). Uma analise de clusters com as praticas parentais elencadas na Escala de Socializacao Parental na Adolescencia (ESPA-29) permitiu classificar de forma satisfatoria as respostas nos quatro estilos propostos pelo modelo original. No Estudo 2, que contou com a participacao de 353 estudantes universitarios, predominantemente do sexo feminino e com idade media de 23,9 anos (DP = 0,39), buscou-se investigar (a) as qualidades psicometricas de uma Escala de Orientacao para o Perdao; (b) os efeitos dos estilos de socializacao sobre a Orientacao para o Perdao e (c) o impacto dos estilos parentais sobre os indicadores de ajustamento psicossocial (felicidade subjetiva, satisfacao com a vida e sentido de vida). Como resultados, tem-se que a Escala de Orientacao para o Perdao, nas suas duas formas (concordancia com o perdao e atitude para o perdao) apresentou estrutura unifatorial com bons indices psicometricos. O estudo dos efeitos dos estilos de socializacao sobre as demais variaveis, por meio de MANOVAs, mostrou que somente o estilo negligente apresentou efeitos significativos sobre o ajustamento psicossocial (sentido de vida e satisfacao com a vida), nao tendo sido encontrados efeitos dos estilos parentais sobre a orientacao para o perdao. As implicacoes dos achados e uma discussao sobre o poder estatistico como possivel explicacao para os achados nao significativos sao apresentados.
  • CLARA LOHANA CARDOSO GUIMARÃES FARIAS
  • EXPLICANDO O PERFIL DO MEDIADOR DE CONFLITOS A PARTIR DA PERSONALIDADE E DOS VALORES HUMANOS
  • Fecha: 26-mar-2019
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • Buscou-se explicar o perfil do mediador a partir dos tracos de personalidade mediados pelos valores humanos. Para alcancar tal objetivo, foram realizados tres estudos. O Estudo 1 objetivou elaborar a Escala de Perfil do Mediador de Conflitos (EPMC), reunindo evidencias preliminares de sua validade e precisao. Participaram 248 universitarios, da area de saude, humanas e exatas, com idade media de 26 anos (DP = 7,66), 76,2% mulheres, de universidade publica (72,6%). Responderam a EPM e um questionario sociodemografico. Os resultados da analise fatorial exploratoria, por meio dos criterios HULL, MAP e AP, sugeriram unidimensionalidade do instrumento, o qual apresentou evidencias de validade e precisao favoraveis (α de Cronbach e omega de McDonald = 0,90); o Estudo 2, com a finalidade de testar a estrutura encontrada no Estudo 1, contou com 240 universitarios, distribuidos equitativamente entre os cursos de Direito e Psicologia. A idade media foi de 27 anos (DP = 7,70), 52,1% mulheres e de universidade privada (81,3%). Responderam aos mesmos instrumentos do Estudo 1. Os resultados revelaram parametros psicometricos aceitaveis [X²/gl = 2,07, CFI = 0,92, TLI = 0,91 e RMSEA = 0,07 (IC90% = 0,053 – 0,081), com α de Cronbach e Confiabilidade Composta semelhantes (0,89); e o Estudo 3 pretendeu identificar a relacao entre os tracos de personalidade, as subfuncoes valorativas e o perfil do mediador, verificar a contribuicao dos tracos de personalidade, das subfuncoes valorativas e das variaveis sociodemograficas (curso de graduacao, idade, sexo e tipo de instituicao) na explicacao do perfil do mediador, e, por fim, testar o modelo explicativo do perfil do mediador. Participaram 285 universitarios dos cursos de Direito e Psicologia, compreendidos entre os tres ultimos periodos, com idade media de 27,32 anos (DP = 7,80), 59,3% mulheres, de universidade privada (80,7%), que responderam aos instrumentos do Estudo 1, acrescidos do Inventario dos Cinco Grandes Fatores e do Questionario dos Valores Basicos. Correlacoes de Pearson demonstraram relacao positiva e estatisticamente significativa (p < 0,05) do perfil do mediador com os tracos amabilidade (r = 0,35), abertura a experiencia (r = 0,33), conscienciosidade (r = 0,32) e extroversao (r = 0,21), alem das subfuncoes valorativas suprapessoal (r = 0,27) e interativa (r = 0,24). Posteriormente, foi realizada regressao multipla hierarquica, ficando no passo final um modelo estatisticamente significativo [F(7;644) = 18,28; p < 0,001, R²= 0,24], entrando como variaveis preditoras do perfil do mediador o curso, com as maiores pontuacoes daqueles que cursam Psicologia (β = 0,14; p = 0,01), os tracos de personalidade (conscienciosidade, β = 0,21; p < 0,001; abertura a experiencia, β = 0,20; p < 0,001; e amabilidade, β = 0,18; p = 0,002) e a subfuncao interativa (β = 0,12; p = 0,03). A partir disso, foi testado um modelo de mediacao considerando o perfil do mediador como variavel criterio, tracos de personalidade como variaveis independentes e a subfuncao interativa como mediadora, cujos resultados apresentaram que os tracos conscienciosidade e abertura a experiencia explicam o perfil do mediador de forma direta, independente da subfuncao valorativa. No entanto, mediado pela subfuncao interativa, apenas a amabilidade apresentou resultado significativo. Assim, acredita-se que os tracos de personalidade e os valores humanos configuram-se como variaveis importantes na explicacao da formacao desse perfil, fornecendo dados empiricos que podem facilitar o recrutamento desses profissionais, assim como fomentar estrategias de capacitacao e intervencoes para o aperfeicoamento da atuacao. Em suma, confia-se que os objetivos foram alcancados e que este trabalho contribui com a Psicologia Social, sobretudo na explicacao do perfil do mediador, a partir de uma perspectiva psicologica, ja que a maioria dos estudos acerca da mediacao e constituida na area do Direito.
  • BRUNO ROLIM BAGGIO
  • Moral Birth: a critical reading of Piaget's theory of the moral development.
  • Fecha: 21-mar-2019
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • The present work consists of a critical reading of the moral theory of Jean Piaget, presented in The Moral Judgment in the Child (1932), a work of great influence in the field of moral psychology. At first, we will try to situate the piagetian theses on morality within the context of the evolution of the author's own thought. As we have tried to demonstrate, Moral Judgment in the Child was published in the initial phase of Piaget's theoretical production and thus precedes some of the author's main contributions in the field of developmental psychology, especially the publication of The Birth of Intelligence in the Child (1936 ), a work in which the author points out the importance of sensory-motor processes, still in the first two years of life, to understand the genesis of logical and conceptual thinking. From this context, it was possible to identify a gap in the moral theses of the author, exactly in relation to the sensorimotor processes that would be the basis of the development of later moral forms such as heteronomy and autonomy. In a second moment, we try to discuss some of Piaget's notes on affective development, which shed new light on the genesis of morality. In The Formation of the Symbol in the Child and the Relations Between Intelligence and Affectivity (1954), the author returned to the theme of morality, but this time accommodating his moral theory to his description of the process of structuring the sensory motor. In these works, the author clarifies some important aspects of affective schematization and points them as a starting point for moral development. Piaget also presents a broader definition of morality, conceiving it as an operative structure of "conduct relating to people." Finally, we address Piaget's effort to integrate contributions from psychoanalysis, especially when he seeks to describe the affective development and dynamics of early interpersonal relationships. We also present some ideas of the pediatrician and English psychoanalyst Donald Wood Winnicott on the genesis of moral development that we consider important for the understanding of a sensorimotor morality (Concern). In addition to being in line with Piaget's description of the early years, Winnicott's descriptions can elucidate a few points not discussed by the Swiss author and contribute to a theoretical renewal consistent with the evolution of his thinking.
  • MARCOS FRANCISCO DOS SANTOS
  • A Psicologia Social do Complexo de Vira-Lata: Conciliando Distintividade Positiva e Justificação do Sistema
  • Fecha: 19-mar-2019
  • Hora: 09:30
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  • O complexo de vira-lata foi descrito em 1958 pelo jornalista brasileiro Nelson Rodrigues como “a inferioridade em que o brasileiro se coloca, voluntariamente, em face do resto do mundo”. Na presente dissertacao levantamos o problema de saber se, de fato, os brasileiros se comportam “voluntariamente” como se, de fato, fossem motivados pelo efeito de um “complexo de vira-lata”. Baseados nas teorias da Identidade Social (Tajfel &Turner, 1979), da Justificacao do Sistema (Jost & Banaji, 1994) e na historia da dinamica da formacao da cultura brasileira, propusemos a hipotese de que o “complexo de vira-lata” e um fenomeno mais complexo do que o mero favoritismo exogrupal. Propomos ser o “complexo de vira-lata” uma estrategia de gestao da identidade nacional caracterizada pela negacao da origem cultural africana, marcada na tonalidade escura da cor da pele da populacao brasileira, e pela acentuacao de aspectos que lembram a origem europeista dessa populacao. Testamos esta hipotese em tres estudos usando o paradigma experimental desenvolvido por Oliveira (2013), no qual os participantes indicam a indenizacao a ser atribuida a uma vitima de violencia policial. No Estudo 1 os participantes foram alocados aleatoriamente em uma de seis condicoes de acordo com o desenho fatorial do tipo 2(cor da pele da vitima: negro vs. branco) x 3(origem da vitima: Africa, Brasil e Europa). Os resultados mostram a presenca de um “efeito vira-lata” seletivo: os participantes “voluntariamente” atribuiram menor indenizacao a vitima brasileira do que a europeia, mas demostraram favoritismo endogrupal ao atribuirem maior indenizacao a vitima brasileira do que a africana. Verificamos tambem ser esse efeito motivado, primariamente, por racismo: os participantes valorizaram muito mais a vitima branca do que a negra, sendo essa valorizacao potencializada pela informacao sobre a origem cultural dessa vitima. O Estudo 2 replicou esse efeito mostrando ser, de fato, a cor da pele da vitima um fator central para a emergencia do “efeito vira-lata”. O Estudo 3 foi alem e avancou na analise do mecanismo que medeia o “efeito vira-lata”. Especificamente, mostrou que a percepcao de injustica na detencao e tratamento dado pela policia a vitima atua como mediadora do efeito da cor e da origem cultural da vitima na indenizacao atribuida. A discussao dos resultados sugere existir um “complexo de vira-lata” no comportamento dos participantes e que esse complexo pode representar uma solucao de compromisso entre o desejo de reafirmarem o status quo das relacoes raciais no Brasil e a motivacao deles para distinguirem positivamente a identidade nacional de atributos africanizados.
  • CLEONIDES SILVA DIAS GUSMAO
  • VIVÊNCIA DO PROCESSO REPRODUTIVO POR HOMENS PAIS: UM OLHAR ATRAVÉS DOS ESTEREÓTIPOS DE GÊNERO
  • Fecha: 13-mar-2019
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • Este estudo tem o objetivo principal investigar os estereotipos de genero que homens pais possuem e como se da sua vivencia do processo reprodutivo, abordando a contracepcao, aborto, gravidez, pre-natal, parto e paternidade. A fim de cumprir com o objetivo desta tese, foram realizados tres estudos empiricos de carater qualitativo, com amostragem nao probabilistica e por conveniencia. O primeiro estudo objetivou analisar os aspectos do processo reprodutivo enquanto uma construcao social; averiguar se os estereotipos de genero sao eficazes para analise do processo reprodutivo, contribuindo para seu entendimento; e compor a entrevista em profundidade do terceiro estudo. Este estudo contou com a participacao de 5 homens pais (Media de idade = 42,20 anos; DP = 10,71) e a utilizacao de um grupo focal. A analise dos dados foi realizada atraves da Analise Categorial que permitiu extrair dezenove subcategorias das duas classes tematicas e oito categorias pre-estabelecidas. As classes tematicas foram intituladas de: “Vivencia do Processo Reprodutivo” e “Estereotipos de Genero”. A primeira classe tematica esta voltada a descricao da vivencia do processo reprodutivo atraves da perspectiva do pai. Ela abarca as seguintes categorias: Contracepcao, Gravidez, Aborto, Pre-natal e Parto e Paternidade. A segunda classe tematica esta direcionada aos estereotipos de genero que, neste caso, guiaram as vivencias em relacao ao processo reprodutivo. Ela tem como categorias: Feminino e Masculino. Este primeiro estudo apontou de maneira preliminar a eficacia dos estereotipos de genero para analise do processo reprodutivo, fato que embasou a realizacao dos outros dois Estudos. O segundo estudo, teve como objetivo investigar os Estereotipos de Genero que os pais possuem. Neste, participaram 20 homens pais (Media de idade = 32,60 anos; DP= 6,08). Utilizou-se uma entrevista semiestruturada composta pela evocacao, enunciacao e averiguacao para investigacao dos estereotipos de genero. A analise dos dados foi realizada atraves da Analise Categorial, que permitiu extrair duas categorias e dezessete subcategorias. As duas categorias referem-se a Feminino e Masculino e as subcategorias denunciaram a adesao dos participantes a divisao de papeis tradicionais entre os homens e as mulheres, destacando-se os estereotipos femininos de Sensibilidade, Cuidado, Delicadeza e Fragilidade; e os estereotipos masculinos de Provisao de Recursos, Insensibilidade, Violencia e Forca. O terceiro estudo teve o objetivo de investigar as vivencias masculinas do processo reprodutivo. Participaram desse estudo os mesmos homens pais que compuseram a amostra do segundo estudo. Utilizou-se uma entrevista em profundidade formulada atraves do primeiro estudo, o qual proporcionou insights para composicao desta entrevista. A analise dos dados foi realizada por meio da Analise Categorial, utilizando-se como auxilio o software IRAMUTEQ, que permitiu a identificacao de cinco classes para categoria Contracepcao, cinco classes para categoria Gravidez, tres classes para categoria Aborto, cinco classes para categoria Pre-natal, cinco classes para categoria Parto e quatro classes para categoria Paternidade. De forma geral, este estudo permitiu a conclusao de que os estereotipos de genero influenciam a forma como os homens interpretam e se comportam diante do processo reprodutivo, servindo como um meio para justificar as desigualdades relatadas na vivencia deste processo. Nesse sentido, os tres estudos realizados apontam para importancia do combate aos estereotipos de genero com o intuito de promover a igualdade entre os generos, mais especificamente no que se refere a vivencia do processo reprodutivo.
  • RENALLE RUANA PESSOA RAMOS
  • OS EFEITOS DA CATEGORIZAÇÃO DE GÊNERO SOBRE A EMPATIA E O JULGAMENTO MORAL
  • Fecha: 28-feb-2019
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • Estudos envolvendo a Teoria da Identidade Social tem sido eficientes em demonstrar diferencas na resposta a situacoes sociais variadas associadas a categorizacao do alvo enquanto membro do endogrupo ou do exogrupo como efeito do que foi denominado de vies do endogrupo. Uma vez que a categorizacao social e reconhecida enquanto um fenomeno inescapavel da vida social, de que maneira ela afeta decisoes morais no dia-a-dia, considerando que o julgamento moral parte de uma premissa de justica? Mediante uma proposta de investigacao da moralidade mais proxima da realidade cotidiana, o presente estudo utilizou uma adaptacao do classico dilema de Heinz com o objetivo de analisar os efeitos da categorizacao de genero sobre a empatia e o julgamento moral. Para tanto, tambem foi produzida uma versao do dilema com um protagonista do sexo feminino e as situacoes foram aplicadas em 183 participantes, 92 mulheres e 91 homens, em um delineamento experimental fatorial 2 (infrator mulher versus infrator homem) x 2 (participantes mulher versus participante homem) interssujeitos. Os dados de resposta foram coletados em escalas de medida situacionais de empatia e julgamento moral construidas para este fim. Ademais, verificou-se o potencial das variaveis de empatia disposicional, mensurada pelo EMRI, e de desenvolvimento moral, mensurado pelo DIT-1, enquanto moderadores da resposta as situacoes experimentais. Embora tenham sido relatadas na literatura diferencas na empatia como efeito da pertenca grupal do alvo, na direcao de uma maior empatia por membros do endogrupo, nao foram observadas diferencas na resposta empatica aos tratamentos mediante analise apenas dos efeitos da manipulacao do sexo do infrator e do sexo do participante. Da mesma forma, tambem nao foram encontradas diferencas no julgamento moral. Contudo, foram observadas diferencas baseadas nas medidas disposicionais, isto e, quando a analise considerou uma classificacao binaria dos participantes a partir de escores baixos ou altos em termos de empatia e de desenvolvimento moral. Com relacao a empatia, os efeitos do tratamento experimental pareceram associados a ativacao de estereotipos de genero, resultando em diferencas de empatia situacional como efeito da empatia disposicional para a condicao na qual os homens foram confrontados com um infrator do sexo masculino. Acerca do desenvolvimento moral, foi encontrada uma tendencia de derrogacao de membros do endogrupo com comportamento desviante (efeito ovelha negra), de modo que uma maior avaliacao negativa do infrator membro do endogrupo foi observada apenas no grupo de participantes com baixo desenvolvimento moral. De modo geral, os resultados sugerem que pode haver alguma distincao na experiencia moral de homens e mulheres em razao das diferencas entre os sexos em termos de empatia. De todo modo, a ocorrencia de vies no julgamento moral nao foi observada primariamente associada a empatia, mas como efeito do proprio desenvolvimento moral dos participantes. Mediante tais achados, ressalta-se a importancia da inclusao de variaveis de desenvolvimento nas investigacoes em psicologia social, bem como a contribuicao do baixo desenvolvimento moral na perpetuacao de determinadas problematicas sociais.
  • JOYCE HELEM DELMIRO MARTINS
  • Violence in intimate relationship between men.
  • Fecha: 28-feb-2019
  • Hora: 10:00
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  • Violence in intimal relationships (VRI) is one of the important problems in our country. Nevertheless, the media and the social imagination highlight only cases associated with women in heterosexual relationships, that is, little is said about how violence can be expressed in a courtship, engagement or marriage between two men or two women. Based on this assumption, this dissertation has as a general objective to understand violence among men in intimate relationships. It is based on a psychosociological view that has as main theorich norths the perspective of a gen of Pierre Bordieu, the perspective of The Vulnerability of Ayres and the Theory of Social Representations of Moscovici. This is structured in three complementary articles/researches in its objectives. The first article aimed to investigate the representational contents of the media about violence among men in intima relations. A survey was carried out based on a search of journalistic news portals, published in Porto, in the period from 2008 to 2018. After selection by means of exclusion criteria, 32 articles were analyzed. From the Descending Hierarchy Classification (CHD) and the Factorial Analysis of Correspondence (CfA), five discursive classes emerged in which, in general, the presenca of a discourse mainly directed to the most extreme forms of violence emerged, delegating to the background the exposure of more subtle and psychological aspects of phenomeno. In addition, the underreported characteristic of phenomeno is confirmed. The second article aimed to investigate how the variable predictor (PV) internalized heterosexism is associated with variable criterio (VC) violence among couples of men. For this purpose, we used: the Revisited Scale of Resolucao of Conflict Taticas (CTS2) and the Internalized Homophobia Scale (HI), in addition to a sociodemograficoal question. The sample consisted of thirty men who were already in a loving relationship with another man, with ages ranging from 20 to 50 years (M= 27.25, SD=7.5). The scores of the participants in the CTS2 scale were analyzed to obtain data on the prevalence of different conflict tics. It was observed that the tic most used by participants in the resolution of conflicts and negotiation (M=18.73, SD=6.02), followed by Psychological Aggression (M=12.44, SD=5.87). Participants on average scored high on the Public Identification as Gay subscale (M=32.74, SD=8.93). There was no association between the scales, which can be credited to the reduced sample size. Thus, this study does not allow verifying whether internalized heterosexism and a forecaster of violence among couples of men. However, there were associations between the public identification as gay and the moral acceptability of being gay (rho=.636, p<0.01), Moral Acceptability and Perception of Stigma (rho=.378, p<0.05), Relationship Time and Negotiation (rho=.374, p<0.05) Physical Aggression and Psychological Aggression (rho=.467, p<0.05), Psychological Aggression and Sexual Coercao (rho=.593, p<0.05) and Religiosity and Relationship Time (rho=.465, p<0.05). In general, the data indicate that violence among men and a very frequent phenomeno that can be captured even in small samples, which denounces the urge to bring visibility to the problem. The third article aimed to know the experiences of men in close contact with another man. Seven gay men aged between 27 and 40 years (M= 32.7, SD= 4.7) were interviewed and the content of the interviews was submitted to analysis of content proposed by Bardin, which originated five major thematic categories: Vulnerabilities and Violence, Social Support, Aftermath, Identity Construction and Negotiation/Partnership. The analyses indicated that the experiences of men are often crossed by elements of violence of which they are sometimes victims, sometimes perpetrators. Together, the results obtained in this dissertation indicate that violence in relationships between men manifests itself in high levels and can only be understood taking into account the specificities of affective practices that go in addition to heteronormativity.
  • LEONAM AMITAF FERREIRA PINTO DE ALBUQUERQUE
  • A Atuação dos Profissionais de Psicologia da Vara da Infância e Juventude na Política de Adoção
  • Fecha: 28-feb-2019
  • Hora: 10:00
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  • Essa dissertacao tem por objetivo geral analisar a atuacao dos profissionais de Psicologia da Vara da Infancia e Juventude na politica de adocao. As acoes atribuidas pelas normativas da politica de adocao aos profissionais de Psicologia da equipe tecnica da Vara da Infancia e Juventude geram sobrecarga de trabalho e requerem praticas de carater tecnico e individualizante, baseadas em modelos reducionistas de adocao, infancia, adolescencia e familia, que contribuem para a reproducao de novas expressoes da questao social no ambito da garantia do direito das criancas e adolescentes a convivencia familiar e comunitaria. Adota-se como referencial teorico a perspectiva da politica social, entendida como resposta fragmentada as expressoes multifacetadas da questao social, e do significado, compreendido como uma zona do sentido, estavel, uniforme e exata, que a palavra adquire no contexto de algum discurso. A coleta de dados se deu por meio: a) da analise documental do Estatuto da Crianca e do Adolescente, da Lei Nacional da Adocao, do Provimento do Conselho Nacional de Justica sobre a estrutura e procedimentos das Varas da Infancia e Juventude e da Resolucao do Conselho Federal de Psicologia a respeito da atuacao do psicologo como perito e assistente tecnico no Poder Judiciario; b) da entrevista semiestruturada com os profissionais de Psicologia da 1ª Vara da Infancia e Juventude da Comarca da Capital e do setor civel da Vara Privativa da Infancia e Juventude de Campina Grande; e c) do questionario de informacoes sobre caracteristicas biologicas e condicoes sociais e demograficas dos participantes. Os dados foram analisados a partir da analise tematica de conteudo e da analise descritiva do conteudo. Os resultados indicaram que as acoes atribuidas aos profissionais de Psicologia da Vara da Infancia e Juventude pelas normativas da politica de adocao contribuem para a garantia do direito das criancas e adolescentes a convivencia familiar e comunitaria. Em sua maioria, os participantes foram mulheres, com 36 anos, pardas, casadas, pertencentes as religioes catolica e espirita, com renda familiar de 09 salarios minimos. A formacao academica caracterizou-se pela escassez, restricao a areas especificas e ocorrencia no ambiente de trabalho, contribuindo para auxiliar e orientar a pratica. As politicas sociais foram compreendidas como politicas publicas que geram melhorias sociais, de carater universal, acoes do Estado e da sociedade e formas de garantir o acesso dos cidadaos a direitos, e como politica de adocao em construcao, de garantia dos interesses dos pretendentes a adocao e dos direitos das criancas e adolescentes em condicoes de serem adotados. Os significados atribuidos a atuacao na politica de adocao remetem as acoes, atividades individuais e coletivas, normativas institucionais e legais, funcoes, sentimentos e dificuldades que permeiam a garantia do direito das criancas e adolescentes a convivencia familiar e comunitaria.
  • MARIA GABRIELA COSTA RIBEIRO
  • NOSTALGIA AS AN EXPLAINER OF SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING: THE ROLE MEDIATOR OF HUMAN VALUES
  • Fecha: 22-feb-2019
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • This dissertation aimed to verify to what extent the nostalgia and human vales explain the subjective well-being. Four studies were conducted. The Study 1 aimed to develop the Dispositional Nostalgia Scale (DNS) and investigate its psychometric indexes (e.g., factorial and convergent validities, reliability). Participants (N = 207 undergraduate students; Mage = 22.8; SD = 6.13; 51.0% men) completed the initial version of the DNS, composed by 20 items, the Nostalgia Inventory (NI), the Southampton Nostalgia Scale (SNE) and demographic questions. An exploratory factor analysis (principal axis factoring; oblimin rotation) indicated a one-factor solution and satisfactory reliability (α = 0.86). However, it was decided to select the items with factor loading above |0.50| under the same previous criterions. The final version, composed by 10 items, showed again a one-factor solution (α = 0.84) and convergent validity was supported (NI, r = 0.57; ENS, r = 0.31). The Study 2 aimed to confirm the previous factor solution for the DNS found in the first study. Participants (N = 260 undergraduate students; Mage = 22.3; SD = 5.92; 53% women) completed the DNS brief version, the NI, the SNE and demographic questions. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the error term of item 8 was correlated with the items 2 and 10. The confirmatory model was reestimated, in absence of the item 8, and the one-factor solution fitted well (e.g., CFI = 0.94; TLI = 0.91; RMSEA = 0.06) with satisfactory reliability (α = 0.78; test-retest, t1 and t2= 0.82). Moreover, the DNS brief version was correlated with NI (r = 0.55) e SNE (r = 0.36). In the Study 3 was investigated the relations between nostalgia, human values and variables that composes the subjective well-being universe (meaning of life, self-esteem and optimism). Participants (N = 306 undergraduate students; Mage = 24.9; SD = 7.86; 62% women) completed the DNS, Basic Values Survey, Meaning in Life Questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Positive and Negative Affects Scale and demographic questions. The DNS correlated positively with interactive values (r = 0.18), excitement (r = 0.13) e suprapersonal (r = 0.14) and negative affects (r = 0.13). In turn, the DNS correlated negatively with presence of sense (r = -0.14). It was not observed correlations with self-esteem and positive affects. Moreover, the predictive power of nostalgia was tested on self-esteem and presence of sense, including the interactive values as a mediator variable; a positive indirect effect was observed. In addition, the interactive values showed a suppressor effect on the estimated mediation model. Finally, the Study 4 aimed to verify the state nostalgia effect on optimism mediated by interactive values and self-esteem and whether this effect is contingent of on trait nostalgia. Participants (N = 193 undergraduate students; Mage = 24.3; SD = 7.61; 65% women) completed the same instruments of the Study 3 and the Optimism Scale. In sum, the effect of the state nostalgia and the interaction term (state nostalgia x trait nostalgia) on optimism through sequential path (interactive subfunction and self-esteem) was not significant. However, the trait nostalgia explained the optimism when mediated by interactive values and self-esteem. In conclusion, it was verified the development of a reliable instrument to measure the trait nostalgia. In addition, the importance of a social function on the nostalgia construct was supported, once individuals with higher nostalgic experiences endorse Affectivity, Belonging and Support values and, in turn, exhibits higher levels of subjective well-being (meaning of life, self-esteem and optimism).
  • ALESSANDRO TEIXEIRA REZENDE
  • ENTENDENDO AS CRENÇAS EM TEORIAS DA CONSPIRAÇÃO: CONTRIBUIÇÃO DOS TRAÇOS DE PERSONALIDADE E VALORES HUMANOS
  • Fecha: 21-feb-2019
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • Esta dissertacao objetivou verificar em que medida os tracos de personalidade e valores humanos explicam as crencas em teorias da conspiracao. Neste sentido, quatro estudos empiricos foram realizados. O Estudo 1 objetivou mapear os significados que os individuos atribuem as teorias da conspiracao. Participaram 383 estudantes universitarios de instituicoes publicas de Joao Pessoa-PB, com media de idade de 21 anos (DP = 5,07). Estes responderam, alem de perguntas sociodemograficas, a um roteiro de entrevista composta por duas questoes abertas. Em sintese, os resultados mostraram-se congruentes com as pesquisas internacionais realizadas na psicologia, sugerindo que as teorias da conspiracao podem ser compreendidas como tendo uma funcao explicativa para eventos da realidade social. O Estudo 2 versou sobre a elaboracao da Escala de Crencas Gerais Conspiratorias (ECGC), nos quais foram construidos itens tendo como base as estruturas lexicas encontradas no estudo 1 e os instrumentos disponiveis na literatura. Participaram 229 estudantes universitarios de uma instituicao publica de Joao Pessoa-PB, com media de idade de 21 anos (DP = 4,50) que responderam a versao inicial da ECGC, composta por 39 itens, e perguntas demograficas. Uma Analise dos Componentes Principais (rotacao varimax) indicou uma solucao pentafatorial para o instrumento com indicadores aceitaveis de fidedignidade. Cada dimensao foi composta por tres itens: Manipulacao farmaceutica (α = 0,75), Conspiracoes globais (α = 0,80), Manipulacao de grupos secretos (α = 0,80), Encobrimento de contato extraterrestre (α = 0,92) e Controle de informacoes (α = 0,60). A ECGC explicou 55,4% da variancia total. Em razao de as analises deste estudo serem eminentemente exploratorias, decidiu-se realizar o Estudo 3, que objetivou confirmar as estruturas fatoriais previamente observadas. Participaram 229 estudantes de uma instituicao publica de Joao Pessoa-PB, com media de idade de 21 anos (DP = 5,31), que responderam a versao reduzida da ECGC, e questoes demograficas. Testaram-se modelos alternativos, nao obstante o modelo bifator (e.g., CFI = 0,96; TLI = 0,94; RMSEA = 0,06) apresentou melhor ajuste; ademais, a estabilidade temporal da escala avaliada em um intervalo de trinta dias revelou um valor de correlacao elevado nos dois momentos de aplicacao (r = 0,85). Com evidencias preliminares que atestam a adequacao da ECGC, partiu-se para o Estudo 4, objetivando verificar a relacao entre valores humanos, tracos de personalidade e crencas em teorias da conspiracao. Participaram 205 estudantes universitarios de uma instituicao publica da cidade de Joao Pessoa-PB, com media de idade de 21 anos (DP = 5,14), que responderam a versao adaptada da ECGC, o Inventario dos Cinco Grandes Fatores de Personalidade, o Questionario dos Valores Basicos e questoes demograficas. Os resultados indicaram que tracos de personalidade e valores humanos foram bons preditores das crencas em teorias da conspiracao, ademais, o modelo explicativo proposto apresentou indicadores de ajuste satisfatorios (e.g., CFI = 0,95, TLI = 0,90). Estima-se que os objetivos propostos foram alcancados, com a construcao de uma medida de autorrelato para avaliar as crencas em teorias da conspiracao, apresentando evidencias preliminares de sua validade fatorial e consistencia interna, alem de aumentar o entendimento que se tem em torno das teorias da conspiracao a partir das relacoes que ela estabelece com outros construtos.
  • D'ANGELLES COUTINHO VIEIRA
  • DESIGUALDADES DE GÊNERO NO ÂMBITO LABORAL: O PAPEL DO SEXISMO NESSE CONTEXTO
  • Fecha: 21-feb-2019
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • Esta dissertacao, cujo tema versa sobre sexismo no ambiente de trabalho, possui o objetivo de investigar o impacto do sexo dos participantes (masculino ou feminino), do sexo de um avaliador (masculino ou feminino) e do sexo de um avaliado (masculino ou feminino) na percepcao de justica de uma avaliacao profissional em que nao ocorre a contratacao, e avaliar o papel moderador do sexismo nessa relacao. Foram realizados tres estudos, dispostos em dois artigos, para alcancar este objetivo. O primeiro artigo, que reuniu os Estudos 1 e 2, teve como objetivo desenvolver uma medida de sexismo especifica para o ambiente de trabalho que seja valida para o contexto brasileiro. Para o Estudo 1, participaram 398 estudantes de duas universidades publicas do nordeste brasileiro, com idade media de 22,69 anos (DP = 6,56) e maioria do sexo feminino (52%). Os participantes responderam a uma escala composta por 37 itens formulados pelos autores e por itens adaptados de outras escalas. Os resultados indicaram que uma solucao bifatorial, composta por 16 itens, e a mais adequada. Alem disso, ambos os fatores do instrumento apresentaram correlacao positiva com os fatores do Inventario de Sexismo Ambivalente de Glick e Fiske. No Estudo 2 o instrumento foi testado em uma amostra de 412 estudantes de duas universidades publicas do nordeste brasileiro, com idade media de 22,84 anos (DP = 6,39) e maioria do sexo feminino (52,7%), para verificar a confirmacao da estrutura fatorial. Os resultados indicam que a estrutura encontrada se mostrou adequada (χ²/gl = 3,31; GFI = 0,91; CFI = 0,92; RMSEA = 0,075). O artigo 2 teve como objetivo investigar o impacto do sexo dos participantes (masculino ou feminino), do sexo de um avaliador (masculino ou feminino) e do sexo de um avaliado (masculino ou feminino) na percepcao de justica de uma avaliacao profissional em que nao ocorre a contratacao, e avaliar o papel moderador do sexismo nessa relacao. Para atingir este objetivo foi realizado um estudo experimental com desenho fatorial 2 x 2 x 2, abordagem quantitativa e recorte temporal transversal. Participaram do estudo 256 estudantes de uma universidade publica do nordeste brasileiro, com idade media de 22,84 anos (DP = 6,39) e sendo maioria do sexo feminino (51,3%), os quais foram distribuidos aleatoriamente nas quatro condicoes experimentais. Os resultados apontam que o sexismo e capaz de moderar a relacao entre o sexo dos participantes, o sexo do avaliador e a concordancia com a discriminacao, porem essa relacao nao ocorre quando se substitui a variavel Sexo do Avaliador pela variavel Sexo do Avaliado. No geral, os homens mais sexistas tenderam a concordar mais com a discriminacao proferida por um avaliador homem. Tomados em conjunto, esses resultados indicam que o sexismo ainda e prevalente no contexto laboral, e que seu efeito negativo esta associado tanto a sua forma hostil como benevolente.
  • OLINDINA FERNANDES DA SILVA NETA
  • SATISFAÇÃO EM RELACIONAMENTOS AMOROSOS: O PAPEL DAS ESTRATÉGIAS DE COMPORTAMENTO, DA PERSONALIDADE E DOS VALORES HUMANOS
  • Fecha: 20-feb-2019
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • Buscou-se investigar como os tracos de personalidade sombrios, os valores humanos e as estrategias de comportamento nas relacoes (uso de engano, engano percebido, busca de verdade e entusiasmo) podem explicar a satisfacao em relacionamentos amorosos. Para tanto, foram realizados tres estudos. O Estudo 1 contou com a participacao de 223 pessoas e objetivou adaptar tres escalas para o contexto brasileiro: Entusiasmo e Busca de Verdade nos Relacionamentos Amorosos (EBVRA), Uso de Engano (UE) e a Engano Percebido pelo Parceiro (EPP). Sobre a escala EBVRA foi realizada uma Analise dos Componentes Principais - ACP, com rotacao obliqua, fixando-se em dois fatores. O primeiro fator, Entusiasmo (a = 0,75) foi composto por 6 itens; o segundo, Busca de Verdade (a = 0,73), foi composto por 5 itens. Quanto aos indicadores psicometricos das medidas UE e EPP, tambem realizou-se uma ACP, com rotacao obliqua, que indicou a unifatoralidade das medidas. A primeira composta por 9 itens (a = 0,82) e a segunda composta por 4 itens (a = 0,78). O Estudo 2, contou com a participacao de 300 pessoas e objetivou confirmar as estruturas encontradas, buscando verificar evidencias de validade fatorial e consistencia interna. Os participantes responderam as tres medidas do estudo anterior. Os resultados indicaram um ajuste satisfatorio das medidas, confirmando um ajuste bidimensional da EBVRA e unidimensionais da UE e da EPP. O Estudo 3 objetivou verificar a relacao entre tracos sombrios, valores humanos, estrategias de comportamento (uso de engano, engano percebido, busca de verdade e entusiasmo) e satisfacao em relacionamentos amorosos. Participaram 300 pessoas, as quais responderam alem das medidas mencionadas previamente, a Dark Triad Dirty Dozen, a Escala Fatorial de Satisfacao em Relacionamentos de Casais e ao Questionario dos Valores Basicos. Os resultados demonstraram que essas variaveis se relacionaram com a satisfacao em relacionamentos amorosos, evidenciando que uma percepcao positiva acerca do parceiro/relacao, aumenta os niveis de satisfacao, enquanto o engano diminui esses niveis. Ademais, demonstrou como as prioridades valorativas e a personalidade sombria podem contribuir no entendimento da satisfacao em relacionamentos amorosos. Confia-se que os objetivos foram alcancados e que a presente dissertacao traz contribuicoes para o entendimento da satisfacao em relacionamentos amorosos.
  • GLEIDSON DIEGO LOPES LOURETO
  • Tomada de Risco Orientada ao Status e Estratégias de Vida: Efeito Mediador das Prioridades Axiológicas
  • Fecha: 08-feb-2019
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • A presente dissertacao objetivou responder ao problema: como a Tomada de Risco Orientada ao Status (TROS) e os valores humanos explicam as estrategias de historia de vida (LHS)? Para tanto, quatro estudos empiricos foram delineados. No Estudo 1, objetivou-se adaptar para o Brasil a Escala de Tomada de Risco Orientada ao Status, composta por 8 itens (ETROS-8). Participaram 233 estudantes universitarios com media de idade de 23,7 anos (DP = 5,77) que responderam a ETROS-8 e questoes sociodemograficas. Uma analise fatorial exploratoria indicou uma estrutura unidimensional (metodo Hull), explicando 53,0% da variancia total com adequada precisao (e.g., Ω = 0,87). Analises via Teoria de Resposta ao Item demonstraram que os itens da ETROS-8 discriminam adequadamente os participantes e exigem moderada quantidade de traco latente para serem endossados. O Estudo 2 objetivou reunir evidencias psicometricas complementares da ETROS-8. Participaram 202 estudantes universitarios com media de idade de 23,5 anos (DP = 6,07) que responderam a ETROS-8, o Big Six Factors of Personality (BSFP) e questoes sociodemograficas. A analise fatorial confirmatoria corroborou a estrutura unifatorial (e.g., CFI = 0,97) e invariancia total do instrumento frente ao sexo dos participantess (e.g., ΔCFI < 0,01). Ainda, a ETROS-8 correlacionou-se negativamente com os fatores Honestidade-Humildade e Amabilidade, indicando sua natureza socialmente hostil. Via teste-reteste (n = 43), os dados apontaram que a ETROS-8 apresenta estabilidade temporal (r = 0,81; intervalo de 30 dias de aplicacao). No Estudo 3, investigou-se a relacao da TROS com os valores humanos. Participaram 225 sujeitos da populacao geral com media de idade de 28,6 anos (DP = 9,39) que responderam a ETROS-8, o Questionario dos Valores Basicos (QVB) e questoes sociodemograficas. Analises bivariadas indicaram correlacoes positivas com os valores pessoais e negativas com os valores centrais e sociais. A Analise de Perfis Latentes revelou diferentes subgrupos em termos de padroes de associacao da TROS e valores humanos que diferiram quantitativa (Perfil autocentrado vs. Perfil pro-social) e qualitativamente (Perfil autocentrado e Perfil pro-social vs. Perfil Adaptativo). Os dados suportaram tanto uma relacao congruente (i.e., traco-expressivo e prioridade axiologica com metas compativeis), quanto uma associacao nao linear que pode refletir respostas a determinados contextos; plasticidade adaptativa. Por fim, no Estudo 4, buscou-se levantar evidencias evolutivas da TROS e valores humanos, sob o Paradigma da Historia de Vida, testando o papel mediador das prioridades axiologicas nesse cenario. Participaram 230 sujeitos da populacao geral com media de idade de 30,3 anos (DP = 9,22) que responderam a ETROS-8, o QVB, o Mini-K (medida de diferencas individuais em LHS lentas) e questoes sociodemograficas. Os resultados indicaram que a TROS apresenta LHS rapidas (e.g., altas taxas de fecundidade e mortalidade), admitindo-se o papel mediador dos valores interativos e normativos nesta relacao. Em suma, confia-se que o objetivo foi atingido. Alem da adaptacao um instrumento da TROS com evidencias psicometricas satisfatorias, atestou-se o poder preditivo da TROS e valores humanos frente as LHS, verificando um efeito mediador das prioridades axiologicas nesse cenario.
2018
Descripción
  • DENISE PEREIRA DOS SANTOS
  • O ENFRENTAMENTO AO TRABALHO PRECOCE E O PAPEL DAS POLÍTICAS EDUCACIONAIS NO ESTADO DA PARAÍBA
  • Fecha: 22-nov-2018
  • Hora: 08:00
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  • Esta tese tem como objetivo geral analisar o enfrentamento ao trabalho precoce e o papel das politicas educacionais em municipios do Estado da Paraiba. Pressupoe-se que as acoes de enfrentamento ao trabalho precoce nos municipios tem sido de carater fragmentado e pontual; e de que as politicas educacionais nos municipios nao visualizam que suas acoes devem enfrentar o trabalho precoce. Defende-se a tese de que as politicas sociais educacionais nao tem desenvolvido o papel de enfrentamento ao trabalho precoce, uma vez que elas sao construidas pelo sistema capitalista de producao, contexto no qual as politicas sociais assumem um carater focalizado e residual, e em parceria com a sociedade civil; essa, ao mesmo tempo em que executa acoes substituindo o papel do Estado, contraditoriamente reivindica desse a garantia de direitos. Utiliza-se como referencial teorico a perspectiva das politicas sociais, que sao compreendidas como respostas fragmentadas e setorizadas as diversas formas de apresentacao da “questao social”. O trabalho de campo foi realizado em forma de estudos, sendo: a) o primeiro estudo, que consistiu em uma pesquisa documental realizada na Superintendencia Regional do Trabalho na Paraiba – SRTE/PB e no Sistema de Informacoes sobre o Trabalho Infantil – SITI do Ministerio do Trabalho e Emprego; b) o segundo estudo, uma pesquisa documental realizada com as atas do Forum de Prevencao e Erradicacao do Trabalho Infantil e Protecao ao Trabalhador Adolescente na Paraiba – FEPETI/PB; c) o terceiro estudo, que foi uma pesquisa documental acerca do marco legal da politica educacional nos sites do Governo Federal e sua relacao com o trabalho precoce; d) e o quarto estudo, dividido em duas etapas: a primeira, que versou sobre entrevistas com representantes dos eixos do Sistema de Garantia de Direitos da Crianca e do Adolescente- SGD, e a segunda, que consistiu na realizacao de grupos de discussao com as redes de protecao aos direitos das criancas e adolescentes em municipios da Paraiba. A analise dos dados foi realizada com a analise de conteudo tematica e utilizacao do software MAXQDA. Os dados revelaram que, ainda que historicamente fossem construidas acoes voltadas para o enfrentamento ao trabalho precoce, estas se davam de forma fragmentada e seletiva, dentro do embate entre Estado e sociedade civil, e que sofreram uma invisibilidade e desmonte ao longo dos anos. Ao mesmo tempo, a politica educacional e especificamente a escola, apesar de serem vistas como um dos pilares no enfrentamento ao trabalho precoce pelos planos de erradicacao do trabalho infantil e marco legal da educacao, nao tem enfrentado a problematica, ao nao participar dos espacos de discussao da tematica, nao enfatizar em suas acoes o seu papel na protecao de criancas e adolescentes trabalhadores, e nao reconhecer sua funcao na formacao da consciencia individual e coletiva, que contribua para a emancipacao humana.
  • VALERIA MACHADO RUFINO
  • Lugar de mulher é aonde ela quiser? Relações de gênero e trabalho das docentes em uma Universidade Federal
  • Fecha: 19-nov-2018
  • Hora: 08:00
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  • Os novos cenarios produtivos, oriundos das transformacoes dos paradigmas no mundo do trabalho e das rapidas transformacoes sociais e tecnologicas tem impactado sobremaneira os estudos acerca da compreensao da relacao trabalho e genero. Atrelada a essa questao, a situacao que a mulher vivencia no mundo do trabalho, em todos os paises, e marcada por desigualdade de oportunidades, de tratamento e de direitos. Assim, a presente tese objetivou compreender a relacao genero e trabalho de mulheres docentes em uma universidade publica federal. Partimos do pressuposto de que, apesar do espaco de trabalho em uma universidade publica federal ser em principio isonomico e equanime, as relacoes sociais de genero interferem na organizacao e desenvolvimento da atividade docente das mulheres. Para tal a tese foi organizada em 04 artigos. O primeiro artigo objetivou analisar a situacao atual das mulheres no mundo do trabalho no Brasil, a partir de indicadores sociais de trabalho e genero. Para tal, realizamos um levantamento dos relatorios, estatisticas e analises da relacao trabalho e genero no Brasil produzidos pelo IBGE, IPEA, Fundacao Perseu Abramo, OIT Brasil, Forum Economico Mundial e ONU Mulheres. O segundo artigo tratou-se de uma metanalise qualitativa da producao cientifica brasileira em psicologia sobre trabalho e genero. Para tanto, uma revisao sistematica foi realizada a partir de cinco bases. Apos selecao pelos criterios de inclusao e analise de juizas, 59 artigos foram classificados como pertencentes a area da Psicologia. Nestes realizamos uma analise cientometrica, dividindo-os em dois grupos: (1) (2008-2017, N=38), e (2) (1997-2007, N=21). Uma metanalise qualitativa foi realizada com os artigos publicados nos ultimos 10 anos que foram submetidos a analises textuais com auxilio de software. O terceiro artigo objetivou refletir sobre o lugar da mulher docente em universidades federais, em especial na Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB). Para tal, investigamos dados censitarios, junto a PROGEP (no periodo de 1998 a 2018) para o cenario local e para o cenario nacional os relatorios de 1999 a 2017, alem de relatorios do CNPq. O quarto artigo, a partir de uma pesquisa qualitativa, investigou a dinamica psiquica de mulheres docentes da UFPB a partir da relacao genero e trabalho. A combinacao dos 4 artigos nos permite pensar indicadores e contextos para a reproducao nas universidades federais da relacao de genero e trabalho para a mulher docente.
  • RENATA PIMENTEL DA SILVA
  • A INFLUÊNCIA DA COR DA PELE NO TEMPO DE ATENDIMENTO DE PACIENTES NEGROS EM UM CONTEXTO CLÍNICO
  • Fecha: 31-oct-2018
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • A presente tese teve como objetivo testar a hipótese de que os médicos investem mais tempo ao consultar pacientes brancos do que negros, e que esse enviesamento no tempo está relacionado com a qualidade do diagnóstico que os pacientes recebem. Para tanto, realizou-se três estudos empíricos cujo objetivo foi testar a hipótese de que médicos investem mais tempos para pacientes brancos quando comprados com pacientes negros. O estudo 1, de caráter observacional e transversal, foi realizado em um Centro de Referência em Atenção à Saúde (CRAS). O estudo consistiu na observação de atendimentos médicos na qual era cronometrado o tempo de duração das consultas. Foram realizadas 169 observações, sendo 78 atendimentos de pacientes brancos, 57 negros e 34 morenos. Uma ANOVA unifatorial mostrou que os médicos investiram menos tempo no atendimento de pacientes negros (M = 5,31) do que de pacientes brancos (M = 7,23) e morenos (M = 7,36) (F = 4,09, p = 0,02). Tal resultado ocorreu em todas as especialidades médicas observadas, demonstrando que a variação no tempo de atendimento ocorre, de fato, mediante cor da pele dos pacientes. Embora esse estudo comprove o efeito ITB no contexto de saúde, julgou-se necessário analisar tal fenômeno de modo mais controlado. Logo, realizou-se o estudo 2 com o objetivo de avaliar a diferenciação no investimento de tempo na avaliação de pacientes brancos e negros e as possíveis consequências dessa diferenciação, de modo que avaliamos o enviesamento nas condutas médicas expressas no número de hipóteses diagnósticas que levantam para um caso clínico de baixa complexidade. Trata-se de um estudo experimental interparticipantes. Participaram 67 estudantes do intenato de Medicina de uma universidade pública, com idade média de 25,36 anos (DP = 2,99), em sua maioria homens (53,7%). Os participantes responderam ao experimento no software E-prime, e realizavam uma Avaliação de Caso Clínico, onde era apresentado aos participantes um prontuário de atendimento de um paciente, com a instrução de realizar uma avaliação do caso e a indicação de hipóteses diagnósticas. Para as análises dos dados utilizou-se o software SPSS 20. Para a avaliação do tempo investido na análise do caso clínico realizou-se uma ANOVA, cujos resultados indicaram que não houve efeito principal da cor de pele no tempo de avaliação, F (2, 76) = 1,0, ns. No entanto, quando comparamos o número de hipóteses diagnósticas e a cor da pele do paciente, verifica-se que os pacientes brancos receberam um maior número de hipóteses diagnósticas (M = 1.84, DP = 0.83) do que os negros (M = 1.24, DP = 0.72) e o paciente sem identificação de cor (M = 1,35, DP = 0,77) e esta diferença é significativa (F(2,64) = 3.56, p < 0.05). O Estudo 3 teve como objetivo demonstrar que o enviesamento no tratamento dado aos pacientes em função da cor de sua pele é uma consequência do ITB. Participaram do estudo 60 estudantes do internato de Medicina, com idade média de 25,20 anos (DP = 3,45), sendo a maioria homens (51,7%). Seguiu-se um planejamento metodológico semelhante ao estudo anterior, porém adotando-se um delineamento dentre participantes, de modo que cada participante avaliava três casos clínicos. Atraves de uma análise de regressão multinível, pode-se demonstrar que ao paciente branco (M = 0,54, DP = 0,08) foi investido mais tempo do que ao paciente negro (M = 0,36, DP = 0,08). Os reultados tambem evidenciaram que o tempo de diagnóstico está mediando o número de hipóteses diagnósticas, de modo que quanto mais tempo investido, maior o número de hipóteses diagnósticas (IC a 90%: 0.01; 0.19). Em conjunto esses resultados contribuem para o estudo da discriminação implícita motivada pelo preconceito.
  • SIMONE SALVIANO ALVES
  • ESTILOS DE SOCIALIZAÇÃO PARENTAL MATERNA E AJUSTAMENTO PSICOSSOCIAL: AUTOCONCEITO, AUTOESTIMA, EMPATIA E PERDÃO.
  • Asesor : JULIO RIQUE NETO
  • Fecha: 26-oct-2018
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • Esta tese analisou as relacoes entre os estilos de socializacao materna e o ajustamento psicossocial no tocante ao autoconceito, autoestima, empatia e o perdao. Para tanto, foram realizados dois estudos empiricos. No primeiro estudo perguntou-se quais estilos de socializacao materna mais favoreciam o autoconceito e a autoestima? Contou-se com uma amostra de 211 universitarios com idade media de 22,8 anos (DP = 6,5) sendo 81,5% do sexo feminino e 18,5% do sexo masculino. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: escala de Socializacao Parental – ESPA29materna; escala Multidimensional de Autoconceito – AF5; e a escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg. Os dados foram analisados por meio do Statistical Package for Social Science for Windows - SPSS versao 20. Os resultados mostraram que 30,3% dos participantes perceberam-se socializados pelo estilo Autoritativo, assim como pelo estilo Negligente que tambem chegou a 30,3%. O estilo Indulgente foi percebido por 19,9%, e o Autoritario por 19,5%. Uma Analise de Variancia – ANOVA Oneway evidenciou os estilos Autoritativo e Indulgente como mais favoraveis ao autoconceito e a autoestima. Uma vez obtidos tais resultados, efetuou-se um segundo estudo para analisar o modelo teorico das relacoes entre estilos de socializacao materna, empatia e perdao. Contou-se com uma amostra de 316 universitarios com idade media de 24,2 anos (DP = 7,0) sendo 85,3% do sexo feminino e 14,7% do sexo masculino. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: escala de Socializacao Parental – ESPA29materna; Escala Multidimensional de Reatividade Interpessoal-EMRI; e a Escala de Atitudes para o Perdao-EFI. Os resultados mostraram que 31,60% dos participantes perceberam-se socializados pelo estilo Autoritativo, 31,30% pelo estilo Negligente, 18,70% pelo Indulgente, e 18,40% pelo Autoritario. Foi realizada uma Analise de Variancia – ANOVA Oneway para testar se a empatia e o perdao dependiam dos estilos de socializacao parental materna, como variavel independente. Evidenciou os estilos Autoritativo e Indulgente como mais favoraveis a empatia e ao perdao. Por fim, foi testado o Modelo 1: A socializacao parental materna, pelos estilos Autoritativo e Indulgente, relaciona-se positivamente com a empatia e ambas influenciam positivamente o perdao. A adequabilidade do referido modelo foi calculada e verificada no programa AMOS GRAFICS, atraves de seus indicadores e devidos ajustes nos parametros psicometricos (χ2/gl (0,059/1) = 0,59, p < 0,81; RMR = 0,07; GFI = 1,00; AGFI = 0,99; CFI = 1,00 e RMSEA = 0,00 (0,00-0,09)). Confirmou-se o modelo teorico em foco e a tese que a socializacao pela dimensao aceitacao/implicacao, composta pelos estilos autoritativo e indulgente, motiva a consideracao empatica e a atitude ara o perdao.
  • KATRUCCY TENÓRIO MEDEIROS
  • MODELO EXPLICATIVO DA EXCLUSÃO SOCIAL DE MULHERES USUÁRIAS DE DROGAS COM BASE NO PRECONCEITO E NOS ESTEREÓTIPOS DE GÊNERO
  • Fecha: 24-ago-2018
  • Hora: 08:30
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  • Ainda que se visualize, na atualidade, uma diminuicao da rigidez social referente aos generos, as mulheres ainda se defrontam com o preconceito como seu maior adversario, tanto na sua manifestacao direta, quanto na sua expressao mais sutil, sendo o preconceito agravado quando as mulheres se envolvem em comportamentos considerados “transgressores”, como o consumo de drogas. Assume-se que, embora haja o discurso da inclusao, as usuarias de drogas constituem-se alvo de exclusao social, onde sao atribuidas caracteristicas de periculosidade e moralizacao, alem da contramao dos estereotipos de genero. A partir de uma abordagem multimetodo, foram realizados cinco estudos empiricos, cujo objetivo geral concentrou-se em criar um modelo explicativo da exclusao social de usuarias de drogas com base no preconceito e nos estereotipos de genero. Tais estudos estao articulados com o objetivo de responder a seguinte tese: As usuarias de drogas sao alvos de exclusao social explicada pela percepcao de ameaca, moralizacao e pelos estereotipos de genero. O Estudo 1, qualitativo, buscou conhecer e comparar os estereotipos das mulheres com os das mulheres tidas como usuarias de drogas. Participaram 100 universitarios de uma universidade publica na cidade de Joao Pessoa- PB, com media de idade de 22 anos, sendo a maioria mulheres (67%). Utilizou-se a Tecnica de Associacao Livre de Palavras (TALP) com os estimulos indutores Mulher e Mulher Usuaria de Drogas, analisados com o auxilio de um software de analise textual e interpretados por meio da Analise de Similitude. Em relacao ao estimulo Mulher, observou-se conteudos materno-familiares e a persistencia de estereotipos femininos relacionados a beleza, afetividade e ao contato interpessoal, revelando uma avaliacao aparentemente positiva, corroborando o criterio de sociabilidade. Quanto ao estimulo Mulher Usuaria de Drogas, os conteudos foram mais subjetivos e afetivos, ligados ao sentimento de abandono e isolamento, que se traduzem num enfoque negativo desta categoria. O Estudo 2, de carater correlacional e utilizando uma amostra de 208 universitarios brasileiros, sendo 64% mulheres com media de idade de 23 anos, objetivou criar a medida: Escala de Estereotipos Femininos frente as Usuarias de Drogas (EEFMUD); e adaptar e validar os seguintes instrumentos: Escala de Percepcao de Ameaca frente as Mulheres Usuarias de Drogas (EPAMUD); Escala de Moralizacao frente as Mulheres Usuarias de Drogas (EMMUD); Escala de Intencao de Contato Social frente as Mulheres Usuarias de Drogas (EICSMUD); e Escala de Exclusao Social frente as Mulheres Usuarias de Drogas (EESMUD). Os resultados apontaram bons indicadores de validade e de precisao. Ja o Estudo 3, reuniu evidencias de aceitabilidade das medidas empregadas no estudo anterior, utilizando-se de nova testagem com 200 universitarios brasileiros, 59% mulheres com media de idade de 21 anos. Os resultados comprovaram a adequabilidade das medidas testadas, assegurando bons indicadores psicometricos. Ja o Estudo 4, buscou dimensionar o efeito preditivo dos estereotipos, da percepcao de ameaca, da moralizacao e da intencao de contato social na exclusao social, utilizando uma amostra de 400 universitarios (61,5% mulheres) com media de 22 anos de idade, de universidade publica na cidade de Joao Pessoa. O modelo de regressao [F (3, 126) = 0,48, p < 0,01] inicalmente revelou que apenas os estereotipos de genero (ß = 0,08, p< 0,01); a percepcao de ameaca ß = 0,34, p< 0,01); e a moralizacao (ß = 0,37, p< 0,01), tiveram efeito preditivo estatisticamente significativo na exclusao social. Ao avaliar o efeito de mediacao dos Estereotipos, da Percepcao de Ameaca e da Moralizacao na variavel Exclusao Social, a partir da Intencao de Contato Social, observou-se o seguinte efeito estatisticamente significativo: λ = 0,55, IC 90% = 0,51/0,03 p<0,01; alem disso, os efeitos diretos dos Estereotipos λ = 0,21 (IC 90% = 0,17/0,03) p< 0,01, da Percecao de Ameaca λ = 0,53 (IC 90% = 0,50; 0,04) p< 0,01, e da Moralizacao λ = 0,15 (IC 90% = 0,08; 0,02) p< 0,01 na Exclusao social foram tambem estatisticamente siginificativos. Conclui-se que o modelo de mediacao simples teve o melhor ajustamento, expressando alta aptidao e compatibilidade com as relacoes que foram elaboradas baseadas na teoria. E por ultimo, o Estudo 5, de carater transcultural, qualitativo, buscou comparar os atributos estereotipicos associados a mulher e a mulher usuaria de drogas no Brasil e em Portugal, com 100 universitarios de cada localidade com media de idade de 22 anos. Utilizou-se a TALP com os termos indutores mulher e mulher usuaria de drogas/mulher toxicodependente, analisada por meio do software de analise textual, a partir da analise de similitude. Sobre o estimulo “mulher”, em ambos os grupos estiveram presentes componentes de sociabilidade, como saliencia do contexto maternal e dos estereotipos de expressividade. Quanto as usuarias de drogas, observou-se entre os brasileiros imagens estereotipadas baseadas na expressividade emocional negativa, de submissao e composta por tracos de passividade; e entre os portugueses, emergiram tracos que dao destaque a um quadro patologico a partir dos termos “vicio”, “doenca” e “seringa”. Este estudo revelou que o contexto cultural no que se refere ao genero e a questao das drogas exerce influencia na forma como os individuos se relacionam com as usuarias, e consequentemente, na expressao do preconceito frente a este grupo. De modo geral, o conjunto de estudos realizados possibilitou responder a tese proposta, a qual propoe que a exclusao social de mulheres usuarias de drogas e explicada pelas variaveis de percepcao de ameaca, estereotipos de genero e pela moralizacao, tendo a intencao de contato a funcao de mediar essa relacao. Ademais, a comparacao transcultural sobre a estereotipagem da mulher e das usuarias de drogas permitiu elucidar alguns questionamentos sobre os elementos culturais que emergem enquanto base de conhecimento social difundido sobre a tematica nos dois paises. Acredita-se, portanto, que tais estudos empreenderam importantes contribuicoes no entendimento da associacao dos estereotipos de genero e do preconceito com a manifestacao da discriminacao frente ao grupo de mulheres no contexto de uso de drogas.
  • EMERSON ARAÚJO DO BÚ
  • REPRESENTAÇÕES SOCIAIS DO VITILIGO: DIMENSÕES SIMBÓLICAS DA MARCA BRANCA
  • Fecha: 21-ago-2018
  • Hora: 14:30
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  • O Vitiligo e uma afeccao de etiologia complexa e nao consensual, que estima atingir ate 2% da populacao mundial, caracterizando-se por provocar a formacao de acromias atraves da despigmentacao da pele. Consensualmente, entende-se que se apresenta de forma assintomatica na dimensao fisico-organica de quem o dispoe. Nao obstante, as maculas esbranquicadas provocam experiencias subjetivas e intersubjetivas de estranhamento, causadas, prevalentemente, pela sua exposicao no contexto social. Destarte, pode-se dizer que o Vitiligo nao e apenas mais uma doenca que compoe o quadro nosografico das afeccoes de pele, mas e, sobretudo, um objeto gerador de Representacoes Sociais (RS), que servem como guias do comportamento frente a este quadro. Nesse contexto, tendo-se em vista que os estudos desenvolvidos sobre a tematica, em grande maioria, focam aspectos biologicos do processo de adoecimento da pele e, consecutivamente, demonstrando-se a incipiencia de pesquisas que apreendam a afeccao de forma holistica, a presente dissertacao buscou ampliar a compreensao do Vitiligo a partir da otica de quem o possui, considerando-se seus valores, percepcoes, opinioes e ideias. Para tanto, foram realizados dois estudos empiricos. O primeiro objetivou apreender as RS do Vitiligo elaboradas por pessoas que possuem tal afeccao. Nesse, participaram 196 brasileiros, de todas as regioes do pais, com idades de 18 a 70 anos (M=38,85; DP=12,53), prevalentemente do sexo feminino (70,02%), atraves da resolucao online de um questionario sociodemografico e da pergunta: “Para voce, o que e Vitiligo?”. A Classificacao Hierarquica Descendente e a Analise de Similitude do material coletado permitiram identificar enfoques multifacetados de compreensao da doenca, em que o conteudo emergido por meio da fala dos atores sociais ancora o entendimento desta a um saber de ordem ora apenas dermatologico/biomedico, ora psicodermatologico. Ja o segundo estudo teve por objetivo identificar o nucleo central e elementos perifericos das RS do Vitiligo, bem como da autoimagem que pessoas com a afeccao possuem. Esse contou com a participacao de 370 participantes de todas as regioes do Brasil, com idades de 18 a 67 anos (M=35,71; DP=12,11), prevalentemente do sexo feminino (80,7%), por meio da resposta online de um questionario sociodemografico e da Tecnica de Associacao Livre de Palavras (TALP). Destaca-se que, na TALP, a evocacao de respostas dos participantes foi dada a partir dos estimulos indutores “Vitiligo” e “eu mesmo”, estando o ultimo relacionado a percepcao que a pessoa com a doenca tem sobre si mesma. Os resultados indicaram, atraves da proeminencia de evocacoes de ordem psicossocial, que as marcas de Vitiligo nao se restringem a pele, mas sobrepoem-se a esta, uma vez que as possuir, na dinamica social estigmatizante e preconceituosa, afeta negativamente a vivencia social, a autoimagem e a autoestima das pessoas com a afeccao, ocasionando sentimentos autodepreciativos caracteristicos na autoestigmatizacao. Em linhas gerais, os resultados dos dois estudos empiricos realizados evidenciaram que a compreensao do Vitiligo e perpassada por dimensoes biopsicossociais. Tratam-se de contribuicoes significativas e inovadoras para a compreensao da afeccao, ampliando-se o dialogo entre a Psicologia Social e a Dermatologia, no que diz respeito a producao social de saude.
  • BRUNA DE JESUS LOPES
  • EXPLICANDO AS DIMENSÕES DA AMIZADE: CONTRIBUIÇÃO DOS VALORES E TRAÇOS DE PERSONALIDADE
  • Fecha: 10-ago-2018
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • A presente tese objetivou investigar os relacionamentos de amizade e suas relacoes com os tracos de personalidade e valores humanos. Para isso, foram realizados quatro artigos empiricos. O Artigo 1 buscou adaptar e reunir evidencias de validade e confiabilidade da Escala de Qualidade da Amizade (EQA) para o Brasil, o qual considerou dois estudos. O primeiro contou com uma amostra nao probabilistica de 427 estudantes universitarios das cidades de Parnaiba e Teresina com idade media de 21,29 anos (DP = 4,48). Os mesmos responderam a EQA e um questionario sociodemografico. A Analise Fatorial Exploratoria (AFE) indicou uma solucao unifatorial, que apos a exclusao de alguns itens, ficou apenas com 18 itens que explicavam 47% da variancia total (α = 0,93). No segundo estudo, que visou investigar novas evidencias acerca da estrutura encontrada, contou-se com uma amostra nao probabilistica de 401 estudantes universitarios das cidades de Joao Pessoa e Cajazeiras, com idade media de 20 anos (DP = 4,83). A Analise Fatorial Confirmatoria (AFC) corroborou o modelo unifatorial da EQA [χ² (135) = 215,53, p < 0,001, χ²/gl = 1,59, CFI = 0,99, TLI = 0,99, RMR = 0,08, SRMR = 0,06, RMSEA = 0,04(IC 90% = 0,03-0,05), α = 0,91]. O Artigo 2, por sua vez, buscou adaptar e reunir evidencias de validade e confiabilidade da Escala de Intimidade da Amizade (EIA), fazendo uso de metodo semelhante ao primeiro artigo, divergindo apenas no instrumento aplicado, que foi a EIA. No primeiro estudo, a AFE indicou uma estrutura unifatorial com 29 itens, variancia total de 31,14 % e α = 0,91. A AFC, realizada no segundo estudo, confirmou a estrutura encontrada [χ² (377) = 532,18, χ²/gl = 1,41, p < 0,001, CFI = 0,98, TLI = 0,97, SRMR = 0,05 e RMSEA = 0,03 (IC90%= 0,02-0,04), α = 0,90]. O Artigo 3 objetivou investigar a influencia dos valores humanos e tracos de personalidade na qualidade e intimidade da amizade. Para isso, contou-se com uma amostra nao probabilistica de 200 estudantes universitarios, com media de idade de 22,81 (DP = 5,35). Os mesmos responderam ao EQA, o EIA, o Dark Triad Dirty Dozen (DTDD), o Inventario de Personalidade Virtuosa (IPV), o Questionario de Valores Basicos (QVB-18), alem de um Questionario Sociodemografico. Os resultados revelaram correlacoes significativas entre os atributos da amizade e algumas das variaveis inseridas. A partir dos resultados foram realizadas duas regressoes. Na primeira, considerando os tipos de orientacao dos valores como preditores, revelou-se que apenas gratidao, altruismo e valores centrais explicaram a intimidade [F (3, 163) = 9,82; p < 0,001; R² ajustado = 0,13] e a qualidade [F (3, 176) = 11,94; p < 0,001; R² ajustado = 0,15] da amizade. Na segunda, considerando os tipos de motivadores, somente gratidao, altruismo e valores humanitarios explicaram os atributos da amizade, a saber: intimidade [F (3, 166) = 10,85; p < 0,001; R² ajustado = 0,15] e qualidade [F (3, 176) = 13,78; p < 0,001; R² ajustado = 0,18]. Finalmente, o Artigo 4 voltou-se para a construcao de um modelo explicativo da amizade incluindo como explicadores os construtos personalidade virtuosa e valores humanos. Contou-se com uma amostra nao probabilistica de 200 estudantes universitarios, com idade media de 21 anos (DP = 4,24). Eles responderam a EQA, a EIA, a IPV, o QVB-18 e um Questionario Sociodemografico. O resultado da analise de caminhos revelou que o modelo com melhores indicadores de bondade de ajuste foi aquele em que os tracos de personalidade virtuosa, gratidao e altruismo, e os valores sociais explicaram os atributos da amizade [χ² (6) = 5,38; p < 0,001; χ²/gl = 0,90, CFI = 1,00, TLI = 1,00; RMSEA = 0,00 (IC 90% = 0,00 - 0,08)]. Diante disso, conclui-se que os objetivos de cada artigo foram alcancados, os quais proporcionaram medidas adaptadas para mensurar qualidade e intimidade da amizade, bem como exibiram o poder das variaveis antecedentes para explicar tais atributos, contribuindo para construcao de modelos explicativos no Artigo 4.
  • RONALDO MATOS ALBANO
  • INTERAÇÃO EDUCADOR-CRIANÇAS NA HORA DA LEITURA: UM ESTUDO EM CRECHES PÚBLICAS NA CIDADE DE JOÃO PESSOA-PB
  • Fecha: 09-ago-2018
  • Hora: 14:30
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  • O presente estudo objetivou analisar as trocas interativas entre educadores e criancas e entre os pares durante o momento da leitura na creche, os aspectos contextuais inerentes a este momento e as relacoes destas trocas com o processo de desenvolvimento infantil. Para tanto, nos fundamentamos na perspectiva do desenvolvimento de Vygotsky, a qual, a partir da interacao social, compreende o homem como influenciado pelas dimensoes do contexto social, historico e cultural do qual faz parte. A partir de um delineamento longitudinal, primeiramente, foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas com tres educadoras de salas de criancas com faixa etaria entre 24 e 35 meses de idade de tres Centros de Referencia em Educacao Infantil - CREIs da rede publica da cidade de Joao Pessoa-PB. Posteriormente, realizamos observacoes sistematicas, por meio da filmografia, do momento da roda de leitura, totalizando seis observacoes em cada creche. Realizamos ainda, uma analise documental acerca do material de planejamento das educadoras correspondente ao referido ano, bem como do Projeto Politico Pedagogico de cada uma das tres creches pesquisadas. As entrevistas e os documentos das creches foram analisados a partir da tecnica da analise de conteudo. Para a analise das observacoes, foram feitas a transcricao e descricao dos comportamentos demonstrados no processo interativo entre educador e criancas e entre pares, no momento da leitura. As analises dos resultados indicam que as concepcoes das educadoras acerca do desenvolvimento infantil de criancas na faixa etaria de 24-35 meses, apresentam como aspectos significativos no desenvolvimento da crianca a cognicao, a interacao social, a linguagem, a motricidade, a identidade e a autonomia; apontam que a pratica educativa na educacao infantil se caracteriza por meio do planejamento coletivo baseado na rotina da creche, visando articular essa pratica com a habilidade atual da crianca. A analise documental demonstra que as creches apresentam uma base regimental fundamentando as concepcoes de desenvolvimento infantil e a importancia do momento da leitura. Em relacao aos episodios interacionais observados durante a leitura, os resultados indicam que nao sao perceptiveis mudancas nas interacoes educador-aluno no decorrer do tempo na hora da leitura, entretanto, destaca-se que as educadoras desenvolvem, nas suas narrativas, aspectos considerados positivos por meio de expressoes, contatos fisicos com os alunos e variados estilos de leitura dos livros; identificamos tambem aspectos desfavoraveis ao desenvolvimento da crianca, sobretudo, em relacao as fragilidades do planejamento previo e ao uso de recursos didatico-pedagogicos inadequados para o momento da contacao. As analises das interacoes apontam tambem a iniciativa da crianca durante a leitura, a qual faz solicitacoes as educadoras, mas nem sempre sao respondidas por estas. As educadoras apresentam praticas educativas antes, durante e depois do momento da leitura que apontam pontos de ambiguidades e contradicoes com as suas concepcoes de desenvolvimento infantil, no entanto, apresentam tambem a execucao de praticas, as quais se apresentam como favorecedoras da aprendizagem e do desenvolvimento da crianca.
  • CELIANA PEREIRA DE SOUZA
  • A RELAÇÃO TRABALHO E SAÚDE DE COLETORES DE LIXO DOMICILIAR
  • Fecha: 30-may-2018
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • A presente dissertacao tem como objetivo analisar a relacao entre trabalho e saude dos coletores de lixo domiciliar de uma cidade do nordeste brasileiro. Do ponto de vista teorico, a Ergonomia da Atividade e a Psicodinamica do Trabalho sao as abordagens utilizadas para analise da relacao trabalho e saude que emergiu neste estudo. Quanto ao metodo, privilegiou-se uma abordagem qualitativa que teve como instrumentos uma entrevista individual semiestruturada e um questionario sociodemografico. Para a analise dos dados, optou-se pela analise de conteudo tematico na perspectiva de Laville e Dione. Participaram deste estudo 13 coletores de lixo domiciliar do sexo masculino, com idades variando entre 25 a 51 anos (M = 32; DP = 6,94). Os resultados estao apresentados entre tres artigos. No primeiro constatou-se que a trajetoria de trabalho desses trabalhadores e similar, assinalada por empregos informais, sem garantia de salario fixo e de direitos basicos, conquistados apenas quando se tornaram coletores. Por outro lado, detectou-se que os coletores trabalham destituidos de qualquer formacao profissional, o que os torna ainda mais vulneraveis diante dessa atividade precaria, arriscada e insalubre em demasia. No segundo, evidenciou-se que os coletores estao expostos a uma diversidade de riscos (fisicos, quimicos, biologicos, ergonomicos, mecanicos e sociais) e que esta exposicao acarreta consequencias diversas a saude. Identificou-se tambem que a relacao dos coletores com os riscos e mediada pela utilizacao de estrategias defensivas capazes de atenua-los, porem, que pouco colaboram para transformar positivamente as situacoes reais de riscos. No terceiro, evidenciou-se a falta de reconhecimento por parte da hierarquia (diretores, chefes, supervisores), e embora os coletores recebam reconhecimento do clientes/usuarios, a relacao com estes ultimos nao e de tudo desprovida de constrangimentos e desagrados. Por fim, os coletores encontram nos seus pares a fonte mais abundante de reconhecimento pela atividade que desenvolvem.
  • CELIANA PEREIRA DE SOUZA
  • A RELAÇÃO TRABALHO E SAÚDE DE COLETORES DE LIXO DOMICILIAR
  • Fecha: 30-may-2018
  • Hora: 09:00
  • Visualizar Disertación/Tesis   Mostrar Resumen
  • A presente dissertacao tem como objetivo analisar a relacao entre trabalho e saude dos coletores de lixo domiciliar de uma cidade do nordeste brasileiro. Do ponto de vista teorico, a Ergonomia da Atividade e a Psicodinamica do Trabalho sao as abordagens utilizadas para analise da relacao trabalho e saude que emergiu neste estudo. Quanto ao metodo, privilegiou-se uma abordagem qualitativa que teve como instrumentos uma entrevista individual semiestruturada e um questionario sociodemografico. Para a analise dos dados, optou-se pela analise de conteudo tematico na perspectiva de Laville e Dione. Participaram deste estudo 13 coletores de lixo domiciliar do sexo masculino, com idades variando entre 25 a 51 anos (M = 32; DP = 6,94). Os resultados estao apresentados entre tres artigos. No primeiro constatou-se que a trajetoria de trabalho desses trabalhadores e similar, assinalada por empregos informais, sem garantia de salario fixo e de direitos basicos, conquistados apenas quando se tornaram coletores. Por outro lado, detectou-se que os coletores trabalham destituidos de qualquer formacao profissional, o que os torna ainda mais vulneraveis diante dessa atividade precaria, arriscada e insalubre em demasia. No segundo, evidenciou-se que os coletores estao expostos a uma diversidade de riscos (fisicos, quimicos, biologicos, ergonomicos, mecanicos e sociais) e que esta exposicao acarreta consequencias diversas a saude. Identificou-se tambem que a relacao dos coletores com os riscos e mediada pela utilizacao de estrategias defensivas capazes de atenua-los, porem, que pouco colaboram para transformar positivamente as situacoes reais de riscos. No terceiro, evidenciou-se a falta de reconhecimento por parte da hierarquia (diretores, chefes, supervisores), e embora os coletores recebam reconhecimento do clientes/usuarios, a relacao com estes ultimos nao e de tudo desprovida de constrangimentos e desagrados. Por fim, os coletores encontram nos seus pares a fonte mais abundante de reconhecimento pela atividade que desenvolvem.
  • LORENA FERNANDES RODRIGUES
  • CONCEPÇÕES E PRÁTICAS DE PROFESSORES, EDUCADORES E PSICÓLOGOS FRENTE AO PROCESSO DE TRANSIÇÃO ESCOLAR
  • Asesor : FABIOLA DE SOUSA BRAZ AQUINO
  • Fecha: 29-may-2018
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • Os periodos de transicoes de desenvolvimento se caracterizam por um processo que ocorre durante momentos no desenvolvimento dos sujeitos e provocam transformacoes de rotinas ou condicoes pre-determinadas que se alteram por diversos motivos, sejam estes internos ou externos (Zittoun, 2004). Como parte das transicoes vivenciadas pelos sujeitos destaca-se para esse trabalho o processo de transicao escolar que ocorre no periodo da educacao infantil ao primeiro ano do ensino fundamental I e que tem repercussoes na forma como adultos e criancas se percebem nesses espacos. Para fundamentar essa discussao, retomou-se a teoria historico-cultural do desenvolvimento humano de Vygotsky para quem a escola e um espaco fundamental para apropriacao de conceitos cientificos socioculturalmente organizados de uma cultura e as mediacoes pedagogicas essenciais a formacao de conceitos e o desenvolvimento de funcoes psicologicas superiores, tipicamente humanas. Nesta pesquisa, defende-se que o psicologo escolar pode atuar nesse processo de transicao escolar como mediador das relacoes entre os sujeitos envolvidos neste contexto, marcadamente as relacoes professor-aluno, proporcionando um suporte teorico e metodologico para subsidiar sua pratica no que se refere aos processos de desenvolvimento infantil e de aprendizagem. Participaram desse estudo seis psicologos escolares, dez educadores de pre-escolas e dez professoras do primeiro ano do ensino fundamental de escolas que integram pre-escolas publicas da cidade de Joao Pessoa – PB. O instrumento utilizado foi uma entrevista semi-estruturada. Foram elaborados tres roteiros de entrevista para cada grupo de participantes. Essas entrevistas foram registradas por meio de um gravador de voz e transcritas literalmente para analise de seus conteudos Os principais resultados dessa pesquisa demonstraram que os fatores citados como os que influenciam o aprendizado e o desenvolvimento no periodo de transicao escolar foram os pedagogicos e estruturais, a familia, a concepcao docente sobre a crianca, as experiencias das criancas em instituicoes de educacao infantil, as caracteristicas individuais infantis e a rotina das instituicoes. Quanto aos comportamentos manifestados pelas criancas no processo de transicao escolar, as profissionais mencionaram agressividade, indisciplina e falta de concentracao adaptacao das criancas ao contexto, agitacao da crianca em sala de aula e estados emocionais da crianca como animacao e alegria. Alem disso, as psicologas escolares relataram realizar acoes frente a transicao escolar, como: planejamento de atividades junto aos professores, acompanhamento da rotina da crianca na instituicao e acolhimento a crianca. Em relacao as atividades realizadas pelas instituicoes no periodo que antecede a entrada da crianca no ensino fundamental, a maioria das profissionais mencionou nao serem realizadas tais atividades em suas instituicoes. Os resultados dessa pesquisa foram discutidos considerando as pesquisas sobre o tema da transicao escolar, o papel de educadores e psicologos nesse processo e a importancia de acoes em conjunto com a equipa no sentido de favorecer
  • TAMARA RAMALHO DE SOUSA AMORIM
  • A JUSTIÇA RESTAURATIVA NA POLÍTICA DE SOCIOEDUCAÇÃO: CONCEPÇÕES, CRÍTICA E POSSIBILIDADES
  • Fecha: 27-abr-2018
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • A presente tese tem como objetivo analisar a Justica Restaurativa (JR) no ambito da Politica de Socioeducacao. Segundo seu conceito mais utilizado, a JR pode ser entendida como o processo pelo qual as partes envolvidas em uma especifica ofensa resolvem, coletivamente, como lidar com as consequencias da ofensa e suas implicacoes para o futuro. Tem-se como pressupostos que: a Justica Restaurativa esta situada num contexto de parceria Estado e sociedade civil; na politica de Socioeducacao a JR adentra pela via do sistema de justica, caracterizando uma resposta do Estado a questao do ato infracional, por meio do consenso; ao considerar o crime como violacao de pessoas e relacionamentos, a JR apresenta um enfoque interpessoal, nao suscitando transformacoes estruturais; apesar disso, a JR pode se apresentar como uma possibilidade contra hegemonica, representando uma ferramenta que proporciona aos jovens usuarios da Politica de Socioeducacao a escuta e a participacao. A partir desses pressupostos, defende-se a Tese de que a Justica Restaurativa e uma resposta do Estado por meio do consenso, que tem sua base epistemologica nas relacoes interpessoais, revelando-se, na Politica de Socioeducacao, um instrumento de garantia de direitos, como o direito de participacao. Apoiada em uma perspectiva critica, foram utilizadas as categorias teoricas Politica Social e Justica Restaurativa. Em relacao ao metodo, a pesquisa de tese foi realizada em seis municipios brasileiros, nas regioes norte, nordeste, sul e centro-oeste. Participaram 20 profissionais que trabalham com JR no ambito da politica de socioeducacao. Como instrumento foram utilizadas entrevistassemiestruturadas, as quais foram gravadas, transcritas e submetidas a analise com o auxilio do software MaxQDA. Os resultados das entrevistas foram organizados em tres categorias: Justica Restaurativa, Justica Restaurativa como Politica Publica e Justica Restaurativa na Socioeducacao. De maneira geral, os dados apontaram a existencia da compreensao da JR como uma nova concepcao de justica e como uma pratica. A perspectiva teorico-epistemologica predominante elucidou o foco nas relacoes interpessoais. O sistema de justica foi identificado como o principal ator no que diz respeito a JR como politica publica, participando tanto da implantacao como da execucao da politica, parecendo representar um instrumento do Estado na articulacao do consenso. Entretanto, foi identificada tambem a atuacao do Estado em parceria com a sociedade civil, representada, por exemplo, por organizacoes nao governamentais. No que se refere a Socioeducacao, os dados apontaram que as praticas de JR sao utilizadas na comunidade, no contexto judicial e na execucao das medidas socioeducativas. A pratica restaurativa mais utilizada sao os circulos de construcao de paz. Percebeu-se que a JR tem sido usada como um novo recurso para atuacao com os jovens na socioeducacao, que possibilita acolhimento e escuta. Diante dos resultados, corrobora-se a tese de que Justica Restaurativa na Politica de Socioeducacao se caracteriza como uma resposta do Estado que tem base epistemologica nas relacoes interpessoais, revelando-se um instrumento de garantia de direitos, como o direito de participacao.
  • TAMARA RAMALHO DE SOUSA AMORIM
  • A JUSTIÇA RESTAURATIVA NA POLÍTICA DE SOCIOEDUCAÇÃO: CONCEPÇÕES, CRÍTICA E POSSIBILIDADES
  • Fecha: 27-abr-2018
  • Hora: 09:00
  • Mostrar Resumen
  • A presente tese tem como objetivo analisar a Justica Restaurativa (JR) no ambito da Politica de Socioeducacao. Segundo seu conceito mais utilizado, a JR pode ser entendida como o processo pelo qual as partes envolvidas em uma especifica ofensa resolvem, coletivamente, como lidar com as consequencias da ofensa e suas implicacoes para o futuro. Tem-se como pressupostos que: a Justica Restaurativa esta situada num contexto de parceria Estado e sociedade civil; na politica de Socioeducacao a JR adentra pela via do sistema de justica, caracterizando uma resposta do Estado a questao do ato infracional, por meio do consenso; ao considerar o crime como violacao de pessoas e relacionamentos, a JR apresenta um enfoque interpessoal, nao suscitando transformacoes estruturais; apesar disso, a JR pode se apresentar como uma possibilidade contra hegemonica, representando uma ferramenta que proporciona aos jovens usuarios da Politica de Socioeducacao a escuta e a participacao. A partir desses pressupostos, defende-se a Tese de que a Justica Restaurativa e uma resposta do Estado por meio do consenso, que tem sua base epistemologica nas relacoes interpessoais, revelando-se, na Politica de Socioeducacao, um instrumento de garantia de direitos, como o direito de participacao. Apoiada em uma perspectiva critica, foram utilizadas as categorias teoricas Politica Social e Justica Restaurativa. Em relacao ao metodo, a pesquisa de tese foi realizada em seis municipios brasileiros, nas regioes norte, nordeste, sul e centro-oeste. Participaram 20 profissionais que trabalham com JR no ambito da politica de socioeducacao. Como instrumento foram utilizadas entrevistassemiestruturadas, as quais foram gravadas, transcritas e submetidas a analise com o auxilio do software MaxQDA. Os resultados das entrevistas foram organizados em tres categorias: Justica Restaurativa, Justica Restaurativa como Politica Publica e Justica Restaurativa na Socioeducacao. De maneira geral, os dados apontaram a existencia da compreensao da JR como uma nova concepcao de justica e como uma pratica. A perspectiva teorico-epistemologica predominante elucidou o foco nas relacoes interpessoais. O sistema de justica foi identificado como o principal ator no que diz respeito a JR como politica publica, participando tanto da implantacao como da execucao da politica, parecendo representar um instrumento do Estado na articulacao do consenso. Entretanto, foi identificada tambem a atuacao do Estado em parceria com a sociedade civil, representada, por exemplo, por organizacoes nao governamentais. No que se refere a Socioeducacao, os dados apontaram que as praticas de JR sao utilizadas na comunidade, no contexto judicial e na execucao das medidas socioeducativas. A pratica restaurativa mais utilizada sao os circulos de construcao de paz. Percebeu-se que a JR tem sido usada como um novo recurso para atuacao com os jovens na socioeducacao, que possibilita acolhimento e escuta. Diante dos resultados, corrobora-se a tese de que Justica Restaurativa na Politica de Socioeducacao se caracteriza como uma resposta do Estado que tem base epistemologica nas relacoes interpessoais, revelando-se um instrumento de garantia de direitos, como o direito de participacao.
  • THAÍS GOMES CORDEIRO PASSOS
  • REPRESENTAÇÕES SOCIAIS E PERCEPÇÃO DE AMEAÇA FRENTE AOS USUÁRIOS DE DROGAS: UM ESTUDO COM PROFISSIONAIS DA REDE DE SAÚDE MENTAL
  • Fecha: 12-abr-2018
  • Hora: 14:30
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  • O uso e abuso de drogas constituem-se como um problema de saude publica, que resultam em prejuizos biologicos, psicologicos e sociais para os usuarios e toda a sociedade. Nesse contexto, os profissionais da rede de saude mental e sua visao acerca dos usuarios de drogas sao determinantes para a qualidade do tratamento oferecido nos servicos. A fim de compreender os fatores psicossociais que envolvem este fenomeno, objetivou-se conhecer a relacao entre as representacoes sociais e a percepcao de ameaca frente aos usuarios de drogas por profissionais da rede de saude mental. Utilizou-se o aporte teorico da Teoria das Representacoes Sociais e da Percepcao de Ameaca, uma vez que reconhecem o valor da dimensao subjetiva e cognitiva dos individuos, as quais orientam as praticas e as condutas. Para alcancar o objetivo proposto, realizaram-se tres pesquisas empiricas. A primeira, de abordagem qualitativa, objetivou conhecer a estrutura das representacoes sociais sobre os usuarios de drogas elaboradas por 110 profissionais da rede de saude mental. Utilizou-se a Tecnica de Associacao Livre de Palavras (TALP), com o estimulo indutor usuarios de drogas, analisada por meio do programa IRAMUTEQ. Constatou-se que a representacao social dos usuarios de drogas embora tenha elementos do modelo psicossocial, ainda perpassa pelo modelo biomedico, portanto, precisando ser superada para a adesao ao modelo atual da saude pautado no paradigma psicossocial em conformidade com a Reforma Psiquiatrica. A segunda pesquisa, de abordagem qualitativa e quantitativa, objetivou elaborar a Escala de Percepcao de Ameaca frente aos Usuarios de Drogas (EPAUD) e testar seus parametros psicometricos de validade e precisao, tendo em vista que ha uma ausencia na literatura de medidas sobre a tematica, sendo composta por tres estudos. No primeiro, foi realizado um grupo focal sobre a percepcao acerca dos usuarios de drogas com 10 estudantes universitarios do curso de Psicologia submetidos a analise de conteudo tematica para construcao da escala. No segundo estudo, realizou-se a analise exploratoria, na qual participaram 221 estudantes universitarios. Utilizou-se a EPAUD e seus dados foram analisados pelo software IBM-SPSS, portanto, apresentaram indices satisfatorios de validade fatorial e consistencia interna (α=0,90) considerando uma estrutura unifatorial com 12 itens. No terceiro estudo, realizou-se a analise confirmatoria, com 234 estudantes universitarios, os quais responderam a EPAUD e seus dados foram analisados com o auxilio do AMOS e, por fim, resultou na adequacao da estrutura unifatorial com indices de ajuste satisfatorios (χ²/gl = 2,20, GFI = 0,92, AGFI = 0,88, CFI = 0,95, RMSEA = 0,072, ECVI = 0,715 e CAIC = 282,40). A terceira pesquisa, de abordagem qualitativa e quantitativa, com 110 profissionais, a mesma amostra da primeira pesquisa, objetivou conhecer a relacao entre as representacoes sociais e a percepcao de ameaca frente aos usuarios de drogas por profissionais da rede de saude mental. Utilizou-se a EPAUD analisada com o auxilio do software IBM-SPSS, e a TALP analisada por meio do programa IRAMUTEQ. Os resultados indicaram que, quanto maior o nivel de percepcao de ameaca dos profissionais maior a conotacao negativa da representacao social dos usuarios de drogas. Diante do exposto, o presente estudo pode fornecer subsidios teoricos para efetivação de politicas publicas e/ou capacitacao dos profissionais da saude mental que enfatizem uma visao psicossocial do fenomeno, a fim de diminuir o preconceito em relacao aos usuarios de drogas e melhorar a qualidade da assistencia oferecida a estes.
  • ALEXANDRE COUTINHO DE MELLO
  • REPRESENTAÇÃO SOCIAL SOBRE A DEPRESSÃO: UM ESTUDO COM ADOLESCENTES
  • Fecha: 10-abr-2018
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • A depressao e retratada na literatura como um dos problemas mais prevalentes na adolescencia, afetando multiplas funcoes, com danos psicossociais e alteracoes no desempenho educacional, implicando no aumento de abandono escolar e suicidio. Utilizando-se da Teoria das Representacoes Sociais, especificamente das abordagens processual e estrutural, a presente dissertacao tem como objetivo geral: apreender as representacoes sociais sobre a depressao elaboradas por adolescentes; tendo em vista que esta teoria nos da subsidios para analisar como os adolescentes pensam o fenomeno da depressao e como isso direciona suas condutas e praticas em relacao a depressao e consequente aos sujeitos que apresentam depressao. Foi realizada uma pesquisa de campo, nao experimental de carater multimetodo, em escolas publicas e privadas da cidade de Joao Pessoa-PB. A amostra foi nao probabilistica, nao intencional e acidental, constituida por 168 adolescentes do ensino medio sendo 53,6% do sexo feminino e 46,4% do sexo masculino, com idades entre 14 e 18 anos (M = 16,27; DP = 1,11). Foram utilizados os seguintes instrumentos: Questionario sociodemografico; Escala de Ansiedade e Depressao Hospitalar (HAD), a Tecnica de Associacao Livre de Palavras; e um Questionario aberto sobre a depressao Os resultados da Escala de Ansiedade e Depressao Hospitalar (HAD) foi analisado com o auxilio do SPSS e apontou que os adolescentes do presente estudo apresentaram uma sintomatologia ansiosa em 41,1% e uma sintomatologia depressiva em 21,4% podendo estes indices estarem diretamente relacionados a vulnerabilidade emocional dos individuos durante o periodo da adolescencia. A TALP contou com o estimulo indutor “depressao”, e os dados coletados foram analisados com o auxilio do software IRAMUTEQ, onde realizou-se as analises prototipica e de similitude. Obteve-se 840 evocacoes, e ordem media de evocacoes de 2,95, agrupadas por criterios semanticos. A frequencia minima considerada para inclusao das palavras nos quadrantes foi de 10. A analise prototipica apresenta as duas palavras que se referem a elementos centrais da representacao social sobre a depressao, “tristeza” e “solidao”. O conhecimento compartilhado por esses adolescentes caracteriza-se por conceber a depressao como um disturbio afetivo que remete ao sofrimento e ao desamparo. Atraves da similitude foi possivel comparar a representacao social dos adolescentes que possuem depressao e os que nao possuem, fazendo um cruzamento dos dados do TALP e da HAD, para os com depressao surgiram evocacoes mais relacionadas aos sintomas e as questoes emocionais como suicidio, medo, angustia; e os sem depressao evocaram mais questoes relacionadas a doenca, sofrimento e relacoes interpessoais. O questionario aberto foi analisado atraves da Analise Tematica Categorial de Bardin e foram encontradas quatro categorias, a primeira denominada Conceitos da Depressao possibilitou compreender que a representacao dos adolescentes encontra-se objetivada na doenca, no sentimento de tristeza e no isolamento; a segunda categoria nomeada de Consequencias da Depressao aponta para os termos suicidio, isolamento e tristeza como sendo os mais significativos para esta categoria; a terceira intitulou-se Representacao Sobre a Pessoa Depressiva e encontra-se objetivada na pessoa triste, isolada e sem vontade de viver; a ultima categoria denominou-se Representacao da Sociedade Sobre a Pessoa Depressiva sendo possivel compreender que a representacao foi objetivada na pessoa triste, com transtornos psicologicos e com frescura, atraves desta categoria constatou-se por meio dos relatos dos adolescentes crencas geradoras de preconceitos e estigma social. Com este estudo, espera-se contribuir com politicas preventivas da depressao com o estudo das representacoes e dos fatores de vulnerabilidade e dos riscos (preconceito e sintomas depressivos e ansiosos) dos adolescentes.
  • LAISY DE LIMA NUNES
  • Concepções parentais sobre o desenvolvimento e a habilidade de comunicação intencional no primeiro ano de vida do bebê
  • Fecha: 28-mar-2018
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • O processo de desenvolvimento das novas aquisicoes infantis, do ponto de vista historico-cultural, e permeado por acoes coconstrutivas e bidirecionais. As habilidades infantis sao significadas no contexto social no qual o bebe esta inserido e seus comportamentos sao aprimorados continuamente no decorrer do desenvolvimento. Entre os fatores que perpassam esse processo, o modo como os pais compreendem o desenvolvimento dos seus filhos influencia, direta ou indiretamente, as suas praticas. A presente tese buscou analisar as concepcoes parentais sobre o desenvolvimento dos bebes ao longo do primeiro ano de vida, com enfase nas concepcoes acerca do desenvolvimento da habilidade de comunicacao intencional. Apresentou delineamento longitudinal, com a participacao de 20 maes e 20 pais de bebes aos 3, 6, 9 e 12 meses de vida. A idade dos participantes variou entre 20 e 36 anos. Os instrumentos utilizados foram um questionario sociodemografico e duas entrevistas semiestruturadas. As entrevistas foram transcritas e analisadas de acordo com as diretrizes da analise de conteudo. Os resultados indicaram que, na visao dos pais, as novas aquisicoes infantis permitem maior interacao entre os cuidadores e o bebe. A maioria dos participantes mencionou os estimulos como aspectos promotores do desenvolvimento e apresentou concepcoes que reconhecem o papel parental como essencial na promocao do desenvolvimento saudavel dos filhos. Sobre as concepcoes parentais acerca da habilidade de comunicacao intencional, verificou-se que os relatos parentais indicaram comportamentos infantis especificos que podem ser indicios dessa habilidade, especialmente quando os bebes estavam no segundo semestre de vida. As maes conceberam que os bebes podem sentir emocoes, especialmente as positivas, reconhecer as emocoes dos outros sociais e apontar com mais frequencia do que relatado pelos pais. Esses dados sugerem que as maes percebem o desenvolvimento dos aspectos positivos da intencionalidade infantil um pouco antes do que o que e percebido pelos pais. Os pais, por sua vez, concebem que os bebes podem sentir tristeza, culpa e se comportar negativamente de proposito antes do que o que e percebido pelas maes. Apesar dessa diferenca, os pais parecem conhecer as etapas do desenvolvimento do bebe e, tambem exibem concepcoes realistas sobre o desenvolvimento infantil. Defende-se que a presente pesquisa contribue com a area de estudos da psicologia do desenvolvimento e pode auxiliar na fundamentacao de praticas profissionais.Considerando o referencial teorico adotado, os resultados empiricos e o levantamento bibliografico realizado, foram propostas diretrizes para a elaboracao de programas de orientacao que objetivem promover o desenvolvimento infantil por meio de acoes direcionadas aos pais e aos educadores.
  • MARIA RENATA FLORENCIO DE AZEVEDO
  • ATTITUDES OF HEALTH PROFESSIONALS TOWARDS SEXUALITY, VULNERABILITY AND PREVENTION OF STIs/AIDS IN PEOPLE WITH MENTAL DISORDERS
  • Fecha: 28-mar-2018
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • The reorientation of the mental health care model in Brazil from the hospital to the community, allowed the integration of the Mental Health Policy with the other Policies of prevention and attention of the Unico de Health System, among them the Policy of Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections ist's/AIDS, making it possible to think about vulnerability, promotion and prevention of injuries in the sexual health of the population with mental disorders. Among the obstacles for the promotion of sexual health in the field of mental health, there are the difficulties of professionals to deal with the theme, which can be explained, above all, by stigma and prejudice, of being perceived with an uncontrolled or asexual sexuality, which implies actions and actions of denial and repressiveness in the face of sexual experience in many health services. Therefore, understanding how to form attitudes among health professionals on this topic becomes pressing in the questions that involve the actions of professionals in the rationing, reproduction or increase of vulnerability of STIs/AIDS. Therefore, based on the Theory of Rational Action and the Vulnerability Model, this dissertation is composed of two studies. Study 1: aimed to identify how professionals perceive the sexuality of people with mental disorders. This was a qualitative cross-sectional study with exploratory and descriptive character, carried out in Psychosocial Attention Centers, located in the cities of Joao Pessoa, Campina Grande, Patos and Guarabira; the sample consisted of 27 female professionals, 13 nurses, 11 psychologists and 3 social workers located in an etharia range from 30 to 49, mostly. Regarding the time of actuation, most of them range from 1 to 5 years of service. For data collection, a sociodemographic and occupational question and a semi-structured interview were used. The quantitative data were tabulated in the SPSS Software and analyzed by descriptive and associative statistics, while for the qualitative results the theme categorization was used. The results of these studies showed that, although most participants present positive attitudes towards sexuality, when it comes to the sexuality of users, there are negative attitudes expressed through control, vigilance and silencing around the theme. Being imperative the association of sexuality with the psychiatric conditions, invalidating the possibilities of these patients to experience sexuality. Also highlighting aspects that hinder the management of sexuality within the services: personal difficulties, lack of training, overload and lack of material resources. Study 2: this study aimed to analyze the perception of professionals about the vulnerability of psychiatric patients to STIs/AIDS; and to check the prevention strategies developed or not in the mental health devices studied. This was a qualitative cross-sectional study with exploratory and descriptive character, conducted in the same place and with the same sample as the first study. For data collection, a sociodemographic and occupational question and semi-structured interview were used. The quantitative data were tabulated in the SPSS Software and analyzed by descriptive and associative statistics, while for qualitative results, theme categorization analysis. The data show that when it comes to the perception of vulnerability, STIs/AIDS, participants identify a worrying picture of vulnerability. However, the interventions expended, besides not integrating the promotion, prevention and care, are restricted to the individual and his psychic conditions. In this conjuncture, the way the prevention and operationalized work is translated into assistance to cases understood as at risk the health of users, those who arrive as a demand to be solved by the service, resulting in the lack of assistance those who are not identified as involved in cases of direct exposure.
  • MARIA EDNA SILVA DE ALEXANDRE
  • Lynching: social representations, motivations for lynching, ideological sympathy, institutional attitude and predictive factors.
  • Fecha: 28-mar-2018
  • Hora: 10:00
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  • The lynching phenomenon has been recurrent in Brazil, as well as in the international scenario, challenging the institutions officially responsible for the justice application, from the dissemination of extra-legal cases. This is a peculiar form of collective violence, in which a group of people gather to attack and even kill one or more of those accused of breaking a social norm. Despite the social coexistence implications related to the naturalization and legitimation of the lynching practice, investigations on this phenomenon are still incipient in the national and international context, in all knowledge areas, especially related to Psychology. Considering these limitations, this dissertation sought to broaden the lynching understanding, the motivations to lynch and the predictive factors to its favorability. To do this, two empirical studies were carried out. The first one aimed to identify the social representations of university students on lynching and the motivations to lynch. It is a field study, quantitative and qualitative, descriptive and exploratory, with a non-probabilistic sample with the intentional type. In this, 122 students of Psychology and Exact Sciences participated, who answered a list of sociodemographic data and two semi-structured questionnaires on lynching and its motivations. The analyzes, through the Descending Hierarchical Classifications, allowed us to identify that the constructs are represented by the groups researched from the societal and socio-emotional notions appropriations that make the lynching phenomenon intelligible, as well as evidence anchorages in sociodemographic variables (religion, age, course and period of the participants). The second study aimed to verify the predictive power of ideological sympathy and institutional attitude regarding favorability to the lynching. It is a quantitative search, with a descriptive, exploratory and correlational nature. It was attended by 850 Brazilians, who answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, two Scales of Attitudes toward Lynching - one with a moral dilemma and another without it, the Ideological Sympathy Scale and the Institutional Attitude Scale. The results indicated differences according to the sociodemographic variables in relation to the lynching favorability; as well as, evidenced that ideological sympathy contributed more than the institutional attitude to predict lynching favorability, resulting in a model that predicts a significant portion of the phenomenon. Broadly, the results of the two empirical studies showed that lynching contains a problem rooted in psycho-sociological dimensions. These are significant and innovative contributions to the lynching understanding, in addition to legitimizing the place of Social Psychology in this process.
  • ANA CRISTINA RAMOS COSTA
  • INTERAÇÃO MÃE-BEBÊ EM CONTEXTO DE BRINCADEIRA: LEVANTANDO INDICADORES DO USO INTENCIONAL DE BRINQUEDO
  • Fecha: 27-mar-2018
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • As investigacoes referentes ao desenvolvimento humano inicial tem buscado apreender os processos de desenvolvimento humano em sua complexidade e dinamica. Nesta pesquisa aborda-se um tipo de habilidade que compoe a cognicao social infantil e que emerge nos primeiros anos de vida das criancas designada habilidade de comunicacao intencional. Essa habilidade foi investigada em um contexto de brincadeira livre, situacao que favorece a ocorrencia de mediacoes que podem contribuir para o desenvolvimento de habilidades tipicamente humanas. Partiu-se do marco teorico historico-cultural de Vigotsky (1929/1986; 1932/1996; 1984/1991) que defende o papel da interacao social e da cultura como elementos primordiais para o desenvolvimento humano, e de pesquisas contemporaneas que investigam a comunicacao intencional e do papel da brincadeira em episodios interativos adulto-bebe. Nesta direcao o objetivo principal dessa pesquisa foi conhecer e analisar as modalidades de brincadeiras e o uso intencional de brinquedos por bebes em interacao com as maes. Participaram deste o estudo seis diades mae-bebe distribuidas igualmente nas idades de nove, doze e quinze meses. As maes tinham idade media de 30 anos, e residiam em seus proprios domicilios. Como instrumentos foram utilizados um questionario sociodemografico, uma entrevista semiestruturada, camera de video, gravador de audio, lapis e papel. A analise do material da entrevista com as maes indicou de modo geral que, as maes percebem seus filhos com um bom desenvolvimento, e os definem como espertos e inteligentes. Referente as concepcoes das maes sobre as brincadeiras dos seus bebes, as maes relataram que em diferentes etapas do desenvolvimento seus filhos se engajavam em diferentes tipos de brincadeiras. Por exemplo, aos 9 meses as brincadeiras sao mais exploratorias e aos 15 meses as brincadeiras envolvem a interacao com o outro e manuseio de brinquedos em suas formas convencionais. No que diz respeito a analise das interacoes videogravadas, observou-se que todos os episodios interativos apresentaram engajamentos diadicos e triadicos e especificamente aos 15 meses houve um episodio de engajamento colaborativo. A analise dos episodios de brincadeira permitiu identificar mais brincadeiras exploratorias aos 9 meses destacando os atos intencionais dos bebes de olhar para a mae, acompanhar os movimentos que a mae realiza com o objeto e dancar; aos 12 meses houve a predominancia de episodios convencionais com a ocorrencia de gestos intencionais de pegar o brinquedo da mao da mae, vocalizacao e comportamento que indicavam que os bebes utilizavam brinquedos para um determinado fim. Por fim, aos 15 meses observou-se que todos os episodios de brincadeira constituiram-se como convencionais, destacando os atos intencionais de apontar com vocalizacao e verbalizacoes durante o manejo dos brinquedos. Os resultados do presente estudo ressaltam o papel mediador que exercem os adultos no desenvolvimento de habilidades sociocognitivas e linguisticas, especialmente em episodios de brincadeira conjunta, atividade que caracteriza a infancia e pode colaborar para o desenvolvimento global infantil. Assinala-se ainda a contribuicao dessa pesquisa no sentido de produzir reflexoes e dados empiricos que possam subsidiar programas preventivos de intervencao elaborados por psicologos e demais profissionais que atuam em contextos de educacao e de saude visando a promocao de desenvolvimento humano e a identificacao precoce de prejuizos na comunicacao e linguagem, desde os anos iniciais.
  • POLLYANA LUDMILLA BATISTA PIMENTEL
  • VULNERABILIDADES E ESTRATÉGIAS DE ENFRENTAMENTO DE MÃES DE FILHOS COM MICROCEFALIA
  • Fecha: 27-mar-2018
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • O aumento da prevalencia de bebes com microcefalia congenita em decorrencia da infeccao pelo virus da Zika tem sido um desafio nao apenas para os cientistas, trabalhadores da saude e governantes, mas, principalmente para as maes, as quais tem vivenciado uma rotina de cuidados, exames, consultas, estimulos, a maioria com dedicacao exclusiva. Neste sentido, fundamentado no Modelo da Vulnerabilidade e na Teoria de Estrategias de Enfrentamento, o objetivo geral deste estudo foi compreender elementos de vulnerabilidades envolvidas no cuidado de criancas com microcefalia e apreender as estrategias de enfrentamento utilizadas por estas maes. Tratou-se de um estudo exploratorio, de carater analitico, com abordagem qualitativa e quantitativa, sendo utilizado um questionario sociodemografico, entrevista e a Escala de Modos de Enfrentamento de Problemas (EMEP). Participaram 14 maes de criancas diagnosticadas com microcefalia, apresentando uma media de idade de 24 anos. Para analise dos dados quantitativos, utilizou-se estatistica descritiva com o auxilio do SPSS, enquanto que a analise das entrevistas se deu atraves da tecnica de analise categorial tematica. A maioria das entrevistadas era casada ou viviam em um relacionamento estavel, possuiam renda familiar de ate dois salarios minimos e tinham apenas um filho, sendo a media da idade das criancas que tinham microcefalia de 1 ano e 1 mes, onde oito destas criancas eram do sexo feminino. Com relacao a religiao, oito mulheres se autodeclararam catolicas, e sobre o nivel de religiosidade, onze maes afirmaram serem pouco religiosas ou religiosas. Acerca da analise dos dados obtidos a partir das entrevistas, no que diz respeito as vulnerabilidades, observou-se a emergencia de tres classes tematicas (Da gravidez ao parto; O cuidado assistencial; Vivencia das maes acerca do cuidado), as quais tiveram suas respectivas categorias e subcategorias, constatando-se que a historia destas mulheres e envolta por aspectos de vulnerabilidades, tanto no ambito individual, quanto no social e programatico. De acordo com a analise dos dados da Escala de Modos de Enfrentamento de Problemas, o tipo de estrategia de enfrentamento que obteve maior media foi o Enfrentamento Focado no Problema (M = 4,30; DP = 0,52), indicando que diante do diagnostico de microcefalia do filho, estas maes se aprofundam nesta problematica, a fim de obter mais conhecimento sobre, buscar as melhores tecnicas e tratamentos para cada especificidade das suas criancas, objetivando o melhor prognostico para eles. Contudo, os outros tipos de Estrategias de Enfrentamento tambem sao utilizados pelas participantes deste estudo, o que foi corroborado com a analise das entrevistas. Verificou-se que o mito do amor materno perpassa por essas categorias, estando presente a todo o momento na vida dessas mulheres. Os resultados evidenciaram a ampla complexidade vivenciada por estas maes, contexto arduo, imbricado de vulnerabilidades, que leva a busca de estrategias de enfrentamento, colaborando com a manutencao da saude mental.
  • JULIANA DA ROSA SEIXAS
  • O TRABALHO DOS PROFISSIONAIS DE UNIDADES DE MEDIDAS SOCIOEDUCATIVAS DE REGIME DE INTERNAÇÃO
  • Asesor : ANISIO JOSE DA SILVA ARAUJO
  • Fecha: 26-mar-2018
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • A presente dissertacao tem como objetivo geral analisar o trabalho dos profissionais inseridos em uma unidade de medidas socioeducativas de internacao, dada a importancia desse tipo de instituicao e dos que nela trabalham. Para isso se utilizou da ergonomia da atividade e da psicodinamica do trabalho como aportes teoricos para discutir as questoes que emergiram na pesquisa. Participaram do trabalho 30 trabalhadores de uma unidade de medidas socioeducativas de internacao de um estado do Nordeste brasileiro. Os trabalhadores responderam a um questionario socio-demografico e a uma entrevista semiestruturada. Foi realizada analise descritiva basica dos dados dos questionarios e analise de conteudo tematica das entrevistas. Os resultados foram apresentados em tres artigos. Os dois primeiros referem-se respectivamente a pesquisa com 15 agentes socioeducativos e com 15 trabalhadores administrativos e tecnicos. Neles foram apresentadas a caracterizacao dos participantes, os modos de insercao no sistema socioeducativo, a formacao dos trabalhadores, as condicoes e a organizacao do trabalho na unidade e as formas de enfrentamento das variabilidades encontradas no cotidiano. O terceiro artigo abordou as fontes de sofrimento e prazer no trabalho, assim como as estrategias defensivas utilizadas pelos trabalhadores na busca pelo equilibrio em seu contexto laboral. Os resultados revelaram que as discrepancias entre o prescrito e real implicam forte mobilizacao dos trabalhadores, tendo como efeito uma sobrecarga de trabalho. Percebeu-se tambem que as frustracoes advindas das fontes de sofrimento fazem com que os trabalhadores se utilizem de estrategias defensivas para sua propria protecao. Ja as fontes de prazer constituem fatores preponderantes para a manutencao da mobilizacao de cada trabalhador, apesar de tudo, mostrando-se essenciais para a continuidade do trabalho na unidade de internacao.
  • THAÍS DE SOUSA BEZERRA DE MENEZES
  • REPRESENTAÇÕES SOCIAIS FRENTE À OBESIDADE: UMA ANÁLISE COM ESTUDANTES DO ENSINO MÉDIO E UNIVERSITÁRIOS
  • Fecha: 26-mar-2018
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • A obesidade e a doenca nao transmissivel com maior incidencia em todo o mundo, mas frequentemente investigada atraves de aspectos individuais. A teoria da Representacao Social pode contribuir para a compreensao do fenomeno porque explica aspectos relevantes da realidade, orienta as praticas sociais e justifica acoes e tomadas de posicao. O objetivo deste estudo e analisar e comparar as Representacoes Sociais elaboradas por estudantes do ensino medio e universitarios frente a obesidade. Trata-se de um estudo exploratorio, descritivo e analitico de carater transversal e qualitativo. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida em escolas publicas, privadas e universidade de Joao Pessoa, Paraiba. Participaram do estudo no total 200 estudantes do ensino medio e 300 universitarios. A dissertacao foi dividida em tres artigos, o primeiro artigo e teorico e denominado Obesidade e Representacoes Sociais. Este artigo traz uma contextualizacao historica sobre obesidade tendo a Teoria das Representacoes Sociais como aporte teorico para o estudo deste fenomeno focando-se nas mudancas que esta representacao tem passado e em suas consequencias para as pessoas obesas. O segundo artigo e um estudo empirico e intitula-se A estrutura da Representacao Social da obesidade: uma analise com estudantes do ensino medio e universitarios. O instrumento utilizado foi a Associacao Livre de Palavras com o estimulo Obesidade analisado atraves de Analise Prototipica e Analise de Similitude no Software IRAMUTEQ. Na Analise prototipica, a frequencia media das evocacoes dos universitarios foi 16,85 e 18,52 nos estudantes do ensino medio. A frequencia minima para inclusao no quadro foi 5 nas duas amostras (2,5% de cada amostra). A Ordem Media de Evocacao foi de 2,81 nos universitarios e 2,69 nos estudantes. O ponto de corte da Ordem Media de Evocacao foi de 3 para as duas amostras. Essa analise revelou que o nucleo da representacao da obesidade para os universitarios e Doenca, Gordura, Gordo, Comida, Saude e Peso e para os estudantes Comida, Gordura e Gordo. A principal diferenca entre os nucleos dessas duas representacoes e que para os universitarios a obesidade e ancorada sobretudo na doenca, enquanto para os estudantes do ensino medio esta objetivada na comida. Na analise de Similitude, a frequencia minima para inclusao no quadro foi 12 (6% de cada amostra). Nessa analise, o termo que medeia as duas representacoes e Gordura, o que indica que este provavelmente e um ponto de consenso nas representacoes dos dois grupos. Esta analise revelou uma complexidade maior da representacao dos universitarios tanto em relacao a quantidade de elementos coocorrentes quanto a multifatorialidade causal da obesidade, provavelmente, devido ao maior acesso a informacao. Apesar disso, indicios de preconceito surgem nas duas analises e nos dois grupos principalmente atraves dos estereotipos negativos Feio e Preguica/Preguicoso e Baleia. O terceiro artigo denomina-se Obesidade e suas representacoes: um estudo com universitarios. Este estudo, tambem empirico, focou-se nos universitarios com a ampliacao da amostra em 100 participantes. Esta opcao aconteceu tanto devido a semelhanca nas representacoes de estudantes do ensino medio e universitarios reveladas no ultimo estudo quanto devido a maior capacidade de elaboracao para questoes abertas por parte dos universitarios. Assim, participaram do estudo 300 universitarios. Foi utilizado um Questionario Aberto sobre a obesidade analisadas atraves de Analise de Conteudo Tematico-Categorial de Bardin. Os resultados apontam para tres tipos de representacao social da obesidade: conceito, causas e consequencias, que estavam majoritariamente ligados aos fatores organicos e individuais da obesidade. Os dois artigos empiricos trazem que existe nos dois grupos de estudantes uma ancoragem unifatorial da obesidade essencialmente biologica, individual e ligada a fatores “controlaveis” como a ma-alimentacao e o sedentarismo, o que pode contribuir para a culpabilizacao do obeso por sua condicao e aumentar a chance de preconceito. Tambem foram encontrados indicios de preconceito nos dois grupos e nos dois estudos atraves dos estereotipos negativos. O presente estudo pode contribuir para a criacao de politicas publicas que preconizem intervencoes que enfatizem o carater multifatorial da obesidade tanto na educacao formal (escola e universidade) quanto na midia. Devido ao carater fluido das Representacoes Sociais, e possivel que essas intervencoes que possam modificar a representacao atual da obesidade e diminuir o preconceito em relacao a pessoas obesas.
  • TAMYRES TOMAZ PAIVA
  • VIOLÊNCIA ENTRE PARCEIROS ÍNTIMOS E SUAS RELAÇÕES COM OS GATILHOS DA AGRESSÃO
  • Fecha: 26-mar-2018
  • Hora: 09:30
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  • O modelo geral da Agressao (GAM) emprega tres fatores centrais para se entender o comportamento agressivo: os fatores pessoais e situacionais, as trajetorias internas ou rotas e os fatores de respostas comportamentais. Estes fatores sao vistos como necessidades sociais, em que bastam ocorrer uma ameaca ao equilibrio, que as respostas agressivas ou violentas sao logo estimuladas. O GAM conceitua a violencia entre parceiros intimos (VPI) como um comportamento intencional que causa danos fisicos, sexuais, psicologicos e controle comportamentais. A partir desta definicao, foram feitos 7 estudos distribuidos em 5 artigos. Os dados foram analisados pelo programa estatistico IBM SPSS Statistics e o AMOS, ambos versao 21 e a linguagem “R. 3.4.2”. O primeiro artigo objetivou analisar a correlacao e predicao dos fatores comportamentais da violencia com os fatores pessoais e o comportamento assertivo. Participaram 305 residentes da cidade da Grande Joao Pessoa, com idades entre 18 e 56 anos (M= 25,29; DP= 7,32). Os resultados demonstraram que os fatores da violencia foram correlacionados com o genero, personalidade (agradabilidade, estabilidade emocional e abertura a experiencias) e valores (interativo, normativo, suprapessoal, existencia e realizacao). Em adicao, encontrou-se atraves da regressao e mediacao que esses fatores podem ter efeitos diretos como indiretos nos comportamentos sofridos de violencia entre parceiros intimos. O segundo artigo, de natureza psicometrica, buscou desenvolver uma medida que fosse de comportamentos praticados de violencia entre parceiros intimos. Foram divididos em dois estudos. O primeiro, contou com 280 respondentes residentes do Estado da Paraiba, com idades entre 18 e 58 anos (M = 26,83; DP = 6,93). A partir da analise dos componentes principais verificaram a existencia de 3 fatores (abuso psicologico, fisico e controle comportamental), apresentando coeficientes internos satisfatorios. O segundo estudo, contou-se com 218 participantes, a maioria da regiao nordeste (52,3%), com idades entre 18 e 60 anos (M = 28,59; DP = 6,95), e consistiu em uma analise confirmatoria apresentando bons indices de ajustes ao modelo, apresentando uma versao mais curta e parcimoniosa da escala. O terceiro artigo consistiu na contrucao e validacao de uma escala de violencia sexual, versao agressor, dividido em dois estudos. O primeiro estudo contou com os mesmos participantes do estudo dois do artigo 2, apresentando a partir da analise dos componentes principais a existencia de 1 fator e coeficientes internos satisfatorios. No segundo estudo, contou-se com 203 respondentes residentes do Estado da Paraiba, com idades entre 18 e 60 anos (M = 21,62; DP = 5,25), para a verificacao da analise confirmatoria. Os instrumentos mencionados do artigo 2 e 3, apresentaram propriedades psicometricas satisfatorias, apresentando validade de construto atraves das analises fatoriais. O quarto artigo, objetivou-se analisar a correlacao e predicao dos fatores pessoais nos comportamentos de violencia. Os resultados demonstraram correlacao e predicao entre os fatores da personalidade, valores humanos e atitudes implicitas com a violencia entre parceiros intimos. E o quinto artigo, objetivou-se analisar a correlacao e predicao da violencia (abuso fisico, psicologico, controle comportamental e sexual) com o fator pessoal (personalidade), fator situacional (uso do alcool) e da rota (afetos). Participaram 411 respondentes, a maioria residente do Estado da Paraiba (69,7%), com idades entre 18 e 60 anos (M = 25,22; DP = 7,10). Os resultados demonstraram uma correlacao significativa entre a violencia com a agradabilidade, estabilidade emocional, conscienciosidade, narcisismo, maquiavelismo, psicopatia, afetos positivos e negativos e a frequencia do consumo do alcool. Mas apenas os afetos negativos, o maquiavelismo e a psicopatia explicaram a violencia entre parceiros intimos. Portanto, o objetivo da presente dissertacao foi cumprido, devendo ponderar os resultados dos estudos, por apresentarem algumas limitacoes. Mas, incentivam-se novas pesquisas a fim da replicacao dos dados.
  • FRANKLEUDO LUAN DE LIMA SILVA
  • Raciocínios morais de justiça e de perdão em padres
  • Fecha: 23-mar-2018
  • Hora: 10:00
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  • Cada vez mais, os estudos psicologicos tem mostrado que a experiencia religiosa constitui um fator relevante para o desenvolvimento moral do individuo, entretanto, tais investigacoes tem sido especialmente lacunares no tocante a analises mais rigorosas dos fundamentos dessa relacao. No presente estudo, considerando especificamente o universo do catolicismo e lancando luz sobre a justica e o perdao enquanto virtudes morais e de desenvolvimento, defende-se o argumento de tese de que os raciocinios morais de justica e de perdao de padres estao apoiados nas orientacoes doutrinarias do Catecismo da Igreja Catolica referentes a justica e ao perdao. Isto porque a forca doutrinal conservada no Catecismo, texto de exposicao dos conteudos essenciais a respeito da fe e da moral no ambito catolico, parece guiar o avanco moral dos seus seguidores. Duas teorias serviram de base principal para este estudo: a teoria do desenvolvimento do julgamento de justica, de Lawrence Kohlberg, e a teoria desenvolvimento do raciocinio de perdao, de Robert Enright. Cada autor apresenta uma tipologia de estagios, que representam a complexidade no raciocinio frente as decisoes morais. Ademais, reflexoes filosoficas e teologicas foram desenvolvidas a fim de conferir maior inteligibilidade as analises realizadas. Participaram do estudo 30 padres da Arquidiocese da Paraiba. Como instrumentos, foram utilizados um questionario biodemografico e um questionario composto por dois dilemas morais, o primeiro voltado para identificar os estagios dominantes do pensamento de justica e o segundo voltado para identificar os estagios dominantes do raciocinio de perdao. Verificou-se o uso predominante de raciocinios de justica pautados na valorizacao da obediencia a lei ou as convencoes para a manutencao da ordem social (estagio 4 na tipologia de Kohlberg) e de raciocinios baseados na compreensao de que as pessoas tem direitos individuais, sendo possivel, por meio de canais legais e acordos democraticos, alterar leis ou costumes morais eventualmente injustos (estagio 5). Ambos os raciocinios encontram lastro nas orientacoes catequeticas, as quais tanto podem suscitar pensamentos estritamente legalistas quanto raciocinios que transcendem o limite convencional da lei. Para o raciocinio de perdao, foram dominantes os estagios 3 (na classificacao de Enright), que esta em consonancia com as expectativas do grupo de pertenca; seguido do estagio 2,5, baseado em uma compensacao moral exemplificada no pedido de desculpas e na mudanca atitudinal do ofensor. Estes raciocinios seguem na direcao da ideia, evidenciada Catecismo, de que sao condicionantes do perdao o reconhecimento do erro, as desculpas, os sinais visiveis de arrependimento e o compromisso com a mudanca de comportamento. Comprovou-se, por meio de um teste de correlacao de Spearman, uma relacao significativa entre raciocinios de justica e raciocinios de perdao, indicando que quando o pensamento de justica avanca, o pensamento de perdao tambem avanca em algum grau. Verificou-se, atraves de um teste nao parametrico U de Mann Whitney, que os padres que coordenam paroquias com programas pastorais ativos, socialmente engajados, apresentam raciocinios de justica e de perdao mais avancados, em razao de, presumivelmente, conhecerem e considerarem as necessidades particulares, as circunstancias atenuantes e a perspectiva das pessoas antes de emitirem julgamentos de justica e de perdao. Relativamente ao conteudo das respostas dos padres sobre a pergunta “O que significa justica?”, as categorias mais frequentes – “igualdade” “direitos e deveres”, “cumprir a lei”, “equilibrio social” – sao alinhaveis as concepcoes de justica constantes no texto doutrinal do Catecismo da Igreja Catolica e corroboram o predominio do uso dos estagios 4 e 5 de pensamento de justica, pautados, respectivamente, na entronizacao da lei como uma entidade inviolavel e na reelaboracao de leis, mediante procedimentos contratuais democraticos, a fim de se maximizar o bem-estar geral. Com relacao as respostas sobre a questao “O que significa perdoar?”, a maioria dos padres, compativelmente com as concepcoes de perdao evocadas pelo Catecismo, enfatizou a diminuicao/interrupcao dos afetos e sentimentos negativos eliciados pela magoa, o reconhecimento da natureza falivel do humano, o perdao como um credito de confianca e como uma atitude que expressa amor, doacao e compaixao. De um modo geral, identificou-se grande compatibilidade entre os raciocinios dos participantes com o conteudo discursivo propalado pelo texto catequetico, sugerindo a confirmacao da tese proposta no presente estudo.
  • DINARA DAS GRAÇAS CARVALHO COSTA
  • ADOECIMENTO LABORAL: A TURBULÊNCIA E A VIVÊNCIA DOS AFASTAMENTOS
  • Fecha: 22-mar-2018
  • Hora: 08:00
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  • Atualmente as pessoas ainda estao adoecendo por conta do trabalho (Lacaz, 2016) e por vezes esse adoecimento e negado e mesmo minimizado para que o individuo continue sustentando a si e aos seus, pois o trabalhado acaba sendo menosprezado e adoecer aproxima o desemprego, pois o que importa e a producao gerada pelo sujeito (Castel, 1998). Assim, essa pesquisa tem como objetivo geral“ compreender o papel do reconhecimento, ou da falta dele, na dinamica psiquica de trabalhadores que foram afastados do seu empr ego/trabalho regular em decorrencia de doenca surgida ou agravada durante a atividade de trabalho. Essa pesquisa e de carater exploratorio - descritivo e buscou conhecer a realidade dos trabalhadores que, adoecidos, procuram o Centro de Referencia em Saude do Trabalhador de Joao Pessoa (CEREST – Joao Pessoa) em busca de apoio em sua situacao de saude ou previdenciaria. Contou-se com a participacao voluntaria de 14 trabalha dores, com o tempo de experiencia flutuando de 6 a 52 anos, sendo que 11 estavam afastados e desse total, 4 afirmaram que nao era mais o seu primeiro afastamento. Utilizou-se como instrumento um Guia de Entrevista semi-estruturado dividido em duas partes: a sociodemografico e a entrevista semi-estruturada, que foi organizada em seis eixos: I – Desde suas historias de trabalho ate sua historia de adoecimento; II – O fator do Reconhecimento; III – As estrategias de Normalidade; IV – Relacao Sofrimento/Prazer; V – Doencas; e VI – Das Perspectivas atuais. Esse estudo faz parte de uma pesquisa maior, que foi Submetida ao Comite de Etica sobe a resolucao 466/12, respeitando todas as exigencias etica de pesquisas com seres humanos. Apos aprovacao, foi-se a campo no Centro de Referencia Estadual em Saude do trabalhador (CEREST) entre os dias 02 de Agosto e 20 de Setembro de 2016. Inicialmente apresentava-se o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido (TCLE) para os voluntarios e se prosseguia a entrevista. Atraves de Analise de Conteudo proposta de Laville e Dionne (1999), utilizou-se um metodo hermeneutico de interpretacao das falas dos entrevistados, pretendendo-se dar voz e possibilitar que esses expressem suas opinioes sobre as formas de reconhecimento, ou de nao-reconhecimento, no ambiente laboral. Como resultados parciais identificou-se quando o reconhecimento e importante para a saude mental dos trabalhadores e o quanto sua ausencia pode ser definida como um agente desencadeante de formas de adoecimento. Como exemplo apontam-se duas falas: “O que voce ta fazendo no dia a dia pra eles e importante, mas a partir do momento que voce nao pode mais eles nao reconhecem que voce ta com um problema” (P12); e “No momento que a gente e reconhecido a gente trabalha muito satisfeito” (P4). Para Dejours (2012) o reconhecimento hoje e um elo distante na relacao do trabalhador com a empresa, pois o que se evidencia e um desfacelamento dos coletivos, que culminam com uma forma de individualismo pautada no medo de confiar no outro e mesmo nos superiores e/ou subordinados.
  • CELIA MARIA CRUZ MARQUES CHAVES
  • PERCEPÇÃO MATERNA DA SOCIALIZAÇÃO E DOS COMPORTAMENTOS AGRESSIVOS DE CRIANÇAS COM SÍNDROME DE DOWN E EM DESENVOLVIMENTO TÍPICO.
  • Fecha: 13-mar-2018
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • Apesar da relevancia de se estudar a socializacao materna bem como sua relacao com os comportamentos agressivos em criancas com e sem deficiencia, ha na literatura especializada uma acentuada lacuna no que se refere as contribuicoes voltadas para as criancas com deficiencia e mais especificamente para aquelas com Sindrome de Down (SD). Assim, o objetivo geral da presente pesquisa e averiguar em que medida as praticas e os estilos de socializacao, adotados por maes de criancas com Sindrome de Down (SD) e em Desenvolvimento Tipico (DT), se relacionam com a percepcao materna a respeito da emissao de comportamentos agressivos de seus filhos. Os estudos de Hoffman sao centrais no tocante as praticas e tem fundamentando diferentes pesquisas como a realizada por Camino Cleonice, Camino, Leoncio e Moraes (2003). Quanto aos estilos de socializacao, sao referencias as producoes de Baumrind e de Maccoby e Martin que influenciaram, por exemplo, as contribuicoes de Musitu e Garcia (2001). No tocante aos comportamentos agressivos, assume-se a classificacao de Buss e Perry (1992), que indica quatro tipos de comportamentos: Agressao Fisica, Verbal, Raiva e Hostilidade. Para atingir o objetivo proposto, desenvolveram-se dois estudos empiricos. O primeiro voltado para adaptacao e verificacao da estrutura fatorial dos instrumentos de pesquisa utilizados na tese, e o segundo para a averiguacao da relacao entre as medidas estudadas. Participaram do primeiro estudo 200 maes com idade media de 34,4 (DP = 7,1) sendo a maioria casada (74,5%), com dois filhos (44,5%), de religiao catolica (75,5%) e com ensino superior completo (30,0%). Para o segundo estudo, contou-se com a participacao de 164 maes de criancas com SD (f = 82) e em DT (f = 82) com idade media de 36,6; (DP = 7,4) majoritariamente casadas (65,9%), com dois filhos (35,4%), de religiao catolica (55,5%) e com ensino medio completo (29,9%). As amostras caracterizaram-se como nao probabilistica, isto e, de conveniencia, participando pessoas que, convidadas aceitaram colaborar. Nos dois estudos, alem das questoes sobre aspectos biosociodemograficos, as maes responderam a tres instrumentos: a versao adaptada para maes do Questionario de Agressao de Buss e Perry - BPAQ; a versao adaptada para maes da Escala de socializacao parental - ESPA29 e o Instrumento de Tecnicas de Socializacao - ITC. As aplicacoes ocorreram individualmente nos dias e locais indicados pelas participantes e duraram em media 50 minutos. Os resultados obtidos no primeiro estudo demonstraram, para o BPAQ, indices de ajuste muito semelhantes aos observados em pesquisas anteriores e, nessa mesma direcao, figuram os resultados referentes a validacao do ITC. Quanto aos resultados da ESPA29, observou-se uma organizacao fatorial diferente da indicada por Musitu e Garcia (2001). Entretanto, dada a confirmacao da estrutura proposta pelos autores do instrumento em diferentes contextos culturais, adotou-se nas analises posteriores a organizacao indicada por Musitu e Garcia (2001) e seus colaboradores. No segundo estudo, observou-se que as maes de criancas em DT pontuaram mais alto tanto na percepcao da dimensao de aceitacao/implicacao quanto de severidade/imposicao, sendo essa diferenca estatisticamente significativa. No tocante as dimensoes de controle, observou-se que as maes de criancas em DT se orientam pelo controle interno enquanto as maes de criancas com SD pelo externo. Especificamente, no que se refere aos estilos, as maes de criancas em DT utilizam de forma mais frequente o autoritativo (Green, Caplan & Backer, 2014; Herman & Shantz, 1983; Marfo,1992; Minetto, 2010; Nader-Gorsbois & Lefevre, 2012), seguido do autoritario, indulgente e negligente, enquanto que as maes de criancas com SD o negligente, indulgente, autoritativo e autoritario, diferindo das indicacoes de estudos anteriores (Green, Caplan & Backer, 2014; Herman & Shantz, 1983; Marfo,1992; Minetto, 2010; Nader-Gorsbois & Lefevre, 2012). Considerando a relacao entre as variaveis estudadas observou-se, para os dois grupos de maes, que o controle materno mais coercitivo esta positivamente relacionado ao comportamento agressivo nos filhos e o controle baseado em estrategias de apoio negativamente relacionado. A relacao entre coercao e agressao aqui observada ja e apontada na literatura psicologica para criancas em DT, no entanto, para aquelas com algum atraso no desenvolvimento, nao ha clareza sobre como essas variaveis se relacionam (Green, Caplan & Backer, 2014). Dentre as poucas pesquisas encontradas observam-se tanto indicacoes de que a coercao promove um impacto negativo (Cielinski, Vaughn, Seifer & Conteras, 1995) quanto positivo nos filhos (Herman & Shantz, 1983; Marfo, 1992; Nader-Gorsbois & Lefevre 2012). A esse respeito, acredita-se que os achados da presente pesquisa podem contribuir com essa discussao. Alem da socializacao materna, outras variaveis estao associadas a agressao, no entanto, considerando o publico de criancas com SD, a relacao entre socializacao e agressao precisa ser mais considerada em estudos futuros. Ademais, podem ser desenvolvidas pesquisas de intervencao com a finalidade de promover nas maes a reflexao de que o controle do comportamento das criancas e benefico, desde que centrado em estrategias de apoio. O desafio ao controlar os comportamentos dos filhos esta em atuar sem favorecer o aparecimento de problemas internos (ansiedade, culpa, depressao) ou externos (comportamentos agressivos) nas criancas (Grusec, 2011). Com a descricao e discussao dos resultados dessa tese, nao visou-se realizar conclusoes generalistas a respeito da tematica, nem promover estereotipos para os grupos pesquisados, mas fomentar outras reflexoes sobre as variaveis estudadas.
  • CELIA MARIA CRUZ MARQUES CHAVES
  • PERCEPÇÃO MATERNA DA SOCIALIZAÇÃO E DOS COMPORTAMENTOS AGRESSIVOS DE CRIANÇAS COM SÍNDROME DE DOWN E EM DESENVOLVIMENTO TÍPICO.
  • Fecha: 13-mar-2018
  • Hora: 15:00
  • Visualizar Disertación/Tesis   Mostrar Resumen
  • Apesar da relevancia de se estudar a socializacao materna bem como sua relacao com os comportamentos agressivos em criancas com e sem deficiencia, ha na literatura especializada uma acentuada lacuna no que se refere as contribuicoes voltadas para as criancas com deficiencia e mais especificamente para aquelas com Sindrome de Down (SD). Assim, o objetivo geral da presente pesquisa e averiguar em que medida as praticas e os estilos de socializacao, adotados por maes de criancas com Sindrome de Down (SD) e em Desenvolvimento Tipico (DT), se relacionam com a percepcao materna a respeito da emissao de comportamentos agressivos de seus filhos. Os estudos de Hoffman sao centrais no tocante as praticas e tem fundamentando diferentes pesquisas como a realizada por Camino Cleonice, Camino, Leoncio e Moraes (2003). Quanto aos estilos de socializacao, sao referencias as producoes de Baumrind e de Maccoby e Martin que influenciaram, por exemplo, as contribuicoes de Musitu e Garcia (2001). No tocante aos comportamentos agressivos, assume-se a classificacao de Buss e Perry (1992), que indica quatro tipos de comportamentos: Agressao Fisica, Verbal, Raiva e Hostilidade. Para atingir o objetivo proposto, desenvolveram-se dois estudos empiricos. O primeiro voltado para adaptacao e verificacao da estrutura fatorial dos instrumentos de pesquisa utilizados na tese, e o segundo para a averiguacao da relacao entre as medidas estudadas. Participaram do primeiro estudo 200 maes com idade media de 34,4 (DP = 7,1) sendo a maioria casada (74,5%), com dois filhos (44,5%), de religiao catolica (75,5%) e com ensino superior completo (30,0%). Para o segundo estudo, contou-se com a participacao de 164 maes de criancas com SD (f = 82) e em DT (f = 82) com idade media de 36,6; (DP = 7,4) majoritariamente casadas (65,9%), com dois filhos (35,4%), de religiao catolica (55,5%) e com ensino medio completo (29,9%). As amostras caracterizaram-se como nao probabilistica, isto e, de conveniencia, participando pessoas que, convidadas aceitaram colaborar. Nos dois estudos, alem das questoes sobre aspectos biosociodemograficos, as maes responderam a tres instrumentos: a versao adaptada para maes do Questionario de Agressao de Buss e Perry - BPAQ; a versao adaptada para maes da Escala de socializacao parental - ESPA29 e o Instrumento de Tecnicas de Socializacao - ITC. As aplicacoes ocorreram individualmente nos dias e locais indicados pelas participantes e duraram em media 50 minutos. Os resultados obtidos no primeiro estudo demonstraram, para o BPAQ, indices de ajuste muito semelhantes aos observados em pesquisas anteriores e, nessa mesma direcao, figuram os resultados referentes a validacao do ITC. Quanto aos resultados da ESPA29, observou-se uma organizacao fatorial diferente da indicada por Musitu e Garcia (2001). Entretanto, dada a confirmacao da estrutura proposta pelos autores do instrumento em diferentes contextos culturais, adotou-se nas analises posteriores a organizacao indicada por Musitu e Garcia (2001) e seus colaboradores. No segundo estudo, observou-se que as maes de criancas em DT pontuaram mais alto tanto na percepcao da dimensao de aceitacao/implicacao quanto de severidade/imposicao, sendo essa diferenca estatisticamente significativa. No tocante as dimensoes de controle, observou-se que as maes de criancas em DT se orientam pelo controle interno enquanto as maes de criancas com SD pelo externo. Especificamente, no que se refere aos estilos, as maes de criancas em DT utilizam de forma mais frequente o autoritativo (Green, Caplan & Backer, 2014; Herman & Shantz, 1983; Marfo,1992; Minetto, 2010; Nader-Gorsbois & Lefevre, 2012), seguido do autoritario, indulgente e negligente, enquanto que as maes de criancas com SD o negligente, indulgente, autoritativo e autoritario, diferindo das indicacoes de estudos anteriores (Green, Caplan & Backer, 2014; Herman & Shantz, 1983; Marfo,1992; Minetto, 2010; Nader-Gorsbois & Lefevre, 2012). Considerando a relacao entre as variaveis estudadas observou-se, para os dois grupos de maes, que o controle materno mais coercitivo esta positivamente relacionado ao comportamento agressivo nos filhos e o controle baseado em estrategias de apoio negativamente relacionado. A relacao entre coercao e agressao aqui observada ja e apontada na literatura psicologica para criancas em DT, no entanto, para aquelas com algum atraso no desenvolvimento, nao ha clareza sobre como essas variaveis se relacionam (Green, Caplan & Backer, 2014). Dentre as poucas pesquisas encontradas observam-se tanto indicacoes de que a coercao promove um impacto negativo (Cielinski, Vaughn, Seifer & Conteras, 1995) quanto positivo nos filhos (Herman & Shantz, 1983; Marfo, 1992; Nader-Gorsbois & Lefevre 2012). A esse respeito, acredita-se que os achados da presente pesquisa podem contribuir com essa discussao. Alem da socializacao materna, outras variaveis estao associadas a agressao, no entanto, considerando o publico de criancas com SD, a relacao entre socializacao e agressao precisa ser mais considerada em estudos futuros. Ademais, podem ser desenvolvidas pesquisas de intervencao com a finalidade de promover nas maes a reflexao de que o controle do comportamento das criancas e benefico, desde que centrado em estrategias de apoio. O desafio ao controlar os comportamentos dos filhos esta em atuar sem favorecer o aparecimento de problemas internos (ansiedade, culpa, depressao) ou externos (comportamentos agressivos) nas criancas (Grusec, 2011). Com a descricao e discussao dos resultados dessa tese, nao visou-se realizar conclusoes generalistas a respeito da tematica, nem promover estereotipos para os grupos pesquisados, mas fomentar outras reflexoes sobre as variaveis estudadas.
  • ANDREI ALVES DE AGUIAR
  • A Normatividade do Perdão Interpessoal
  • Asesor : JULIO RIQUE NETO
  • Fecha: 26-feb-2018
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • Situacoes de transgressoes envolvendo magoa e decepcao sao comuns a maioria das pessoas. Estudos comprovam que guardar tais sentimentos pode gerar consequencias desagradaveis nos comportamentos e na vida como um todo. Assim, a importancia do perdao se faz clara. Este constructo pode ser entendido como uma atitude moral em que a pessoa abdica do ressentimento e de julgamentos e comportamentos negativos para com o seu ofensor. O que ainda tem sido motivo de divergencias e se o perdao se trata de um comportamento especifico (variavel de estado), de uma acao continuada dependendo da pessoa (variavel de traco) ou algo relacionado a norma social. Neste momento, hipotetiza-se que o perdao esta relacionado a norma social. Deste modo, a presente tese teve como objetivo principal verificar se ha uma expressao de normatividade no perdao. Como objetivos especificos, buscou-se: a) apresentar evidencias de validade das Escalas de Resolucao de Problemas Interpessoais – Geral; b) apresentar evidencias de validade das Escalas de Resolucao de Problemas Interpessoais –Pessoal; e c) testar tres paradigmas de normatividade, propostos por Alves (2008) e Jellison e Green (1981). A fim de cumprir com estes objetivos, dois estudos foram propostos: (A) o primeiro estudo teve por objetivo conhecer evidencias de validade fatorial e consistencia interna das Escalas de Resolucao de Problemas Interpessoais – Geral e Pessoal. Para tanto, ele contou com a participacao de 264 pessoas, as quais responderam as escalas de resolucao de conflitos, construidas nessa oportunidade, em suas duas versoes. Analises de Poder discriminativo dos itens, Analise dos componentes principais e Alfa de Cronbach, possibilitaram demonstrar evidencias de validade e precisao para ambas as versoes da escala, sendo estas unifatoriais. Entretanto, foi percebido ao longo do percurso da tese que fazia-se necessario, para um recorte adequado do objeto, uma medida mais refinada e parciomoniosa, reduzindo o numero de contextos e de catogorias de relacionamento vitima-ofensor. Tomando como base o estudo de Rique e Camino (2010), foi proposta a ERPI 12 – Geral e Pessoal, que reduziu os graus de proximidade para apenas familiares e amigos, e os contextos de magoa para: traicao, humilhacao, agressao fisica, promessa nao cumprida, evitacao e mentira. Este estudo contou com a participacao de 257 pessoas que responderam a ERPI 12 – Geral e Pessoal. Analises de Poder discriminativo do itens, Analise dos componentes principais e Alfa de Cronbach, possibilitaram demonstrar evidencias de validade e precisao para ambas as versoes da escala, sendo estas unifatoriais. (B) Para testar a normatividade do perdao, o Estudo 2, de cunho quase-experimental, foi composto por tres partes. Nestas, manipulou-se, respectivamente, os seguintes paradigmas: a) Identificacao; b) Auto-Apresentacao; c) dos juizes. Analises de Alfa de Cronbach demonstraram evidencias preliminares de adequacao das medidas utilizadas na manipulacao. No paradigma 1, do qual participaram 70 pessoas, comparando-se as condicoes de Perdao Geral (opiniao propria), Perdao Geral (opiniao sobre os outros), Perdao Pessoal (opiniao propria) e Perdao Pessoal (opiniao sobre os outros), observou-se que os participantes consideraram que perdoariam mais do que os seus colegas. Ja no paradigma 2, do qual participaram 129 pessoas, buscava verificar se os individuos se descreviam de modo mais positivo quando comparados a outras pessoas. De fato, isto foi comprovado, com os escores das imagens positivas sendo maiores do que os das imagens negativas, tanto com relacao ao perdao Pessoal quanto ao perdao Geral. Por fim, 286 pessoas participaram do paradigma 3. Este demonstrou que quanto maior o nivel de exigencia do perdao, tanto maior a media das valencias positivas e menor a das valencias negativas (adjetivos descrevendo a pessoa ficticia). Em suma, por meio dos tres paradigmas aqui testados, verificou-se a normatividade do perdao, com as medias do perdao Pessoal sendo mais altas do que do perdao Geral. Isso quer dizer que o mesmo e compartilhado e aprovado ou desaprovado pelos outros. Assim, estima-se que esta tese cumpriu com os seus objetivos, fornecendo quatro medidas de resolucao de problemas interpessoais, uma completa e outra reduzida, que podem ser utilizadas em novos estudos relacionados ao perdao e testando, por meio de tres paradigmas, a normatividade do perdao.
  • WILLYANS GARCIA COELHO
  • MODULAÇÃO DA EMPATIA: UM ESTUDO CORRELACIONAL ENTRE NÍVEL SUBJETIVO DE EMPATIA E RESPOSTA ELETROFISIOLÓGICA A EXPRESSÕES EMOCIONAIS EM ADULTOS
  • Fecha: 21-feb-2018
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a correlacao entre o nivel de empatia e a resposta eletrofisiologica do cortex cerebral a estimulos audiovisuais com faces humanas que expressavam diferentes tipos de emocoes. A empatia e um processo que possibilita a partilha de estados emocionais e a compreensao do sentimento de outras pessoas, envolvendo aspectos afetivos e cognitivos. Pesquisas da area de Neurociencias Cognitivas Sociais que utilizam eletroencefalografia (EEG) apontaram que, diante de estimulos com expressoes emocionais, as duas dimensoes da empatia podem ser identificadas de forma distintas no potencial relacionado a eventos (ERP). Enquanto a empatia afetiva relaciona-se com a resposta rapida (componentes P100 e N170), o aspecto cognitivo da empatia pode ser verificado atraves do potencial positivo tardio (componentes P300 e LPP). Neste estudo, 18 participantes foram expostos a expressoes emocionais de alegria, raiva e tristeza, atraves de diferentes estimulos audiovisuais, e responderam a Escala de Empatia de Davis – Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), composta por quatro sub-escalas, sendo duas cognitivas, Tomada de Perspectiva (TP) e Fantasia (FS), e duas afetivas, Angustia Pessoal (AP) e Consideracao Empatica (CE). A atividade eletrofisiologica foi medida atraves de um sistema de eletroencefalograma (EEG) de 32 canais. Os resultados indicam que ocorreram correlacoes significativas entre o nivel de empatia, especificamente na dimensao Tomada de Perspectiva, e todos os componentes do ERP avaliados, a saber, P100 na regiao occipital (Oz | r = -0,73), N170 na regiao temporal (TP9 | r = 0,72), P300 na regiao centro parietal (Cz | r = 0,58) e LPP na regiao frontal (Fz | r = 0,71). Dessa forma, conclui-se que o nivel de empatia do participante, avaliado atraves da escala subjetiva de empatia, esta associado a diferentes padroes de resposta eletrofisiologica do cortex cerebral em todos os componentes investigados.
  • WILLYANS GARCIA COELHO
  • MODULAÇÃO DA EMPATIA: UM ESTUDO CORRELACIONAL ENTRE NÍVEL SUBJETIVO DE EMPATIA E RESPOSTA ELETROFISIOLÓGICA A EXPRESSÕES EMOCIONAIS EM ADULTOS
  • Fecha: 21-feb-2018
  • Hora: 08:30
  • Mostrar Resumen
  • O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a correlacao entre o nivel de empatia e a resposta eletrofisiologica do cortex cerebral a estimulos audiovisuais com faces humanas que expressavam diferentes tipos de emocoes. A empatia e um processo que possibilita a partilha de estados emocionais e a compreensao do sentimento de outras pessoas, envolvendo aspectos afetivos e cognitivos. Pesquisas da area de Neurociencias Cognitivas Sociais que utilizam eletroencefalografia (EEG) apontaram que, diante de estimulos com expressoes emocionais, as duas dimensoes da empatia podem ser identificadas de forma distintas no potencial relacionado a eventos (ERP). Enquanto a empatia afetiva relaciona-se com a resposta rapida (componentes P100 e N170), o aspecto cognitivo da empatia pode ser verificado atraves do potencial positivo tardio (componentes P300 e LPP). Neste estudo, 18 participantes foram expostos a expressoes emocionais de alegria, raiva e tristeza, atraves de diferentes estimulos audiovisuais, e responderam a Escala de Empatia de Davis – Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), composta por quatro sub-escalas, sendo duas cognitivas, Tomada de Perspectiva (TP) e Fantasia (FS), e duas afetivas, Angustia Pessoal (AP) e Consideracao Empatica (CE). A atividade eletrofisiologica foi medida atraves de um sistema de eletroencefalograma (EEG) de 32 canais. Os resultados indicam que ocorreram correlacoes significativas entre o nivel de empatia, especificamente na dimensao Tomada de Perspectiva, e todos os componentes do ERP avaliados, a saber, P100 na regiao occipital (Oz | r = -0,73), N170 na regiao temporal (TP9 | r = 0,72), P300 na regiao centro parietal (Cz | r = 0,58) e LPP na regiao frontal (Fz | r = 0,71). Dessa forma, conclui-se que o nivel de empatia do participante, avaliado atraves da escala subjetiva de empatia, esta associado a diferentes padroes de resposta eletrofisiologica do cortex cerebral em todos os componentes investigados.
2017
Descripción
  • LAYRTTHON CARLOS DE OLIVEIRA SANTOS
  • MOTIVAÇÕES PARA ALIMENTAÇÃO (NÃO) SAUDÁVEL: CONTRIBUIÇÕES DOS VALORES HUMANOS, IMAGEM CORPORAL E AUTOCONTROLE
  • Fecha: 18-dic-2017
  • Hora: 10:00
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  • Esta tese objetivou conhecer as motivacoes por tras da alimentacao saudavel e nao saudavel, desenvolver medidas para mensura-las e verificar como o autocontrole, valores humanos e imagem corporal se relacionam a elas. Foram elaborados tres capitulos. No Capitulo 1, objetivou-se explorar sob um enfoque qualitativo as referidas motivacoes. Participaram 205 estudantes universitarios que responderam a um questionario com perguntas abertas sobre as razoes que os levaram a consumir alimentos saudaveis ou nao saudaveis. Os resultados das Analises de Classificacao Hierarquica Descendente mostraram cinco motivos relacionados ao consumo de alimentos saudaveis (perda de peso, sentir-se bem, prevencao de doencas, necessidades do organismo e beneficios) e outros cinco ao de nao saudaveis (desejo, ocasioes diversas, falta de tempo, praticidade e vantagens). O capitulo 2 objetivou desenvolver a Escala de Motivacoes para Alimentacao Saudavel (EMAS) e a Escala de Motivacoes para Alimentacao Nao Saudavel (EMANS), e reunir evidencias de validade e precisao das mesmas, sendo dividido em duas etapas. Na etapa 1 participaram 208 universitarios, os quais responderam as versoes iniciais das medidas. Analises fatoriais exploratorias indicaram estruturas de tres fatores tanto para a EMAS [Prevencao de doencas (5 itens, α = 0,93), Perda de peso (5 itens, α = 0,91) e Vitalidade (5 itens, α = 0,91)] quanto para a EMANS [Falta de tempo (5 itens, α = 0,89), Desejo (5 itens, α = 0,89) e Interacao social (5 itens, α = 0,83)]. Na etapa 2 participaram outros 229 universitarios, os quais responderam as versoes finais da EMAS e da EMANS. Os resultados confirmaram tanto o modelo fatorial da EMAS (e.g., CFI = 0,96, TLI = 0,95) quanto o da EMANS (e.g., CFI = 0,95, TLI = 0,93), os quais tambem se apresentaram invariantes em relacao ao sexo dos participantes (ΔCFI < 0,010; ΔRMSEA < 0,015). Finalmente, o Capitulo 3 pretendeu conhecer a relacao entre o autocontrole, valores humanos e imagem corporal com as motivacoes para a alimentacao saudavel e nao saudavel, bem como desenvolver modelos explicativos dessas. Contou-se com uma amostra de 391 pessoas da populacao geral que responderam os seguintes instrumentos: Escala de Investimento Corporal, Escala de Avaliacao da Satisfacao com a Imagem Corporal, Escala de Motivacoes para Alimentacao Saudavel, Escala de Motivacoes para Alimentacao Nao Saudavel, Questionario dos Valores Basicos e o Brief Self-Control Scale. Em linhas gerais, os resultados indicaram que um maior nivel de autocontrole, valores sociais e centrais e uma maior satisfacao com a imagem corporal estao relacionados a uma maior motivacao para a alimentacao saudavel, enquanto um baixo autocontrole, valores pessoais e uma menor satisfacao com a imagem corporal estao relacionados a uma maior motivacao para a alimentacao nao saudavel. O modelo explicativo das motivacoes para a alimentacao saudavel a partir do autocontrole, valores sociais e cuidado corporal apresentou indicadores de ajuste satisfatorios (e.g., CFI = 0,95, TLI = 0,93) que indicaram sua plausibilidade. Diante desses resultados, confia-se que os objetivos da tese tenham sido alcancados. Foram exploradas em um enfoque qualitativo as motivacoes para a alimentacao saudavel e nao saudavel, desenvolvidas duas medidas parcimoniosas e com bons indicadores de validade de construto e fidedignidade, e conhecidas as relacoes dessas motivacoes com o autocontrole, valores humanos e imagem corporal. Decerto, estes achados contribuem para a literatura sobre a tematica no cenario brasileiro.
  • TACIANA DUARTE DE QUEIROZ BRITO
  • INVESTIGAÇÃO DO PADRÃO DE FIXAÇÃO DO MOVIMENTO OCULAR DURANTE A DETECÇÃO DE SINAIS DA MENTIRA EM ADULTOS
  • Fecha: 28-nov-2017
  • Hora: 13:00
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  • A mentira e uma tematica de grande relevancia pois trata-se de um comportamento aparentemente recorrente que esta presente em grau e intensidade diferente na humanidade, com algumas excecoes dependendo do seguimento da populacao. Talvez por isto, os pesquisadores tem procurado desenvolver e aprimorar tecnicas para deteccao da mentira a partir de sinais verbais e nao verbais. O objetivo geral desta pesquisa foi utilizar o rastreamento ocular de videos com e sem conteudo de mentira, interpretados por alvos do sexo masculino e feminino, para investigar o padrao do movimento ocular na deteccao de sinais da mentira, em adultos jovens. Utilizou-se um delineamento experimental com medidas repetidas com duas condicoes: condicao controle (videos com alvos falando verdade) e condicao experimental (videos com alvos falando mentira), em ordem contrabalanceada. Os videos utilizados como estimulos continham faces de pessoas (alvos) que falavam verdade ou mentira. O rastreamento dos movimentos oculares dos participantes foi realizado com um Eye Tracker Tobii modelo TX300. Participaram do estudo 16 universitarios (oito homens e oito mulheres) do curso de psicologia, da UFPB. Inicialmente, os participantes assinaram o Termo de Consentimento (TCLE) e em seguida responderam na ordem o questionario sociodemografico, o teste de acuidade visual (optotipos E de Rasquin) e as escalas de ansiedade e depressao de Beck. A tarefa de deteccao de mentira iniciou com as instrucoes e calibracao do eye tracker. Em seguida, cada participante assistiu quatro videos monitorado com o eye tracker, com intervalos de 30 segundos entre eles, onde julgava se o video era verdadeiro ou falso em uma folha de resposta. O padrao do movimento ocular para cada video e as respostas foram agrupados em planilha de acordo com a condicao e analisados com o software SPSS versao 21. De acordo com os criterios de normalidade (teste Shapiro-Wilk) os dados foram analisados com uma ANOVA fatorial mista, para avaliar os efeitos principais e de interacao das variaveis dentre e entre participantes. Os resultados do padrao de movimento ocular demonstraram que houve diferencas significativas quanto ao numero de fixacoes entre os videos de verdade e mentira, pois verificou um efeito de interacao [F (1, 14) = 6,02, p = 0,028, e η2 = 0,30)] e um efeito principal do tipo de video [F (1, 14) = 72,78, p = 0,001, η2 = 0,84)]. Este efeito demonstrou um maior numero de fixacoes quando o video era de verdade (M = 129,53) do que quando o video era de mentira (M = 78,37). Considerando as diferencas entre as areas de interesse da face (nariz, boca e olhos) por tipo de video (verdade e mentira), a que obteve maior numero de fixacoes pelos participantes foi a area do nariz nos videos de mentira e verdade, com alvo do sexo masculino. Ja para o sexo feminino, a area de maior interesse foi o nariz com maior numero de fixacao no video de verdade e a boca em relacao a duracao da fixacao. A analise categorica dos sinais da mentira (DePaulo et al., 2003) revelou ainda que 83 % dos sinais detectados pelos participantes foram relacionados as expressoes faciais nao-verbais. Em ordem decrescente, os sinais de mentira identificados pelos participantes foram: expressoes faciais contrarias a fala como nojo, alegria, microexpressoes: mexer o canto da boca, apertar os olhos (33,5 %); sorrisos falsos e nervosismo (29 %); a direcao do olhar como olhar para os lados e desvio do olhar (19 %); seriedade (9,5 %); esforco cognitivo como respostas prolongadas, pensar muito para responder e pausas (4,5 %) e falta de entusiasmo (4,5 %). Portanto, os resultados sugerem que o padrao de rastreamento ocular na deteccao de mentiras difere significativamente de acordo com as areas de interesse da face e o tipo de video. E, que a face pode demonstrar sinais da mentira atraves das expressoes faciais dos alvos, principalmente pelos sinais nao-verbais.
  • TACIANA DUARTE DE QUEIROZ BRITO
  • INVESTIGAÇÃO DO PADRÃO DE FIXAÇÃO DO MOVIMENTO OCULAR DURANTE A DETECÇÃO DE SINAIS DA MENTIRA EM ADULTOS
  • Fecha: 28-nov-2017
  • Hora: 13:00
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  • A mentira e uma tematica de grande relevancia pois trata-se de um comportamento aparentemente recorrente que esta presente em grau e intensidade diferente na humanidade, com algumas excecoes dependendo do seguimento da populacao. Talvez por isto, os pesquisadores tem procurado desenvolver e aprimorar tecnicas para deteccao da mentira a partir de sinais verbais e nao verbais. O objetivo geral desta pesquisa foi utilizar o rastreamento ocular de videos com e sem conteudo de mentira, interpretados por alvos do sexo masculino e feminino, para investigar o padrao do movimento ocular na deteccao de sinais da mentira, em adultos jovens. Utilizou-se um delineamento experimental com medidas repetidas com duas condicoes: condicao controle (videos com alvos falando verdade) e condicao experimental (videos com alvos falando mentira), em ordem contrabalanceada. Os videos utilizados como estimulos continham faces de pessoas (alvos) que falavam verdade ou mentira. O rastreamento dos movimentos oculares dos participantes foi realizado com um Eye Tracker Tobii modelo TX300. Participaram do estudo 16 universitarios (oito homens e oito mulheres) do curso de psicologia, da UFPB. Inicialmente, os participantes assinaram o Termo de Consentimento (TCLE) e em seguida responderam na ordem o questionario sociodemografico, o teste de acuidade visual (optotipos E de Rasquin) e as escalas de ansiedade e depressao de Beck. A tarefa de deteccao de mentira iniciou com as instrucoes e calibracao do eye tracker. Em seguida, cada participante assistiu quatro videos monitorado com o eye tracker, com intervalos de 30 segundos entre eles, onde julgava se o video era verdadeiro ou falso em uma folha de resposta. O padrao do movimento ocular para cada video e as respostas foram agrupados em planilha de acordo com a condicao e analisados com o software SPSS versao 21. De acordo com os criterios de normalidade (teste Shapiro-Wilk) os dados foram analisados com uma ANOVA fatorial mista, para avaliar os efeitos principais e de interacao das variaveis dentre e entre participantes. Os resultados do padrao de movimento ocular demonstraram que houve diferencas significativas quanto ao numero de fixacoes entre os videos de verdade e mentira, pois verificou um efeito de interacao [F (1, 14) = 6,02, p = 0,028, e η2 = 0,30)] e um efeito principal do tipo de video [F (1, 14) = 72,78, p = 0,001, η2 = 0,84)]. Este efeito demonstrou um maior numero de fixacoes quando o video era de verdade (M = 129,53) do que quando o video era de mentira (M = 78,37). Considerando as diferencas entre as areas de interesse da face (nariz, boca e olhos) por tipo de video (verdade e mentira), a que obteve maior numero de fixacoes pelos participantes foi a area do nariz nos videos de mentira e verdade, com alvo do sexo masculino. Ja para o sexo feminino, a area de maior interesse foi o nariz com maior numero de fixacao no video de verdade e a boca em relacao a duracao da fixacao. A analise categorica dos sinais da mentira (DePaulo et al., 2003) revelou ainda que 83 % dos sinais detectados pelos participantes foram relacionados as expressoes faciais nao-verbais. Em ordem decrescente, os sinais de mentira identificados pelos participantes foram: expressoes faciais contrarias a fala como nojo, alegria, microexpressoes: mexer o canto da boca, apertar os olhos (33,5 %); sorrisos falsos e nervosismo (29 %); a direcao do olhar como olhar para os lados e desvio do olhar (19 %); seriedade (9,5 %); esforco cognitivo como respostas prolongadas, pensar muito para responder e pausas (4,5 %) e falta de entusiasmo (4,5 %). Portanto, os resultados sugerem que o padrao de rastreamento ocular na deteccao de mentiras difere significativamente de acordo com as areas de interesse da face e o tipo de video. E, que a face pode demonstrar sinais da mentira atraves das expressoes faciais dos alvos, principalmente pelos sinais nao-verbais.
  • ELIS AMANDA ATANASIO DA SILVA
  • "A mão que afaga é a mesma que apedreja": preconceitos e percepções de vulnerabilidades de profissionais de saúde frente às pessoas que vivem com HIV/Aids
  • Fecha: 16-oct-2017
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • Desde o seu advento na decada de 80 que a aids passa por inumeras metaforas que legitimam processos de estigma, preconceito e discriminacao frente as pessoas acometidas, tornando-se tal fato uma limitacao aos esforcos da prevencao e tratamento da doenca. Deste modo, as pessoas que vivem com HIV/Aids tendem a sofrer uma dupla vitimizacao: a primeira, causada pela enfermidade em si com suas consequencias psicofisiologicas; e a segunda que diz respeito ao preconceito vivenciado, marginalizando-as na sociedade. O preconceito se caracteriza como uma forma de relacao intergrupal organizada em torno das relacoes de poder entre grupos, produzindo representacoes ideologicas que justificam a expressao de atitudes negativas e depreciativas, bem como a expressao de comportamentos hostis em relacao aos membros de grupos minoritarios. Assim, os preconceitos tem componentes cognitivos (as crencas e os estigmas), afetivos (sentimentos, emocoes, antipatias e aversoes) e disposicionais (motivacao para agir ou tendencias para a discriminacao). Diante do exposto, tem-se como objetivo geral analisar os preconceitos e as percepcoes de vulnerabilidades individual, social e programatica de profissionais de saude frente as pessoas que vivem com HIV/aids. Para tanto, contou-se com a realizacao de tres estudos empiricos, tendo uma amostra nao-probabilistica por conveniencia, composta por 31 profissionais de saude atuantes na Paraiba, sendo 16 da atencao basica e 15 dos servicos de atencao especializada em HIV/aids, distribuidos equitativamente nas profissoes de enfermagem e medicina. A maioria dos participantes sao do sexo feminino, com as idades variando de 25 a 64 anos (M = 41,3; DP = 12,6), casados e catolicos. Foram utilizados tres instrumentos que se complementaram: teste de associacao livre de palavras; entrevista semi-estruturada e um questionario sociodemografico. A partir dos dados do Estudo I, de carater quantitativo e exploratorio, cujo objetivo foi identificar as crencas dos profissionais de saude frente as pessoas que vivem com HIV/aids, obteve-se duas categorias: crencas cognitivas (psicossocial e clinica) e crencas afetivas (sofrimento e preconceito), havendo a presenca de crencas paternalistas, assistencialistas e negativas sobre as pessoas soropositivas, a exemplo das evocacoes tristeza, medo, preocupacao, complicado e desinformacao. Verificou-se ainda a presenca de estigmas e estereotipos, bem como a responsabilizacao dos soropositivos pelo contagio. Ja o Estudo II, qualitativo, de levantamento e descritivo, teve como objetivo analisar o estigma, o preconceito e as narrativas de discriminacao dos profissionais de saude frente as pessoas que vivem com HIV. Aqui surgiram tres classes tematicas: I) Componente cognitivo do preconceito, a qual deu voz a categoria crencas estigmatizantes, com seis subcategorias (silencio; sentenca de morte; periculosidade; isolamento social; promiscuidade e corpo marcado); II) Componente afetivo do preconceito, na qual emergiu a categoria sentimentos dos profissionais de saude frente as PVHA, com tres subcategorias: pena, medo e tristeza; e III) Componente disposicional do preconceito, que trouxe tres categorias: Discriminacao nos servicos frente a PVHA; Discriminacao nos servicos frente ao profissional de saude e Discriminacao justificada, respectivamente. As tres classes tematicas que surgiram demonstram a forma que os profissionais de saude pensam, sentem e orientam suas acoes, fundamentados na atitude preconceituosa frente ao exogrupo. Por ultimo, o Estudo III, qualitativo e de levantamento, cujo objetivo foi analisar as dimensoes de vulnerabilidades individual, social e programatica que os profissionais de saude situam as pessoas que vivem com HIV. Emergiu nos resultados uma unica classe tematica denominada Vulnerabilidades, que deu seguimento a tres categorias: vulnerabilidade individual (estilo de vida, responsabilizacao da pessoa soropositiva, falta de informacao e banalizacao da prevencao); vulnerabilidade social (apoio social e discriminacao social) e vulnerabilidade programatica. Portanto, constatou-se que os profissionais de saude de ambas as redes apresentaram preconceito frente as pessoas que vivem com HIV/aids, baseado em crencas estigmatizantes que associa-as a desinformacao, responsabilizacao individual no contagio e estilo de vida devasso, bem como na expressao de sentimentos aparentemente positivos e benevolentes, mas que coloca-as num lugar de passividade, incapacidade e falta de autonomia perante a sociedade e a sua propria vida. Foi notoria a maior associacao dos soropositivos a vulnerabilidade de cunho individual, o que pode gerar um retrocesso na resposta a epidemia, ao admitir-se que a dificuldade reside nos individuos e nao nas relacoes sociais instaladas, colocando em segundo plano a necessidade de mudancas sociais e programaticas.
  • CLÓVIS PEREIRA DA COSTA JÚNIOR
  • Cor da Pele e Oposição à Imigração: o Papel do Preconceito e das Representações Sociais Sobre o Brasil
  • Fecha: 29-ago-2017
  • Hora: 10:00
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  • Esta tese teve por objetivo investigar o papel do preconceito e das representacoes sociais sobre o Brasil, doravante denominadas “mitos fundantes” na relacao entre cor da pele e oposicao a imigracao. Parte-se do pressuposto de que este relacionamento e mediado pelos mitos e moderado pelo nivel de preconceito dos participantes. Para alcancar esse objetivo, tres artigos foram elaborados. O primeiro objetivou reunir evidencias de validade de construto da Escala dos Mitos Fundantes (EMF). Por meio de analises exploratoria e confirmatoria, os resultados mostraram que o instrumento de medida possui parametros estatisticos adequados na solucao com tres fatores. O artigo 2 objetivou investigar o papel mediador das representacoes sociais sobre o Brasil na relacao entre cor da pele e a oposicao a imigracao e analisar estas interacoes a partir a funcao moderadora do preconceito. Os resultados apontaram a ocorrencia de mediacao para os mitos “democracia racial” e “respeito a diversidade cultural”, respectivamente nos niveis alto e baixo do preconceito, indicando que o imigrante negro sofre oposicao a partir da ativacao de mecanismos psicologicos relativos a negacao da democracia racial brasileira e a percepcao de ameaca ao equilibrio cultural do pais. No terceiro artigo, foram analisados os discursos justificadores para a tomada de posicao frente a imigracao, tendo por base a cor da pele do imigrante. Utilizou-se uma abordagem policial excessiva a um imigrante como cenario para apreender as justificativas dos participantes. Os dados foram processados pelo software IRAMUTEQ e revelaram que, na condicao de imigrante branco, nao houveram posicionamentos favoraveis a conduta policial. Ja em relacao ao negro verificou-se a ocorrencia de culpabilizacao desse imigrante, inclusive por meio de adjetivos, tais como bandido e meliante. Em conjunto, os resultados obtidos nesta tese demonstram a importancia da cor da pele como principio organizador dos processos de exclusao social.
  • JOSÉ ANDRADE COSTA FILHO
  • SEXUALIDADE NO CONTEXTO DA PARAPLEGIA: UM ESTUDO DAS REPRESENTAÇÕES SOCIAIS
  • Fecha: 23-ago-2017
  • Hora: 10:00
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  • Partindo da premissa que sexualidade sempre adquiriu conotacoes diversas, em conformidade com os significados e os sentidos que lhe foram e sao atribuidos pela cultura, o termo sexualidade ora se relaciona a atividade sexual (biologico) ora ao papel de genero, influenciando o modo de ser dos individuos socialmente. Segundo a sexualidade e construida a partir do conjunto de instituicoes sociais, culturais, historicas e discursivas mediada pelo dispositivo do sabe – poder, uma vez que a relacao de poder gera normas, controle e vigilia daquilo em que determinada epoca e certo e normal. O corpo e a sexualidade ganham sentido por que existem nas sociedades e sao por elas fabricados, onde os discursos sao responsaveis por regular e normatizar os comportamentos sexuais em determinada epoca e contexto. O corpo deficiente sempre foi visto como negativo em todo transcorrer da historia, por nao corresponder as exigencias minimas para a cooperacao social e para as atividades requeridas ao trabalho, neste sentido as determinacoes historicas, economicas, sociais e culturais, se inscreve no contexto da paraplegia, pois, a mesma se caracteriza como um tipo de deficiencia que atinge a perda das funcoes motoras e sensibilidade das pernas. No que se refere a sexualidade, o desejo na pessoa paraplegica pode sofre alteracoes principalmente em decorrencia de questoes psicologicas e sociais, nao negando a existencia de problemas organicos. Este estudo tem como objetivo geral apreender as representacoes sociais das pessoas com paraplegia acerca da sexualidade. Trata-se de um estudo de campo de carater qualitativo, respaldado pela Teoria das Representacoes Sociais, realizado numa clinica publica, conveniada com o SUS na cidade de Campina Grande e tambem fez-se uso da metodologia bola de neve. A mostra foi composta de 40 participantes (Masculino = 28; Feminino = 12) entre 22 e 57 anos de ambos os sexos, diagnosticada com paraplegia. Como instrumento de coleta foram utilizados um Questionario Biopsicodemografico, analisado pelo Software SPSS 19.0 Estatistica Descritiva, uma Entrevista semi estruturada, analisada pelo software Alceste, PASW versao 18 e a Tecnica de Associacao Livre de Palavras(TALP) pelo software Trideux Mots. Os resultados apontam uma media de idade de 31,78 anos e um Desvio Padrao de 8, 636, uma predominante do sexo masculino, escolaridade de 50% que cursaram o Ensino Fundamental, estado civil solteiro (77%) sendo 80% por paraplegia adquirida, tendo como causa maior acidentes automobilisticos( moto e carro) e como nivel neurologico principal a lombar. As Representacoes Sociais acerca da sexualidade estao relacionada a notoria a re-significacao da sexualidade, diferenciando sexo e sexualidade, quando consideram sexualidade como um conceito mais amplo, que envolve relacionamento entre duas pessoas, atracao, carinho, prazer e envolvimento sexual, onde o sexo nao esta relacionado apenas ao prazer genital, tambem ligada a atracao, desejo, ao feminino e ao masculino, no sentido de encontrar o amor. Neste sentido a sexualidade refere-se a uma pessoa como um todo, seus pensamentos, sentimentos, atitudes e comportamentos com relacao a propria pessoa e aos outros., nao deixando de levar em consideracao a historicidade de cada pessoa, pois esta compreensao subjetiva da sexualidade diz respeito a vivencia emocional, nao podendo deixar de ser mediada pela sociedade , onde as pessoas com paraplegia depende do processo de socializacao, experimentacao e esclarecimento e informacoes a respeito de viverem a sua sexualidade.
  • IRIA RAQUEL BORGES WIESE
  • ATITUDES E VULNERABILIDADES FRENTE AO ABORTO PROVOCADO EM CONTEXTOS DE LEGALIDADE E ILEGALIDADE
  • Fecha: 01-ago-2017
  • Hora: 10:00
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  • Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar os valores, crencas de genero, atitudes e vulnerabilidades associados ao aborto provocado em contextos de ilegalidade (Brasil – Paraiba) e legalidade (Uruguai – Montevideu). Partiu-se dos seguintes questionamentos: Podem os valores e as crencas de genero predizerem as atitudes favoraveis e contrarias ao direito aborto provocado? Quais as vulnerabilidades estao implicadas nessa pratica, tanto no contexto de ilegalidade quanto no de legalidade, e como elas influenciam nas vivencias e significados das mulheres? A tese a ser defendida, a qual foi analisada a partir de um modelo teorico, e a de que as atitudes frente ao direito ao aborto provocado podem ser explicadas pelos valores psicossociais e crencas de genero de uma sociedade. Tais atitudes, contrarias ou favoraveis, demarcam contextos de ilegalidade e legalidade, respectivamente, os quais reduzem, reproduzem ou aumentam as situacoes de vulnerabilidades experimentadas pelas mulheres que praticam aborto, podendo influenciar na sua vivencia e sentidos. A fim de responder a tese e o objetivo geral apresentados, foram realizados tres estudos. O estudo 1 consistiu na traducao, adaptacao e validacao dos instrumentos de medida (Gender Attitude Inventory – GAI e Questionarios de Valores Psicossociais – QVP-24) utilizados no estudo 2. Este, por sua vez, tambem de natureza quantitativa, teve como finalidade analisar um modelo preditivo das atitudes de estudantes universitarios, em ambos os contextos, frente ao direito ao aborto provocado, tendo como variaveis explicativas os valores psicossociais e as crencas de genero. Por fim, o estudo 3 (de natureza qualitativa) objetivou, de forma independente, identificar e analisar os elementos que reduzem, reproduzem ou aumentam determinadas vulnerabilidades implicadas no aborto provocado a partir do discurso das mulheres que o praticaram. Ao mesmo tempo, pretendeu-se investigar como tais contextos (de legalidade e ilegalidade) refletem na experiencia e sentidos produzidos pelas mulheres que provocaram aborto. Ao buscar identificar os valores, crencas de genero, atitudes e vulnerabilidades associados ao aborto provocado, pretende-se levantar elementos que poderao dar subsidios para a promocao da saude, buscando um olhar para outras dimensoes na assistencia. Participaram do estudo 1 e do estudo 2 398 estudantes universitarios brasileiros, acessados em universidades publicas e privadas do estado da Paraiba, sendo 50,8% do sexo masculino e 49,2% do sexo feminino, 39,4% estudantes da area de exatas, 33,2% de humanas e 27,4% de saude, com media de idade de 24,7 anos (DP = 6,8), bem como 384 estudantes uruguaios, sendo 46,1% do sexo masculino e 53,9% do sexo feminino, 44% da area de humanas, 41,9% de exatas e 14,1% de saude, com media de idade de 22,71 anos (DP = 4,6). Os questionarios foram adaptados e validados analisando-se as suas evidencias psicometricas. Para tanto, foi empregada a Analise Fatorial Exploratoria, utilizando-se o metodo de Analise dos Componentes Principais (ACP) com a finalidade de localizar dimensoes subjacentes ao conjunto de dados coletados, isto e, os fatores. Apos a validacao desses instrumentos de medida, procedeu-se o estudo 2. Na analise do modelo preditivo das atitudes frente ao direito ao aborto provocado observaram-se diferencas entre os dois contextos legislativos pesquisados. No contexto de ilegalidade (Brasil – Paraiba), as variaveis que explicaram as atitudes frente ao direito ao aborto provocado foram: o sistema religioso (23%), as crencas modernas no que diz respeito a iniciativa sexual tanto por homens como mulheres (8%), o sistema de valor hedonista (3%) e as crencas modernas (construtivistas) em relacao as diferencas nos papeis familiares e sexuais (1%). Diferentemente do Uruguai, o sistema de valor religioso foi a variavel que melhor explicou as atitudes em questao, num sentido negativo, ou seja, quanto mais religioso, menor as atitudes favoraveis ao direito ao aborto provocado. No contexto de legalidade (Uruguai – Montevideu), quatro variaveis explicaram as atitudes em relacao ao direito ao aborto provocado: liberdade sexual feminina (18%), religiosidade (7%), diferenca nos papeis profissionais (4%) e diferenca nos papeis familiares e sexuais (2%). Observou-se que as crencas de genero foram a variavel que melhor explicou a variancia das atitudes frente ao direito ao aborto provocado, mais especificamente o fator liberdade sexual feminina. Por fim, participaram do estudo 3 17 mulheres uruguaias e 13 mulheres brasileiras que provocaram aborto, as quais responderam a uma entrevista semiestruturada, utilizando uma metodologia baseada no metodo de cenas, o qual considera a subjetividade das pessoas e seu contexto sociocultural. Os dados foram analisados com base na categorizacao tematica. Emergiram, para ambos os contextos, quatro categorias, as quais se referem as cenas de interesse deste estudo, a saber: o momento da relacao sexual que gerou a gestacao nao planejada e indesejada, representada pela categoria nomeada de “Relacao afetivo-sexual e direitos sexuais e reprodutivos”, passando pela “Descoberta da gravidez e trajetoria”, pela “Decisao pelo aborto e trajetoria” e, por fim, a “Vivencia pos-aborto”. Observou-se, de forma geral que a subjetividade social, historicamente configurada em cenarios sociais e, ao mesmo tempo, individuais, ressoaram sobre as vulnerabilidades, a experiencia e sentidos das mulheres que provocaram aborto no contexto de legalidade e ilegalidade.
  • LARISSE HELENA G MACEDO BARBOSA
  • ATITUDES FRENTE ÀS VÍTIMAS DE ESTUPRO: O PAPEL DE VARIÁVEIS SOCIOCULTURAIS E SÓCIOPSICOLÓGICAS
  • Fecha: 19-jun-2017
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • A presente tese objetivou avaliar diferentes aspectos das atitudes frente as vitimas de estupro e suas relacoes com tracos de personalidade, valores humanos, honra e machismo. Para tanto, foram elaborados um artigo teorico e quatro empiricos. O Artigo 1 discutiu o estupro, focando nas atitudes frente as vitimas, e as consequencias psicologicas e socioculturais dessas atitudes. Em seguida, foram realizados dois estudos empiricos (artigo 2) e (artigo 3) de adaptacao e validacao de instrumentos psicologicos para o contexto brasileiro. Precisamente, O Artigo 2 realizou o processo de validacao e comprovacao da estrutura da Escala de Atitudes frente a vitima de estupro (EAVE) por meio de dois estudos; no primeiro, participaram 200 pessoas, com media de idade de 21,8 anos (DP = 5,27), no qual, foi realizada uma analise dos componentes principais apontando uma estrutura de tres componentes que explicaram conjuntamente 39,02% da variancia total, apresentando indices de consistencia interna adequados, como seguem: credibilidade da vitima (α = 0,82), merecimento da vitima (α = 0,80) e culpa da vitima (α = 0,60). Do Estudo 2 participaram 231 estudantes universitarios, apresentando media de idade de 21,6 anos (DP=4,02), efetivou-se uma analise fatorial confirmatoria que corroborou a estrutura trifatorial [e.g., GFI = 0,86, RMSEA=0,05 (IC90% = 0,044-0,062)] dessa medida. O Artigo 3 objetivou adaptar a Escala de Machismo Sexual para o contexto brasileiro, reunindo evidencias de seus parametros psicometricos, sendo tambem composto de dois Estudos. Participaram 231 estudantes universitarios (Estudo 1) e 200 pessoas da populacao geral (Estudo 2), com medias de idade de 21,6 (DP = 4,02) e 21,8 (DP = 5,27), respectivamente. Como resultados, encontou-se uma solucao unifatorial, com indicadores de consistencia interna satisfatorios (α = 0,81 e α = 0,76) e validade convergente com os fatores Sexismo Hostil e Sexismo Benevolo da Escala de Sexismo Ambivalente. Ademais, uma analise fatorial confirmatoria corroborou tal dimensao preconizada [e.g., CFI = 0,97 e RMSEA = 0,02 (IC90% = 0,075-0,104)]. Dessa forma, conclui-se que tanto a EAVE quando a Escala de Machismo Sexual apresentaram evidencias de validade fatorial e consistencia interna, mostrando-se assim psicometricamente adequadas para utilizacao nos estudos posteriores da presente tese. O Artigo 4 avaliou os correlatos das atitudes frente as vitimas de estupro, construindo um modelo explicativo tendo, como variaveis independentes o machismo, a preocupacao com a honra, os valores humanos e os tracos de personalidade. Utilizando uma amostra de 212 pessoas da cidade de Patos-PB, com media de idade de 24,9 (DP = 9,58). A partir da realizacao de regressoes lineares, propos-se um modelo explicativo no qual os tracos de personalidade (extroversao e neuroticismo) predisseram os valores (interativo e existencia) e a preocupacao com a honra (honra masculina) e o machismo, e esses por sua vez explicaram as atitudes frente as vitimas de estupro. O modelo apresentou os seguintes indicadores de qualidade: χ²/gl = 2,75, GFI = 0,94, AGFI = 0,90, CFI = 0,87 e RMSEA = 0,09 (IC90% = 0,065 – 0,011); apontando para um ajuste satisfatorio deste modelo. Por fim, o Artigo 5 investigou a relacao entre os valores da vitima, o ambiente onde ela estava e o genero dos respondentes da pesquisa. Participaram 200 pessoas, com media de idade de 22,4 anos (DP = 8,37) que apos a leitura de cenarios de estupro de uma mulher, responderam, questoes relativas a situacao de violencia descrita no cenario. Os resultados demonstraram que quando a mulher e descrita como priorizando os valores de experimentacao, o homem tende a ser culpabilizado em menor medida pelo estupro do que quando a mulher e descrita como endossando valores normativos ou interativos. Confia-se ter contribuido para a literatura na area, fornecendo duas medidas breves, especificamente uma de avaliacao das atitudes frente as vitimas de estupro e outra de machismo, foi construindo um modelo explicativo das atitudes frente as vitimas de estupro, bem como, verificou-se a influencia dos valores humanos na culpabilizacao do estupro.
  • KAREN GUEDES OLIVEIRA
  • ATITUDES FRENTE À CRIANÇA COM DEFICIÊNCIA: O PAPEL DOS TRAÇOS DE PERSONALIDADE, DOS ESTILOS PARENTAIS E DOS VALORES HUMANOS
  • Fecha: 19-jun-2017
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • A presente tese objetivou conhecer em que medida os tracos de personalidade, os estilos parentais e os valores humanos predizem as atitudes de criancas frente aos seus pares com deficiencia. A fim de alcancar o objetivo proposto, foram realizados quatro estudos. O Estudo 1 objetivou conhecer as evidencias de validade da Chedoke-McMaster Attitudes towards Children with Handicaps Scale – CATCH (Escala de Atitudes frente a Crianca com Deficiencia - EAFCD) para o contexto brasileiro. Participaram 304 criancas de 7 a 12 anos (M= 9,75, DP= 1,63), a maioria do sexo feminino (57,9%), estudantes do segundo ao setimo ano do Ensino Fundamental de escolas da rede privada, situadas em uma capital nordestina. Todas as criancas responderam a EAFCD, em sua versao original com 36 itens e aos dados demograficos. Foi encontrada uma estrutura trifatorial, com sete itens cada, com os alfas de Cronbach variando entre 0,60 e 0,81. O Estudo 2 objetivou replicar a estrutura fatorial descrita no estudo anterior, a fim de conhecer as evidencias de validade fatorial e consistencia interna da EAFCD no contexto do interior do estado. Especificamente, objetivou-se avaliar a congruencia entre a estrutura fatorial resultante da amostra proveniente da capital e do interior. Para tanto, participaram 196 criancas com a mesma escolaridade e faixa etaria do estudo supracitado, sendo criancas residentes em cidade do interior do estado, com idade media de 10,7 anos (DP= 0,88), 50% do sexo masculino e 50% do sexo feminino. Os participantes responderam a EAFCD, com 21 itens, obtida por meio do estudo 1, Os resultados indicaram que por meio dos criterios de Catell e Horn, a medida apresentou uma estrutura tridimensional, com componentes relacionados a integracao social (α =0,85), isolamento social (α =0,65) e alta valoracao (α =0,54), sugerindo uma estrutura da EAFCD reduzida em 18 itens, bem como apresentou otimos indices de congruencia fatorial (variando de 0,93 a 0,99). Os achados sugeriram evidencias de validade e propriedades psicometricas adequadas do instrumento para seu uso no contexto brasileiro. Desse modo, o Estudo 3 foi realizado objetivando a analise confirmatoria da EAFCD. A amostra foi composta por 200 criancas com idade media de 9,89 anos (DP= 1,30), a maioria do sexo feminino (59,5%), estudantes do 2º ao 7º ano do Ensino Fundamental. Quanto a adequacao da dimensionalidade do instrumento, corroborou-se sua estrutura trifatorial com indicadores satisfatorios de ajuste: χ2/gl = 1,37, GFI = 0,99, AGFI = 0,99, RMSEA = 0,01 (IC90% = 0,015-0,0,62). Ressalta-se que todos os pesos fatoriais (lambdas) foram estatisticamente diferentes de zero (λ ≠ 0; z > 1,96, p < 0,05). Por ultimo, o Estudo 4 buscou a elaboracao de um modelo teorico explicativo das atitudes investigadas nos estudos supracitados. Participaram 314 criancas, com idade media de 9,96 anos (DP= 1,52), a maioria do sexo feminino (54,1%). Conclui-se que as atitudes frente a crianca com deficiencia podem ser explicadas pelo traco de personalidade “amabilidade”, estilo parental “autoritativo” e pela subfuncao valorativa “realizacao”.
  • ANA RAQUEL DE OLIVEIRA
  • Avaliação do rastreamento ocular e neurocognitiva de homens e mulheres expostos a solventes orgânicos
  • Fecha: 31-may-2017
  • Hora: 13:00
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  • O objetivo desta tese foi avaliar o rastreamento ocular e funcoes neurocognitivas de homens e mulheres com e sem exposicao a mistura de solventes organicos. Assim, esta tese apresenta-se dividida em dois estudos. Estudo 1: teve o objetivo de registrar o numero e a duracao de fixacoes de individuos com e sem exposicao a mistura de solventes organicos, mais especificamente verificar se a exposicao afeta de forma diferente as respostas de mulheres e homens expostos, correlacionando os resultados a alguns indices de composicao corporea. Participaram 44 voluntarios (M idade = 27,59; DP = 6,34). Foram utilizados o High-Speed Video Eye tracker Toolbox de 250 Hz, analise de bioimpedancia e questionario sociodemografico. Os resultados indicaram que o grupo de estudo apresentou fixacoes mais longas (t = 3,82; p = 0,001; r = 0,51) e duracao significativamente maiores (t = 4,27; p = 0,001, r = 0,54) do que o grupo controle. Entretanto, os resultados nao mostraram diferencas significantes entre mulheres e homens expostos (numero de fixacoes: t = 0,82; p = 0.42; r = 0.03; duracao de fixacoes: t = 0,27; p = 0,79; r = 0,01), assim como nao foram encontradas correlacoes entre o padrao do rastreamento ocular e as medidas de composicao corporal (p > 0,05). Ja o Estudo 2 objetivou avaliar a atencao, funcoes executivas e memoria de curto prazo de individuos com e sem exposicao a mistura de solventes organicos, mais especificamente se a exposicao afeta de forma diferente as respostas de homens e mulheres, correlacionando estes resultados a alguns indices de composicao corporea. Participaram 56 voluntarios (M idade = 27,80; DP = 6,70). Foram utilizados o Trail Making Test (TMT) A e B, Figura Complexa de Rey (FCR) Copia e Memoria, analise de bioimpedancia e questionario sociodemografico. Os resultados indicaram desempenho menor das mulheres expostas em comparacao as nao expostas em todos os testes (p 0,05). Ainda assim, as mulheres expostas apresentaram correlacao significante entre o desempenho no FCR-Copia com agua, peso, massa gorda, massa magra corporal e os homens expostos apresentaram correlacao significante entre o TMT-B com a Relacao Cintura-Quadril (RCQ) e gordura visceral. No geral, considera-se que os solventes organicos podem afetar o movimento ocular de fixacao e funcoes neurocognitivas, mas os efeitos variam conforme os testes neurocognitivos e com o indice de composicao corporea, independentemente do sexo.
  • LIDIANE SILVA DE ARAUJO
  • REPRESENTAÇÕES SOCIAIS DA OBESIDADE: IDENTIDADE E ESTIGMA
  • Fecha: 31-may-2017
  • Hora: 08:30
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  • Esta tese buscou apreender as representacoes sociais (RS) da obesidade elaboradas por diversas pertencas sociais (grupos com historico de obesidade, populacao geral e futuros profissionais de areas relacionadas ao tratamento da obesidade). Ancorada na teoria das representacoes sociais, defende-se que a analise das pertencas sociais e condicao basilar para a apreensao contextualizada das RS da obesidade, painel que viabiliza a compreensao de correlatos psicossociais relevantes implicados na tessitura da obesidade. Nesta tela, tres estudos foram estruturados. Estudo 1. Objetivou comparar as RS da obesidade e da autoimagem elaboradas por 145 pessoas gastroplastias (n=69) e aspirantes a gastroplastia (n=76), a maioria do sexo feminino, com idades de 18 a 60 anos (M=35,05; DP=7,80), membros de grupos virtuais relacionados a cirurgia bariatrica. Utilizou-se como instrumento a TALP (estimulos: "obesidade" e "eu mesmo(a)"), cujas evocacoes foram submetidas a analise lexicografica pelo EVOC. Para os dois grupos, a obesidade foi associada a tristeza, sugerindo uma vulnerabilidade da condicao a assinalamentos depressivos. Alem disso, como doenca estigmatizada, a obesidade foi associada a uma marca moral, cuja vergonha e denunciada pelo proprio corpo, implicando positiva ou negativamente a qualidade da autoimagem dos atores sociais que realizaram ou nao o procedimento cirurgico. Estudo 2. Objetivou conhecer as RS da gordofobia segundo a populacao geral. Realizou-se uma pesquisa documental na internet, cujas opinioes constituiram um corpus textual submetido a analise lexical pelo IRAMUTEQ, desdobrando cinco classes tematicas. Evidenciou-se que a ancoragem da obesidade como doenca epidemica justificou a expressao do preconceito baseado no peso na maioria dos comentarios, muitos dos quais negaram a existencia da gordofobia, destacando, por outro lado, a preocupacao com a saude, identificando as pessoas gordas como inferiores e responsabilizando-as por suas "inadequacoes" corporais. Estudo 3. Objetivou conhecer como futuros profissionais de areas relacionadas ao tratamento da obesidade representam a obesidade e a pessoa com sobrepeso. Participaram 273 estudantes de uma IES publica da cidade de Joao Pessoa-Paraiba, com idades de 18 a 49 anos (M= 22,71; DP = 4,90), distribuidos em cursos de Medicina (n=36,3%), Nutricao (26%), Educacao Fisica (17,6%) e Psicologia (20,1%), os quais responderam a TALP (estimulos "obesidade" e "pessoa gorda"). Embora a tristeza tenha emergido no estudo 1 como nucleo central das RS da obesidade, sinalizando, ainda, outros aspectos subjetivos, psicologicos e sociais relacionados ao tema, no terceiro estudo, no entanto, os futuros profissionais, ancoraram as RS da obesidade, sobretudo, na esfera fisica. Ademais, alguns estereotipos foram associados a pessoa com sobrepeso (feia, doente, engracada, gulosa, preguicosa, entre outros), contribuindo para legitimar praticas discriminatorias e estigmatizantes. Esta realidade, indubitavelmente, desperta uma preocupacao quanto a formacao desses estudantes e seus futuros exercicios profissionais. Espera-se que os estudos conduzidos nesta tese ampliem a producao nacional do conhecimento cientifico sobre o tema, destacando o papel da Psicologia Social, assim como sugestoes de estudos futuros e a viabilidade de politicas publicas no ambito da obesidade.
  • ALEX SANDRO DE MOURA GRANGEIRO
  • DESONESTIDADE ACADÊMICA: O PAPEL MODERADOR DOS VALORES NORMATIVOS NA RELAÇÃO ENTRE AUTOCONTROLE E COMPORTAMENTO DE FRAUDE EM UNIVERSITÁRIOS
  • Fecha: 15-may-2017
  • Hora: 14:00
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  • A presente tese teve por objetivo verificar o papel moderador dos valores normativos na relacao entre autocontrole e comportamento de fraude em universitarios. Para alcancar esse objetivo foram delineados quatro estudos empiricos. No Estudo 1, buscou-se adaptar e reunir evidencia de validade e precisao da Escala de Fraude em Ambiente Academico (EFAA) para o Brasil. Para tanto, contou-se com a participacao de 474 estudantes universitarios (59,3% do sexo feminino; Midade = 21,8). As analises fatoriais exploratorias e confirmatorias demonstraram a adequabilidade da estrutura bifatorial do instrumento. O modelo proposto, composto por 9 itens distribuidos entre os fatores Plagio (KR20 = 0,68) e “Cola” Academica (KR20 = 0,69), apresentou indicadores de ajuste (χ²/gl = 2,13; CFI = 0,88; TLI = 0,84; RMSEA = 0,07) aceitaveis. Os resultados tambem demonstraram a validade convergente da medida. No Estudo 2, buscou-se adaptar e reunir evidencias de validade e precisao da Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS) para o contexto brasileiro. Para tanto, contou-se com a participacao de 565 estudantes universitarios (59,3% do sexo feminino; Midade = 21,8). As analises fatoriais exploratorias e confirmatorias demonstraram a adequabilidade da estrutura bifatorial do instrumento. O modelo proposto, de 10 itens, distribuidos entre os fatores Controle de Impulsos (α = 0,63) e Autodisciplina (α = 0,65), apresentou indicadores de ajuste (χ²/gl = 1,78; CFI = 0,94; TLI = 0,92; RMSEA = 0,05) satisfatorios. Os resultados tambem demonstraram a validade convergente da medida. De posse de instrumentos fidedignos para mensuracao do traco de autocontrole e do comportamento de fraude, procedeu-se o Estudo 3 que teve por objetivo avaliar o papel moderador dos valores normativos na relacao entre autocontrole e comportamento de fraude. Para tanto, contou-se com a participacao de 485 estudantes universitarios (60,6% do sexo feminino; Midade = 22,1). Os resultados indicaram que os coeficientes de regressao do modelo como um todo foram significativamente diferentes de zero (R2= 0,12; F (457,3) = 3,54; p < 0,001). Especificamente, o termo de interacao entre controle de impulsos e valores normativos apresentou efeito significativo sobre o comportamento de fraude (β = -0,14; p <0,01), dando suporte a hipotese de que os valores normativos funcionam como uma variavel moderadora nessa relacao. O controle de impulso previu significativa e negativamente o comportamento de fraude (b = -0.81; p < 0,001) em participantes com altas pontuacoes (+1DP) em valores normativos, enquanto nao demonstrou efeito significativo sobre o comportamento de fraude (b = -0,17; p <0,05) em participantes com baixa pontuacao (-1DP) nesses valores. No entanto, na replicacao quase-experimental desse estudo (Estudo 4), o controle de impulsos e o termo de interacao entre controle de impulsos e saliencia de normatividade (β = -0,08; p < 0,001) nao se mostraram preditores significativos do comportamento de fraude diretamente observado. Com a conclusao desses estudos, acredita-se que os resultados obtidos tragam novos elementos para a compreensao da associacao classica entre auto-controle e comportamento desviante, demonstrando, sobretudo, a relevancia dos valores normativos para a compreensao do comportamento de fraude em ambiente academico.
  • ISABEL CRISTINA VASCONCELOS DE OLIVEIRA
  • Personalidade Virtuosa: evidências psicométricas e correlatos valorativos e pró-sociais
  • Fecha: 08-may-2017
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • A presente tese objetivou elaborar e testar uma medida para avaliar os tracos virtuosos da personalidade (bright side of personality), relacionando-os aos comportamentos pro-sociais, valores humanos e empatia. Para tanto, foram elaborados cinco artigos. No Artigo 1, de natureza teorica, foi proposto um modelo pautado nos tracos: perdao, abdicacao de ressentimentos e julgamentos negativos; gratidao, apreco e reconhecimento de acoes positivas; e, altruismo, beneficio e ajuda a outras pessoas, nos quais foram apresentadas as suas definicoes, caracteristicas e correlatos. O Artigo 2 versou sobre a elaboracao do Inventario de Personalidade Virtuosa (IPV), nos quais foram construidos itens sobre os tres tracos, e respondidos por 467 estudantes universitarios. Uma analise fatorial (PAF) apontou seis fatores que explicaram 55,6% da variancia total, como seguem: remissao (α = 0,83) e incriminacao (α = 0,73), que representam a dimensao perdao, reconhecimento (α = 0,76) e inexpressividade (α = 0,68), relacionados com a gratidao, e beneficencia (α = 0,78) e egotismo (α = 0,79), que cobrem a dimensao altruismo. Estas dimensoes foram correlacionadas a medidas da triade sombria e modelo CGF, sendo observadas correlacoes fracas e moderadas nas direcoes esperadas. O Artigo 3 objetivou verificar a estabilidade da estrutura hexafatorial previamente encontrada em outro conjunto de dados (N = 267). Foi replicada a mesma estrutura hexafatorial, que explicou 69% da variancia total e α superior a 0,70. Na sequencia, novos participantes (N = 299) responderam a medidas de personalidade virtuosa, big five (BFI) e comportamentos pro-sociais (SDQ). Os resultados indicaram um ajuste satisfatorio do modelo hierarquico de personalidade virtuosa, prevendo tres fatores de primeira ordem e seis fatores de segunda ordem (χ²/g.l. = 1,89, GFI = 0,92, CFI = 0,94, TLI = 0,93 e RMSEA = 0,05). Foram testados, alternativamente, modelos unidimensional e bifactor; no entanto, o hierarquico se mostrou mais adequado para avaliacao da triade virtuosa. Quanto a validade convergente, perdao, gratidao e altruismo apresentaram correlacoes positivas e moderadas com a amabilidade (r = 0,43 a 0,63) e os comportamentos pro-sociais (r=0,34 a 0,49). O Artigo 4 comparou individuos com altos e baixos escores de tracos de personalidade virtuosos (N = 114) e verificou que as mulheres, pessoas mais velhas, religiosas e da area de saude/humanas tem mais chances de apresentar os tracos virtuosos em percentil superior a 75. Quanto aos valores humanos, os individuos com tracos virtuosos elevados apresentaram maiores escores nos valores sociais (interativo e normativo) e menores escores nos valores pessoais (experimentacao e realizacao). O Artigo 5 objetivou, por sua vez, conhecer o poder preditivo da personalidade virtuosa, dos valores humanos e da empatia em relacao aos comportamentos pro-sociais. Participaram 750 pessoas que responderam as medidas de personalidade virtuosa, comportamentos pro-sociais, valores humanos e empatia. Os resultados sugeriram que os comportamentos pro-sociais foram explicados, respectivamente, pela amabilidade e extroversao, perdao, gratidao e altruismo, subfuncao interativa, e tomada de perspectiva e preocupacao empatica. Testou-se, por conseguinte, os efeitos dos tracos virtuosos nos comportamentos pro-sociais, mediados por valores humanos e empatia (R² = 0,45; p < 0,001). Observaram-se, na sequencia, efeitos diretos e indiretos dos tracos em relacao aos comportamentos pro-sociais. Portanto, conclui-se que o IPV corresponde a uma ferramenta meritoria para avaliacao dos tracos virtuosos, e que suas dimensoes estao relacionadas as variaveis demograficas e aos correlatos valorativos e pro-sociais. Conclui-se tambem que os comportamentos pro-sociais podem ser preditos pelos tracos perdao, gratidao e altruismo, quando mediados pelos valores interativos e fatores empaticos.
  • LÍVIA BRAGA DE SÁ COSTA
  • DEFENSE OF PERSONAL DOMAIN AND RESOLUCAO OF HYPOTHETICAL FAMILY CONFLICTS BY ADOLESCENTS
  • Fecha: 05-may-2017
  • Hora: 15:00
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  • The main objective of the present study was to verify how adolescent children defend their Personal Dominance (PD) when confronted with the use of parental authority through different hypothetical situations. The approach adopted was that of Larry Nucci on Personal Dominance. According to this author, the Personal Dominance corresponds to a domain of social cognitions that encompasses behaviors related to the individual, to strictly personal rules, and which is outside the area of justifiable social regulation. To reach the proposed objective, 36 adolescents, private school students, equally divided by gender, were interviewed. During the interview, the participants were presented with an instrument with four dilemmas related to the Beginning of Sex Life, the Choice of Career, Privacy, and Night Out. For the analysis of the results, non-parametric tests and semantic content analysis were performed. Among the results, the existence of four categories of Personal Dominance was verified. For each category found, a defense level was assigned: Absence of PD Defense, level 0, in which the adolescents do not defend their PD because they considered themselves incapable of managing their own lives; Inconsistent PD Defense, level 1, which is hierarchically superior to level 0, however, reveals a low level of PD defense, since it reflects a conflict between their right and that of their parents; PD Defense with Prudence, level 2, which indicates a higher level than the previous level because it includes responses that involve the adolescent's understanding of their parents' concern about protecting them; and Total PD Defense, level 3, which was considered the highest, because the responses included in it reveal that the children recognize their privacy zone and defend it against their parents' expectations. The results of non-parametric tests indicated that the prevalent level of answers in the Start of Sex Life, Career Choice and Privacy dilemmas was level 3. The only exception was for the Night Out dilemma, where the highest frequency of responses was found to be level 2. It is believed that this exception is related to the specificity of the content of this dilemma, since the night out can represent a threat to the safety of the adolescent. In relation to conflict resolution, it was verified that Dialogue/Explanation obtained the highest frequency of responses in relation to all dilemmas, which may mean that adolescents have found a democratic way to resolve conflicts; Submission and Blame-taking were significantly associated with PD defense levels 0 and 1, suggesting that these psychological aspects hinder an efficient PD defense; Negotiation, on the other hand, was associated with level 1 of PD defense, indicating that this form of resolution, although it favors a more harmonious family environment, may not be such an efficient strategy for the defense of adolescent autonomy.
  • POLLYANA DE LUCENA MOREIRA
  • O Julgamento Moral e a Construção da Ação Política
  • Fecha: 20-abr-2017
  • Hora: 09:00
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  • O presente trabalho defende a tese de que a acao politica pode ser compreendida a partir da psicologia social do desenvolvimento moral. Acredita-se que a integracao entre essas duas areas da psicologia possa ajudar a compreender melhor os fenomenos sociais pois, as acoes das pessoas na sociedade envolvem tanto elementos relacionados ao desenvolvimento psicossocial quanto elementos construidos a partir das suas acoes e interacoes na sociedade, enquanto membros de um grupo. Para o presente trabalho, considerou-se o julgamento moral como um dos fatores relacionados ao desenvolvimento psicossocial que podem afetar a forma como as pessoas constroem as reflexoes que as levam a decidir pelo engajamento em acoes politicas. Adotou-se a concepcao de acao politica enquanto as acoes de individuos ou grupos que tem a finalidade de promover mudancas sociais que acarretem alteracoes na forma como as instituicoes podem melhor atender as demandas da sociedade. A partir dessas consideracoes, o presente trabalho de tese teve como objetivo construir um modelo de acao politica como base o julgamento moral. Para a construcao desse modelo considerou-se a associacao entre variaveis relacionadas ao desenvolvimento psicossocial (ideologia politica, percepcao